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Python Tutorial

String Split function in Python

Introduction

Python is a computer programming language that is used to create and develop web-based applications developed by Guido Van Rossum. It helps in processing huge sets of data. Therefore, the string is carefully broken down and managed to process the data better and more conveniently.

Thus, Python has a split() string function that is used to divide or split bigger strings of data into smaller ones. The below given article covers detailed info regarding the string split() function.

Overview

String is a collection of characters that are used for processing and manipulation of data in Python. 

When you are dealing with large sets of data in Python, bigger strings need to be broken down into smaller strings to deal with the data in a much more efficient and effective manner. Thus, the string function is used in Python to break down a bigger string into numerous smaller strings. Let’s take a look at how to split a word in Python and how to split a list in Python. 

Python String split () method Syntax

The syntax of the String Split function in Python is as follows:

str.split(separator, maxsplit)

Python String Split () Method Example

ext = 'digital marketing'
# Splits at space
print(text.split())
word = 'digital, marketing'
# Splits at ','
print(word.split(','))
word = 'digital:marketing'
# Splitting at ':'
print(word.split(':'))
word = 'CutBatSitFatOr'
# Splitting at t
print(word.split('t'))

Output

['digital', 'marketing']
['digital', ' marketing']
['digital', 'marketing']
['Cu', 'Ba', 'Si', 'Fa', 'Or']

How String Split () works in Python?

text= ‘Treat Friends with Love’
# splits at space
print(text.split())
grocery = 'Vegetables, Meat, Soups'
# splits at ','
print(grocery.split(', '))
# Splits at ':'
print(grocery.split(':'))

Output

['Treat', 'Friends', 'with', ‘Love’]
['Vegetables', 'Meat', 'Soups']
['Vegetables, Meat, Soups']

How does split() work when max split is specified?

grocery = 'Milk, Oils, Condiments, Meat’
# maxsplit: 2
print(grocery.split(', ', 2))
# maxsplit: 1
print(grocery.split(', ', 1))
# maxsplit: 5
print(grocery.split(', ', 5))
# maxsplit: 0
print(grocery.split(', ', 0))

Output

['Milk', 'Oils', 'Condiments, Meat']
['Milk', 'Oils, Condiments, Meat']
['Milk', 'Oils', 'Condiments', 'Meat']
['Milk, Oils, Condiments, Meat']

The Necessity to Use the Split () Function in Python

Python split regex is generally used when bigger strings are needed to be broken down into several smaller strings.

Whenever the separator is not provided or specified, the split () functions consider the white spaces as the separator. This helps in separating the string as required.

Following is the syntax used to define the split () function in Python:

split(separator, max)

Here,

The separator is the delimiter. On the basis of this delimiter, the string is divided or separated.

The max – is the number of times a particular string can be divided. 

The default value of max is -1.

There are times when the max parameter is not specified. In such cases, the split() function Python divides or splits the string whenever a separator is found.

Working of Split() Function

There are huge sets of data that need to be efficiently handled. In such cases, it is crucial to split bigger strings into smaller ones. Thus, manipulation of strings is required. 

  • Any given string is first scanned. This scanning is based on a separator which acts as a parameter to the split() function.

  • Whenever there are times wherein the separator is not passed as a parameter, automatically, the white spaces in the string or line is taken as the separator by the split() function.

  • The substrings are returned as list elements by the split() method.

  • The split() function also allows you to specify how many times to split a particular text or line. If you don't supply this value, the delimiter is used to scan the full string or line and split the characters.

Different ways to use a split() function

Following are several ways to use a split function:

  • Dividing/splitting the string according to the delimiter space.

  • Dividing/splitting the string according to the first occurrence of a character

  • Dividing a specific file or splitting a specific file into a list.

  • Splitting the string according to the delimiter new line character.

  • Splitting of a string into a list.

  • Splitting the string according to the delimiter comma.

  • Splitting the string based on the delimiter tab

  • Splitting the string by passing a maxsplit parameter.

  • Splitting the string into a character array.

  • Splitting or dividing a string according to multiple delimiters

  • Splitting the string based on the delimiter hash

  • Splitting the string based on one of the substrings from the given string as the delimiter

Example 1

Dividing/splitting the string according to the delimiter space.

Following is the example of splitting the string according to the delimiter space.

string_to_be_split = 'We love upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split(" "))

Output:

[‘We’, ‘Love’, upGrad’]

Example 2

Dividing/splitting the string according to the first occurrence of a character

Following is the example of splitting the string based on the first occurrence of a character:

string_to_be_split = 'upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("i"))

Output:

[ ‘u’, ‘p’, ‘Grad’ ]

Example 3

Dividing a specific file or splitting a specific file into a list.

Following is the example of splitting a file into a list

fileopen = open("C:/Users/admin/Desktop/images/example.txt", "r")
fileread = fileopen.read()
print(fileread.splitlines())
fileopen.close()

Output:

[ ‘This is the first line in the file’, ‘Love’, ‘’upGrad’]

Example 4

Splitting the string according to the delimiter new line character.

Following is the example of splitting the string based on the delimiter new line character:

string_to_be_split = 'We\n love\n upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("\n"))

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 5

Splitting of a string into a list.

Following is the example of dividing the string into a list 

string_to_be_split = 'We: love:  upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split(":"))

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 6

Splitting the string according to the delimiter comma.

Following is the example of splitting the string based on the delimiter comma.

string_to_be_split = 'We, love, upGrad'
string_after_split = string_to_be_split.split(",")
print(string_after_split)

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 7

Splitting the string based on the delimiter tab

Following is the example of splitting the string based on the delimiter tab

string_to_be_split = 'We\t love\t upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("\t"))

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 8

Splitting the string by passing a maxsplit parameter.

Following is the example of splitting the string by passing a maxsplit parameter.

string_to_be_split = 'We, love, upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split(" ", 2))

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 9

Splitting the string into a character array.

Following is the example of splitting the string into a character array.

string_to_be_split = 'upGrad'
print(list(string_to_be_split))

Output:

[‘u’, ‘p’, ‘G’, ‘r’, ‘a’, ‘d’]

Example 10

Splitting or dividing a string according to multiple delimiters

Following is the example of Python split multiple delimiters.

import re
string_to_be_split = 'We, love\n upGrad'
print(re.split(",|\n", string_to_be_split))

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 11

Splitting the string based on the delimiter hash

Following is the example of splitting the string based on the delimiter hash.

string_to_be_split = 'We# love# upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("#"))

Output:

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

Example 12

Splitting the string based on one of the substrings from the given string as the delimiter

Following is the example of splitting the string based on one of the substrings from the given string as the delimiter.

string_to_be_split = 'Welcome, to, upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("to"))

Output:

[ ‘Welcome, ‘, ‘, upGrad’ ]

Python String split() Method Split() Parameters

Maximum there are 2 Python String split() parameters available:

maxsplit

It details the most possible splits. 

There is no maximum number of splits if absent.

It is optional

separator

A point of demarcation when the divide happens.

The string divides at whitespaces if they are missing.

It is optional

Conclusion

As mentioned earlier, split() function is used to divide a bigger string into a smaller string. In the above given article, hope you learned about Python and its split() function methods.

FAQs

1. What is a string?

String is the basic block of data manipulation in various data structures. It is a collection of characters used in data structures and algorithms.

2. What does a split() function do?

Split() function splits bigger strings into smaller ones to ensure data is correctly read and efficiently interpreted. 

3. Which two split() function parameters are available in Python?

Generally, two split() function parameters are available in Python, they are separator and maxsplit.

4. What is the syntax for splitting or dividing a string according to multiple delimiters?

Following is the example of splitting a string based on multiple delimiters.

import re
string_to_be_split = 'We, love\n upGrad'
print(re.split(",|\n", string_to_be_split))

Output

[ ‘We’, ‘Love’, ‘upGrad’]

5. Can only a string be an input in the string split() function?

Yes, as it’s a string function, only a string can be an input in the string split() function.

6. What is the syntax for Dividing/splitting the string according to the first occurrence of a character?

Following is the example of splitting the string based on the first occurrence of a character:

string_to_be_split = 'upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("i"))

Output

[ ‘u’, ‘p’, ‘Grad’ ]

7. What is the syntax for splitting the string based on one of the substrings from the given string as the delimiter?

Following is the example of splitting the string based on one of the substrings from the given string as the delimiter.

string_to_be_split = 'Welcome, to, upGrad'
print(string_to_be_split.split("to"))

Output

[ ‘Welcome, ‘, ‘, upGrad’ ]

8. What is the average salary of a Python Developer in India?

The average salary of a Python Developer in India ranges between 5.0 to 6.0 LPA.

9. Are maxsplit parameters mandatory?

No, maxsplit parameters in Python are optional.

10. Can Python be used to run the code on Windows?

Yes, due to Python’s flexibility and portability, it can be easily used to run the codes on platforms such as Mac OS X, Windows, Unix, and Linux.

11. Are separator parameters in Python compulsory to use?

No, the separator parameters in Python are optional.

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