Python Tutorial



Python Tutorial

Data Visualization in Python


Every day, an astonishing volume of data is created, quantified in zettabytes, where 1 zettabyte represents an astonishing 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes. Given the colossal quantity of data generated daily, attempting to understand it in its unprocessed format becomes overwhelming. To decipher the messages hidden within this vast sea of data and to prepare it for analysis and modeling, the data must first be visualized and transformed into a more intuitive, graphical format. Data visualization unlocks the insights, patterns, correlations, and trends that lie dormant within the data. It empowers individuals to grasp the underlying stories that data has to offer. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the fascinating data visualization in the Python domain, providing a clear understanding of its significance, the databases used, and in-depth explorations of popular Python libraries - Matplotlib, Seaborn, and Bokeh.


To comprehend the information your data holds and the stories it encapsulates and to enable proper data cleaning for modeling, it's imperative to first visualize and represent it in a graphic format. Using visual formats such as charts, this depiction of your data is commonly known as data visualization. Python offers a multitude of libraries for data visualization. Some of the notable libraries for data analysis, decision-making, and communication include Matplotlib, Seaborn, Bokeh, and Plotly.

What is Data Visualization?

Data visualization in Python is the graphical representation of data to facilitate understanding. It is indispensable in various fields, including business, science, research, and communication. 

Examples of data visualization in Python

1. Bar Chart

A bar chart is a common visualization for showing categorical data. It uses rectangular bars of varying heights to represent data values. 

2. Scatter Plot

A scatter plot displays individual data points on a two-dimensional plane. It's useful for showing the relationship between two variables.

3. Line Chart

A line chart connects data points with lines, making it ideal for visualizing trends over time. 

4. Histogram

Histograms are used to represent the distribution of a single variable. They group data into bins and show their frequencies. 

Its significance lies in its ability to - 

  • Uncover patterns and relationships in data.

  • Simplify complex information for decision-makers.

  • Communicate findings effectively.

  • Enable data-driven decision-making.

  • Engage and educate a broad audience.

Common Data Visualization Tools

Several tools and libraries are used for data visualization, including:

  • Matplotlib: A popular Python library for creating static, animated, or interactive plots.

  • Seaborn: Built on Matplotlib, it simplifies statistical graphics and offers attractive visualizations.

  • Bokeh: A Python library for interactive, web-based data visualization.

  • Tableau: A leading commercial tool for data visualization and business intelligence.

  • D3.js: A JavaScript library for creating interactive data visualizations for the web.

Types of Databases

Data visualization in Python starts with structured data stored in databases. Common types include:

  • SQL Databases: Ideal for structured and relational data, such as MySQL and PostgreSQL.

  • NoSQL Databases: Suitable for unstructured or semi-structured data, including MongoDB and Cassandra.

  • CSV Files: Used for small-scale data storage and exchange.

  • APIs: Directly access data from web services or platforms.

The database choice depends on data complexity and accessibility requirements.

The Role of Databases in Data Visualization in Python

Databases are the repositories for structured data, simplifying data retrieval and analysis. It stores and organizes the data used to create charts, graphs, and dashboards.

Database Used

Let's explore the concept of databases using a practical example, the "Tips Database."

Tips Database

The "Tips Database" is a collection of data related to customer transactions at a restaurant. It includes the following columns:

  • The total cost of a customer's meal, including tax and additional charges.

  • Tip given by the customer.

  • The gender of the customer.

  • Whether the customer is a smoker or non-smoker.

  • The day when the customer visited the restaurant.

  • Whether the visit was during lunch or dinner service.

  • The size of the dining party (the number of people).

Here's an example entry from the "Tips Database":

Total Bill















Matplotlib is a Python library for creating a wide range of visualizations, from simple line charts to complex, customized plots. It offers full control over plot elements to data scientists and analysts. Let's explore an example of creating a simple line chart using Matplotlib.

Let's delve into data visualization in Python using Matplotlib examples for creating a simple line chart using Matplotlib. Here, we will use Matplotlib to visualize a set of data points as a line chart. We'll plot the change in temperature over several days.


import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Sample data: Days and Temperature
days = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
temperature = [78, 82, 80, 85, 88]

# Create a line chart
plt.plot(days, temperature, marker='o', linestyle='-')

# Add labels and a title
plt.ylabel("Temperature (°F)")
plt.title("Temperature Change Over Days")

# Display the plot

Scatter Plot

A scatter plot is an excellent choice to visualize the relationship between two numerical variables. Here's an example illustrating the correlation between a student's study time and their test score:


import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

study_hours = [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
test_scores = [50, 55, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85]

plt.scatter(study_hours, test_scores)
plt.xlabel('Study Hours')
plt.ylabel('Test Scores')
plt.title('Scatter Plot: Study Hours vs. Test Scores')

Line Chart

Line charts are ideal for showing trends over time. In this data visualization in Python using matplotlib examples, we visualize the daily temperature fluctuations in a city over a week:


import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

days = ['Day 1', 'Day 2', 'Day 3', 'Day 4', 'Day 5', 'Day 6', 'Day 7']
temperatures = [75, 78, 82, 77, 73, 79, 80]

plt.plot(days, temperatures)
plt.ylabel('Temperature (°F)')
plt.title('Line Chart: Daily Temperature Trends')

Bar Chart

Bar charts are suitable for comparing categories or groups. They use rectangular bars of varying heights to represent data values. Bar charts are often used for visualizing categorical data, making comparisons, and showing distribution.  Here's an example illustrating the sales of various products in a store:


import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

products = ['Product A,' 'Product B,' 'Product C,' 'Product D']
sales = [450, 600, 800, 550], sales)
plt.title('Bar Chart: Product Sales')


Histograms are used to visualize the distribution of a single variable. They group data into bins and show the frequency or count of data points within each bin. They are ideal for understanding the data's distribution and identifying patterns. In this example, we depict the distribution of ages in a population:


import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

population_ages = [25, 30, 32, 35, 38, 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70]

plt.hist(population_ages, bins=5, edgecolor='black,' alpha=0.7)
plt.title('Histogram: Age Distribution')


Seaborn is a Python library built on Matplotlib that simplifies data visualization and provides a higher-level interface. 

Advanced Visualizations with Seaborn

Seaborn extends Matplotlib's capabilities by introducing specialized plots for visualizing complex data relationships. Some advanced visualizations include:

  • Pair Plots: These grid-based visualizations allow you to explore pairwise relationships between multiple variables.

  • Violin Plots: Violin plots combine a box plot and a kernel density plot to display the data distribution.

  • Heatmaps: Heatmaps visualize data in a matrix format, where colors represent values, making them ideal for correlation matrices and hierarchies.

  • Facet Grids: Facet grids enable you to create multiple subplots based on categorical variables, making it easy to compare data subsets.

Let's explore Seaborn with data visualization projects in Python with source code:

Scatter Plot

Seaborn enhances scatter plots with regression lines. In this example, we visualize the relationship between a total bill and tips in a restaurant dataset:


import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

tips = sns.load_dataset("tips")

sns.scatterplot(x="total_bill," y="tip," data=tips)
plt.title('Seaborn Scatter Plot: Total Bill vs. Tips')

Line Plot

Seaborn's line plots include confidence intervals, making them ideal for showing uncertain trends. In this data visualization project in Python with source code, we visualize the response signal over different time points:


import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

fmri = sns.load_dataset("fmri")

sns.lineplot(x="timepoint," y="signal," data=fmri, ci="sd")
plt.title('Seaborn Line Plot: Timepoint vs. Signal')

Bar Plot

Seaborn simplifies the creation of bar plots with additional statistical estimation. In this example, we depict the survival rate in different passenger classes:


import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

titanic = sns.load_dataset("titanic")

sns.barplot(x="class," y="survived," data=titanic, ci=None)
plt.title('Seaborn Bar Plot: Passenger Class vs. Survival Rate')


Seaborn's histograms include kernel density estimation for a smoother representation of data distributions. In this example, we visualize the distribution of diamond carat weights:


import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

diamonds = sns.load_dataset("diamonds")

sns.histplot(data=diamonds, x="carat," kde=True)
plt.title('Seaborn Histogram: Carat Weight Distribution')

Seaborn vs. Matplotlib

Here's a comparison of Seaborn and Matplotlib:




Ease of Use

Built on top of Matplotlib, offering a higher-level interface with simpler syntax.

Provides lower-level customization, which can be more complex for beginners.


Employs stylish default themes and color palettes, resulting in attractive visualizations.

It requires more manual configuration for aesthetics but offers full customization.

Default Visuals

Simplifies, creating statistical plots like violin plots, pair plots, and heatmaps.

Primarily focuses on basic plot types and requires additional coding for complex visuals.


Seamlessly integrates with Pandas DataFrames, simplifying data handling.

Works well with Pandas but may require more manual data manipulation.

Plot Types

Specialized for statistical and information-rich visualizations.

Offers a wide range of plot types for various use cases, such as data visualization in data science.

Code Length

Requires fewer lines of code for common statistical visualizations.

Often requires more lines of code for similar visualizations.

Customization Options

Provides some customization options but excels in simplifying aesthetics.

Offers extensive customization possibilities, allowing full control over plot details.

Learning Curve

Beginner-friendly due to simplified syntax and elegant defaults.

It may have a steeper learning curve, especially for those new to data visualization.

Community & Resources:

Has a growing community with resources and tutorials available.

Has a well-established community with extensive documentation and resources.


Bokeh is a Python library specializing in interactive and web-based data visualizations. It empowers you to create interactive dashboards. 

Bokeh data visualization projects in Python with source code:


from bokeh.plotting import figure, show

p = figure(title="Bokeh Line Chart")
p.line([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [10, 15, 13, 18, 21], line_width=2)


Data visualization in Python is a robust tool to convey complex information in a comprehensible and engaging manner. Visualization can provide valuable insights, whether you're exploring trends in data, comparing categories, or understanding data distributions. The choice of the right library, such as Matplotlib, Seaborn, or Bokeh, depends on your specific needs, from static charts to interactive dashboards.


1. When should I use a scatter plot?

Use a scatter plot when you want to visualize the relationship between two numerical variables to identify correlations or patterns.

2. What is the advantage of using Seaborn over Matplotlib? 

Seaborn simplifies data visualization and offers a higher-level interface, making creating aesthetically pleasing statistical graphics easier with less code.

3. How can I create interactive visualizations using Bokeh?

Bokeh allows you to create interactive visualizations for web applications. You can incorporate features like tooltips, zooming, and panning for user interactivity.

4. What is the difference between data visualization and data exploration?

Data visualization focuses on representing data visually, while data exploration involves analyzing and discovering patterns in the data.

5. How can I choose the right chart type for my data? 

To select the right chart type, consider the data's nature and your goal. Use bar charts for category comparisons, line charts for trends, scatter plots for relationships, and histograms for data distributions.

6. Can data visualization be used for storytelling? 

Data visualization is an excellent tool for crafting data-driven narratives, enabling storytellers to convey insights and findings effectively. 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *