Python Tutorial



Python Tutorial

Constructor in Python


In this tutorial, we delve into the intricacies of constructor in Python, elucidating their pivotal role within object-oriented programming. Whether you're a budding developer or a seasoned professional, understanding the nuances of constructors is essential in mastering Python's class mechanisms.


A constructor in Python is a special function that springs into action the moment an object is created. They lay the foundation for object-oriented programming, setting initial values and establishing core functionalities. This tutorial will unwrap their types, benefits, and the challenges that accompany them.

Types of Constructors   

Constructors are the backbone of Python's object-oriented paradigm, ensuring that objects are born with the attributes they need to function seamlessly. While they all serve the same fundamental purpose of initializing objects, the method by which they achieve this differs. Let's delve into the two primary forms of constructors that dominate the Python landscape.

1. Parameterized Constructor

A parameterized constructor enables Python classes to kick-start their attributes with specific values. By welcoming parameters, they provide a dynamic edge to object creation, fostering a tailored approach to object-oriented programming. The essence of a parameterized constructor is its ability to accept arguments. When we create an object, we can pass values, which the constructor then uses to initialize various attributes.

2. Non-parameterized Constructor

On the opposite spectrum, we have non-parameterized constructors. These don’t take any parameters, ensuring that every object has a standardized structure by allocating default values. The highlight of non-parameterized constructors is their simplicity. When an object comes to life, it gets furnished with predefined values, ensuring uniformity and consistency.

Constructor in Python Types

Brief Description

Parameterized Constructor

Allows passing of parameters to initialize an object's attributes during creation.

Non-parameterized Constructor

Initializes objects without the need for external parameters. Often sets default values.

Creating a Constructor in Python  and Syntax

In Python, constructors are special methods used to initialize objects of a class. The most commonly used constructor in Python is the __init__ method.

Here's the syntax for creating a constructor in Python:

class ClassName:

    def __init__(self, parameter1, parameter2, ...):
        # Constructor code here

In the above syntax,

  • class ClassName: Define a class with the class name.

  • def __init__(self, parameter1, parameter2, ...): Define the constructor method with __init__. The self parameter is mandatory and refers to the instance of the class being created. You can also pass other parameters to the constructor as needed.

  • # Constructor code here: Add code within the constructor to initialize attributes or perform other setup tasks.

Here's an example of a simple class with a constructor:


class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age): = name
        self.age = age
# Creating an object of the Person class and initializing it with values
person1 = Person("Alice", 30)
person2 = Person("Bob", 25)
print(, person1.age)  # Output: "Alice 30"
print(, person2.age)  # Output: "Bob 25"

In this example, the Person class has a constructor that takes two parameters, name and age, and initializes the object's attributes with the provided values when objects of the class are created.

Default Constructor in Python Example

A default constructor is provided by Python automatically if you don't define any constructor explicitly in your class. It doesn't take any parameters and initializes the object's attributes with default values.

Default constructors provide a way to initialize objects even if no specific values are provided during object creation. This ensures that objects have a valid initial state.

Example of a default constructor:

class MyClass:
    def __init__(self):
        self.value = 0

Here is a working example in Python:


class MyClass:
    def __init__(self):
        # Default constructor initializes the 'value' attribute to 0
        self.value = 0

# Creating an object of MyClass
obj = MyClass()

# Accessing the 'value' attribute of the object
print(obj.value)  # Output: 0

In this example, the MyClass class defines a default constructor using the __init__ method. Inside the constructor, it initializes the value attribute to 0 by default.

When you create an object of the MyClass class using obj = MyClass(), the default constructor is called automatically, and the value attribute is set to 0 for the obj object.

Example of More Than One Constructor in a Single class

Python does not natively support multiple constructors with different parameter lists, as some other languages do. However, you can emulate multiple constructors by using default arguments and conditional logic within the __init__ method.

Example of having multiple constructors:

class MyClass:

    def __init__(self, *args):
        if len(args) == 0:
            self.value = 0
        elif len(args) == 1:
            self.value = args[0]

Parameterized Constructor in Python Example

A parameterized constructor takes one or more parameters and initializes the object's attributes with the provided values. Parameterized constructors allow you to create objects with specific initial values, making object initialization more flexible.

Example of a parameterized constructor:

class MyClass:
    def __init__(self, initial_value):
        self.value = initial_value

Here is a working example in Python:


class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age):
        # Parameterized constructor initializes 'name' and 'age' attributes = name
        self.age = age

# Creating objects of the Person class with specific values
person1 = Person("Alice", 30)
person2 = Person("Bob", 25)

# Accessing attributes of the objects
print(f"Name: {}, Age: {person1.age}")
print(f"Name: {}, Age: {person2.age}")

In the above example, the Person class defines a parameterized constructor using the __init__ method. The constructor takes two parameters, name and age, and initializes the name and age attributes of the object with the provided values.

When you create objects of the Person class (e.g., person1 and person2), you pass specific values for the name and age attributes during object creation. The parameterized constructor then initializes these attributes with the provided values.

Advantages of Using Constructors in Python  

Python constructors aren’t just syntactical tools; they’re strategic assets. They elevate the caliber of Python programming by introducing a suite of benefits that enhance code efficiency, readability, and functionality. Here’s a closer inspection of the myriad advantages that make constructors an indispensable part of Python.

  1. Initialization Ease: Constructors furnish an efficient way to assign initial values to class attributes. By compartmentalizing this process, they simplify and streamline the object-creation journey, ensuring every object starts on the right foot.

  1. Memory Efficiency: Constructors shine in memory optimization. By facilitating object initialization at the outset, they prevent resource redundancy, ensuring that the memory footprint remains minimal.

  1. Flexibility in Object Creation: Constructors, especially the parameterized variety, are instrumental in spawning diverse objects with different attributes. This fosters a dynamic programming environment where objects can be tailored to specific needs.

  1. Enhanced Readability: Constructors bestow structure upon your code. By compartmentalizing object initialization, they promote clarity, making the program easier for other developers to digest and understand.

  1. Automatic Invocation: One of the hallmarks of constructors is their automatic invocation. This ensures that every object gets its due initialization, minimizing human errors and promoting consistency.


Brief Description

Initialization Ease

Constructors allow efficient initial value assignment to class attributes, streamlining the object-creation process.

Memory Efficiency

They optimize memory by preventing redundancy during object initialization, ensuring a minimal memory footprint.

Flexibility in Object Creation

Especially with parameterized constructors, they allow the creation of diverse objects tailored to specific needs.

Enhanced Readability

Constructors provide structure and clarity to the code, making it more digestible for other developers.

Automatic Invocation

Constructors are automatically invoked ensuring every object is initialized, promoting consistency and reducing errors.

Disadvantages of using constructors in Python  

However, like any powerful tool, constructors come with their own set of challenges. While their advantages make them fundamental to Python's object-oriented design, it's crucial for developers to be aware of potential pitfalls. By understanding these disadvantages, one can employ constructors judiciously, ensuring that their capabilities are harnessed without falling prey to their limitations.

  1. Overhead Complications: While constructors are a boon in many scenarios, they can introduce overhead, especially when not judiciously implemented. This can inadvertently slow down the execution of the program.

  1. Initialization Limitations: In contexts demanding diverse methods of object initialization, constructors can come off as rigid and restrictive.

  1. Dependency Concerns: An over-reliance on constructors might lead to reduced modularity. Objects intertwined deeply with constructors might prove challenging to manage, especially in extensive projects.

  1. Complexity in Overloading: While there are workarounds, native constructor overloading in Python isn't as intuitive as in some other languages. This can usher in confusion among developers transitioning from other programming languages.

  1. Error Propagation: Errors within constructors don’t stay confined. Since constructors affect every instantiated object of a class, a single misstep can ripple through the entire program, leading to widespread issues.


Brief Description

Overhead Complications

Constructors can introduce overhead which might slow down program execution.

Initialization Limitations

Constructors can appear rigid, limiting diverse methods of object initialization.

Dependency Concerns

Excessive reliance on constructors can reduce modularity, making deeply intertwined objects harder to manage.

Complexity in Overloading

Native constructor overloading in Python can be less intuitive, potentially confusing developers familiar with other languages.

Error Propagation

Mistakes in constructors can impact every instantiated object of a class, potentially leading to widespread program issues.


Constructors in Python are more than mere tools; from streamlining object initialization to optimizing memory usage, their significance cannot be overstated. However, while their advantages are manifold, it's essential for developers to be aware of potential pitfalls. Striking a balance between harnessing the benefits and mitigating the challenges is key.

As the digital landscape evolves, professionals should consider upskilling with platforms like upGrad to stay updated, ensuring they leverage constructors effectively while keeping the bigger programming picture in perspective.


1. How does a parameterized constructor differ from a non-parameterized one? 

A parameterized constructor accepts parameters, permitting tailored object initialization. In contrast, a non-parameterized constructor offers standardized, default values for objects.

2. Can constructor overloading in Python happen? 

Python doesn't natively support constructor overloading as seen in languages like Java. However, one can achieve similar outcomes using default arguments and variable-length argument lists.

3. How do constructor and destructor in Python compare? 

While constructors initialize objects, destructors clean up when an object's life cycle concludes. They ensure efficient resource management by deallocating memory.

4. What's the primary allure of using constructors in Python? 

Constructors streamline object initialization, bolster memory efficiency, and grant flexibility in spawning diverse objects.

5. Are there scenarios where eschewing constructors might be beneficial? 

Certainly! In contexts demanding multiple, diverse methods for object initialization, or when constructors might introduce extraneous overhead, it could be prudent to avoid them.

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