Python Tutorial



Python Tutorial

Python Modules


Python is becoming one of the most popular programming languages. When we develop code for big projects, our Python code scales, and as a result, it becomes unstructured. Keeping your code in the same file as it expands makes it tough to maintain and debug. To address these challenges, Python modules assist us in organizing and grouping material through the use of files and folders. Python modules separate the code into discrete components. So, in this article, we will go through the entire concept of modules in Python in extensive detail.


Let us understand the process of how to create a module in Python, import, advantage of module in Python and use modules effectively in your projects. Real-world examples and best practices to demonstrate their practical application. 

What is a Python Module?

A Python module is essentially a file containing Python code. The code can include functions, classes, variables, and executable code. The file name becomes the module name,  the .py extension.

Types of modules in Python are:

  1. Standard Library Modules (Built-in Modules): These modules come bundled with Python's standard library, and they provide a wide range of functionalities. Examples include modules like math, random, os, and datetime. You don't need to install them separately; they are available by default when you install Python.

  2. User-defined modules in Python: They are created by the user to organize their code and make it more modular and reusable. User-defined modules in Python can include functions, classes, and variables that are defined in separate .py files. You can then import and use these modules in your Python scripts.

There are also external modules in Python, third-party modules, extension modules, package modules, and more, as mentioned in the previous response.

Example of a simple Python module named



def greet(name):
    return f"Hello, {name}!"

class Calculator:
    def add(self, a, b):
        return a b

Import module in Python

Now that we understand what Python modules are, let's explore how to import them into our Python scripts for use. To use the functions, classes, or variables defined in a Python module, you have to import the module into your Python script using the import keyword.

Example of importing the my_module module:


import my_module

print(my_module.greet("Alice"))  # Output: Hello, Alice!
calc = my_module.Calculator()
print(calc.add(3, 5))  # Output: 8

When you import a module, Python executes the code in the module and makes its contents available for use within your script. This separation of code into modules maintains clean and organized code.

Syntax of Python Import

The syntax for importing a module in Python is straightforward:


import module_name

You replace module_name with the name of the module you want to import. For example:
import math  # Import the math module

Python modules are stored in .py files with the same name as the module. When you import a module, Python looks for this file in the current directory or in the directories specified in the Python path.

Python Import From Module

You can also import specific functions, classes, or variables from a module using the from keyword.

Example 1: Importing a Function

Suppose you have a module named containing a function add_numbers:



def add_numbers(a, b):
    return a b

You can import and use this function in another script as follows:
from math_operations import add_numbers

result = add_numbers(3, 5)
print(result)  # Output: 8

Example 2: Importing a Class

Consider a module named that defines a Circle class:



class Circle:
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def area(self):
        return 3.14159 * self.radius ** 2

You can import the Circle class and create instances of it in your script:


from shapes import Circle

circle = Circle(5)
print(circle.area())  # Output: 78.53975

Example 3: Importing Multiple Functions

Suppose you have a module named with multiple functions:



def multiply(a, b):
    return a * b

def divide(a, b):
    if b != 0:
        return a / b

def square(x):
    return x ** 2

You can import specific functions from the module and use them in your script:
from utilities import multiply, square

result1 = multiply(4, 7)
result2 = square(9)

print(result1)  # Output: 28
print(result2)  # Output: 81

Example 4: Importing Variables

In a module named, you define some constants:



PI = 3.14159
GRAVITY = 9.81
GREETING = "Hello, World!"

You can import these constants into your script for use:


from constants import PI, GREETING

print(PI)        # Output: 3.14159
print(GREETING)  # Output: Hello, World!

Import Specific Attributes from a Python module

Importing specific attributes from a module using the from keyword and the import statement allows you to use them directly in your code.

Example of importing specific attributes from a module:


from my_module import greet

print(greet("Bob"))  # Output: Hello, Bob!

Here, we've imported only the greet function from the my_module module. This simplifies your code and reduces the need to reference the module name.

Import all Names

You can import all the names (functions, classes, and variables) from a module using the * wildcard.

Example of importing all names from a module:


from my_module import *

print(greet("Eve"))  # Output: Hello, Eve!
calc = Calculator()
print(calc.add(4, 6))  # Output: 10

This approach can be convenient but it's generally not recommended in larger projects because it can lead to naming conflicts and make your code less readable. It's best suited for quick, one-off scripts or interactive sessions.

What does import * do in Python

Importing all names from a module using import * imports all functions, classes, and variables defined in the module. This is useful for quick access but should be used with caution to avoid naming conflicts.

Exploring Module Location and Structure

Understanding where Python modules are located and their directory structure is crucial for efficient Python development.

Locating Python Modules

Python modules are located in directories that are part of the Python path. You can see the list of directories where Python looks for modules using the sys.path list.

Example to view Python path:


import sys


The sys.path list contains directories where Python searches for modules in the order they appear. It includes system directories, user-specific directories, and directories specified by the PYTHONPATH environment variable.

Best Practices for Module Naming and Structure

It's important to follow some best practices to maintain clean and organized code when working with modules in Python:

  • Module names should be valid Python identifiers (start with a letter or underscore, followed by letters, numbers, or underscores).

  • Avoid using Python keywords and built-in module names as module names to prevent conflicts.

  • Organize related functions, classes, and variables within a module logically.

  • Include a concise and informative module docstring to explain the module's purpose and usage.

Directories List for Modules

In Python, you can retrieve a list of all the files and sub-directories within a directory using the os.listdir() method. The method accepts a path as its parameter and returns a list containing the names of files and sub-directories in that specified location. If no path is provided, it defaults to listing the contents of the current working directory.


import os

# Get the current working directory
current_directory = os.getcwd()
print("Current Directory:", current_directory)

# List all sub-directories and files in the current directory
contents = os.listdir()
print("Contents of Current Directory:")
for item in contents:

Create a New Directory in Python:

Use os.mkdir() method to create a new directory in Python. Simply provide the desired path for the new directory as an argument. If no full path is specified, the new directory will be created within the current working directory.


import os

# Create a new directory named "new_directory" in the current directory
print("Created a new directory 'new_directory'")

Renaming a Directory or a File:

You can rename the directories and files using the os.rename() method. This function necessitates two essential arguments: the current name (or old name) as the first argument and the intended new name as the second argument.


import os

# Rename a directory named "old_directory" to "new_directory"
os.rename("old_directory", "new_directory")
print("Renamed 'old_directory' to 'new_directory'")

Removing a File in Python:

To erase a file in Python, you can employ the os.remove() method. This method demands the file's name as an argument and irreversibly deletes the specified file.


import os

# Delete a file named "myfile.txt"
print("Removed 'myfile.txt'")
Here, os.remove("myfile.txt") is utilized to eliminate the file titled "myfile.txt."

Removing an Empty Directory in Python:

To eliminate an empty directory in Python, you can utilize the os.rmdir() method. Supply the directory's name as an argument, and it will eradicate the empty directory.


import os

# Delete an empty directory named "empty_dir"
print("Removed 'empty_dir'")
In this example, os.rmdir("empty_dir") is used to delete the empty directory named "empty_dir.

Removing a Non-Empty Directory:

For the removal of a non-empty directory and all its contents, Python offers the shutil.rmtree() method from the shutil module.


import shutil

# Delete a directory named "non_empty_dir" and all of its contents
print("Removed 'non_empty_dir' and its contents")

In this scenario, shutil.rmtree("non_empty_dir") is employed to eliminate the "non_empty_dir" directory, along with all files and sub-directories contained within it.

Python Built-in modules

Python has different types of modules in python of built-in modules that you can use for various tasks. Let's explore a few of these modules and their functionalities.

math module in Python:

The math module in Python provides mathematical functions and constants.

Example using the math module:


import math

print(math.sqrt(16))  # Output: 4.0

The math module in Python has trigonometric functions, logarithmic functions, and more. It's a must-have for any scientific or mathematical Python project.

Random Module

The random module allows you to generate random numbers.

Example using the random module:


import random
num = random.randint(1, 10)
print(num)  # Output: A random integer between 1 and 10

The random module is indispensable for tasks involving randomness, such as simulations, games, and statistical analysis.

Datetime Module

The datetime module provides classes for working with dates and times.

Example using the datetime module:


import datetime
now =
print(now)  # Output: Current date and time

The datetime module makes it easy to handle date and time-related operations, including parsing, formatting, and arithmetic.


Python modules are essential tools for organizing code and making it more manageable. 

In this guide, we covered the basics of Python modules and the advantages of module in python. We explored advanced topics like importing specific attributes, locating modules, and working with built-in modules. Armed with this knowledge, you can write cleaner and more maintainable Python code.


1. What is the difference between import module and from module import ...? 

Import module imports the entire module and you must use the module's name as a prefix to access its elements. from module import ... allows you to import specific elements directly into your code without the need for the module prefix.

 2. Why is it discouraged to use from module import *? 

Using from module import * is discouraged because it can lead to naming conflicts and make your code less readable. It's better to import only the specific elements you need from a module.

3. How can I organize and manage my Python modules in larger projects? 

In larger projects, it's common to organize modules into packages. Packages are directories that contain multiple modules and a special file. This allows for better code structuring and organization.

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