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chr in Python

Updated on 22/05/202439 Views

Introduction

Python boasts an array of built-in functions designed to simplify coding tasks. Among them, the chr in Python function plays a pivotal role, offering a direct path from integers to their respective Unicode characters. For developers working with encoding or data conversions, this function is paramount. This tutorial aims to provide an in-depth exploration of this vital function and its various applications.

Overview

The chr in Python function is more than just a conversion tool; it bridges numeric values with their symbolic counterparts in Unicode. As developers venture into areas like data manipulation, text processing, and specific encoding tasks, the chr function stands out as a go-to utility. We'll dissect its core functionalities, applications, and behavior under different scenarios to ensure a well-rounded grasp of the topic.

Syntax of chr() Function in Python

The chr() function in Python is used to convert an integer (Unicode code point) into its corresponding Unicode character. The syntax of the chr() function is:

chr(i)

Where:

  • i: An integer representing a Unicode code point.

Here's an example of how to use the chr() function:

Code:

code_point = 65
character = chr(code_point)
print(character)  # This will print 'A'

Get the ASCII Value of Integers in Python

Code:

n = [65, 38, 79]
for num in n:
l = chr(num)
print("Character of ASCII value", num, "is ", l)

Explanation:

  • List Definition:
n = [65, 38, 79]

Here, we have defined a list named n that contains three integers: 65, 38, and 79. These integers are ASCII values that correspond to specific characters.

  • for Loop:
for num in n:

This loop keeps iterating over each element in the list n. For each iteration, the value of the current element is stored in the variable num.

  • Character Conversion:
l = chr(num)

Inside the loop, the chr() function is used to convert the integer num (which is an ASCII value) into its corresponding Unicode character. The result is stored in the variable l.

  • Print Statement:
print("Character of ASCII value", num, "is", l)

This line prints a message that includes the original ASCII value (num) and the corresponding character (l). The “,” in the print statement separates the different components to be printed, and they are automatically separated by a space.

Putting it all together, the loop iterates through each ASCII value in the list, converts each ASCII value to its corresponding character using chr(), and then prints the original ASCII value along with the corresponding character.

The purpose of this code is to demonstrate how you can convert a list of ASCII values to their respective characters using the chr() function. It's a simple example of using the chr() function for character conversion and demonstrates how programming can manipulate and transform data types to achieve specific tasks.

Using chr() For Printing Currency Symbol

Code:

u = 8364
c= chr(u)
print(c)

Explanation:

  • u = 8364: In this line, a variable u is assigned the value 8364. This value is a Unicode code point. Unicode is a character encoding standard that assigns unique numerical values (code points) to characters from various writing systems. These code points allow computers to represent and manipulate a wide range of characters.
  • c = chr(u): This line takes the value stored in the variable u, which is 8364, and uses the built-in Python function chr() to convert this Unicode code point into a character. The chr() function takes an integer (Unicode code point) as an argument and returns the corresponding character as a string.
  • print(c): This line prints the character stored in the variable c using the print() function. The character is the one that corresponds to the Unicode code point 8364.

Now, if we look up the Unicode code point 8364, we find that it corresponds to the Euro sign symbol (€). So, when you run the code, it will print the Euro sign symbol (€) to the console.

Program for Printing Emojis

Code:

u = 128516
c = chr(u)
print(c)

Explanation:

  • u = 128516: In this line, a variable u is assigned the value 128516. Similar to the previous example, this value is a Unicode code point.
  • c = chr(u): This line takes the value stored in the variable u, which is 128516, and uses the chr() function to convert this Unicode code point into a character. The chr() function, as mentioned earlier, takes an integer (Unicode code point) as an argument and returns the corresponding character as a string.
  • print(c): This line prints the character stored in the variable c using the print() function. The character is the one that corresponds to the Unicode code point 128516.

Now, if we look up the Unicode code point 128516, we find that it corresponds to a specific emoji character known as "GRINNING FACE WITH SMILING EYES".
So, when you run the provided code, it will print the "GRINNING FACE WITH SMILING EYES" emoji to the console.

Printing ASCII Values From 0 to 255

Code:

u = range(256)
c = [chr(v) for v in u]
print(c)

Explanation:

  • u = range(256): In this line, a variable u is assigned the result of range(256). The range() function generates a sequence of numbers from 0 up to, but not including, 256. So, u becomes a sequence of numbers from 0 to 255.
  • c = [chr(v) for v in u]: This line is using a list comprehension to create a new list c. For each value v in the sequence u, it calls the chr() function on that value to convert each number (which is assumed to be a Unicode code point) into its corresponding character. The resulting characters are stored in the list c.
  • print(c): This line prints the entire list of characters stored in the variable c using the print() function.

The chr() function, as explained in previous responses, takes a Unicode code point as an argument and returns the corresponding character as a string. In this case, each value in the range u (from 0 to 255) is treated as a Unicode code point, and the corresponding characters are collected into the list c.

When you run this code, it will print a list of characters, where each character corresponds to a Unicode code point from 0 to 255. These characters include various symbols, letters, digits, and control characters, as defined in the Unicode standard.

Advantages of Using chr() in Python

The chr() function in Python is used to convert an integer representing a Unicode code point into its corresponding character. This function has several advantages and use cases:

  • Character Conversion: The primary use of chr() is to convert numeric values (Unicode code points) into their corresponding characters. This is crucial when you need to work with text data and display or manipulate characters that are represented by their Unicode codes.
  • String Construction: When you want to create strings that contain specific characters or symbols, you can use chr() to include those characters based on their Unicode values.
  • Looping Through Characters: When iterating through a range of Unicode code points, you can use chr() to generate characters for each code point, making it easy to work with and manipulate textual data.
  • Working with ASCII Characters: For ASCII characters (Unicode code points 0 to 127), chr() can be particularly helpful for generating special characters or control characters.
  • Creating Patterns: In cases where you want to create patterns using characters, you can utilize chr() to convert numeric values into characters that form the pattern you desire.
  • Unicode Exploration: When exploring or analyzing Unicode characters, you can use chr() to visualize and understand how different code points correspond to actual characters.
  • Localization and Internationalization: In cases where you're working with multiple languages and need to handle characters from various writing systems, chr() can assist in constructing and handling the characters correctly.
  • Character Mapping and Encoding: When dealing with text encodings and mapping between different character sets, chr() can be useful in creating character mappings and performing conversions.
  • Creating Test Data: In testing scenarios, you might need specific characters to simulate various situations. chr() can help in generating test data with specific characters.

It's important to note that while chr() is handy for converting code points to characters, the reverse operation (converting characters to code points) is achieved using the ord() function.

Overall, chr() is a versatile function that provides a simple and straightforward way to work with Unicode code points and characters in Python programming.

What Happens if We Give Something Out of Range?

The chr in Python function is designed to be intuitive, but its mechanism has boundaries, and occasionally, we might step beyond them. Venturing outside these set limits can yield some unexpected and sometimes unwanted results. But before delving into the anomalies and consequences, it's essential to understand the established framework in which chr operates.

It works seamlessly with integers ranging from 0 to 1,114,111. These integers aren't random; they correspond directly to Unicode code points. In layman's terms, each of these integers has a designated character in the Unicode set, enabling developers to perform accurate conversions consistently.

However, challenges arise when values outside this well-defined spectrum are used. Passing an integer beyond this scope doesn't go unnoticed. Python promptly throws a ValueError, signaling that the input doesn't correspond to a valid Unicode character. In certain unique scenarios, one might even stumble upon a UnicodeEncodeError, indicating encoding challenges.

Anticipating and handling these exceptions is a hallmark of proficient programming. The unpredictable nature of inputs, especially in large-scale applications, necessitates the implementation of safety nets. Leveraging Python's try and except blocks is a quintessential strategy here. By wrapping the chr function within these blocks, developers can capture and manage out-of-range errors gracefully, ensuring that the program remains robust and error-tolerant.

To offer a tangible perspective:

  • Invoking chr(1114112) would result in a ValueError. Despite being just one unit more, it falls outside the permissible range.
  • Similarly, negative integers don't find favor with the chr function. A command like chr(-1) would be met with a swift ValueError.

Parameter

Description

Defined Range

Integers 0 to 1,114,111, corresponding to Unicode code points.

Out of Range

Inputs beyond this lead to ValueError or occasionally, UnicodeEncodeError.

Error Handling

Using try and except blocks to anticipate and manage exceptions efficiently.

Examples

chr(1114112) and chr(-1) both trigger ValueError due to their out-of-range nature.

Conclusion

Understanding the intricacies of the chr() function in Python is more than just academic. It's about foreseeing potential issues and ensuring seamless coding experiences. As we wrap up this exploration, it's evident how such nuances can set apart a good programmer from a great one. For those keen to dive deeper and truly master Python, consider exploring the upskilling courses from upGrad, tailor-made for professionals like you.

FAQs

  1. What is the chr() function Python?

If you are wondering about what is chr in Python, here is the short answer. chr is a built-in function that converts an integer into its associated Unicode character.

  1. How does char in Python differ from chr?

Python doesn't have a "char" function per se. Instead, the chr function facilitates character representation for integers.

  1. Is there a counterpart to the chr function in Python?

Absolutely! The ord() function is the counterpart, translating characters back to their integer values.

  1. Can the chr() function in Python handle negative integers?

No, it results in a ValueError, as negatives don't have valid Unicode mappings.

  1. Where is the chr function in Python most commonly utilized?

It's typically employed in encoding and decoding tasks, text processing, or whenever there's a need for integer-to-character conversions.

Pavan

PAVAN VADAPALLI

Director of Engineering

Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working … Read More

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