Research Methodology Course Overview

    Research Methodology Overview

    What is Research?

    In other words, research is a unique and systematic exploration to enhance existing knowledge and establish principles and facts. Many people consider research as an expedition of innovation of new knowledge.

    Without a proper research methodology, you can’t effectively accomplish your research. Research methodology is a systematic and creative method adopted to enhance the stock of knowledge. It involves the assortment, organisation, and investigation of information to enhance the understanding of a topic. A research methodology may be used in those research projects that aim to expand past work in the field. It may also be used to test the legitimacy of experiments, instruments, or procedures.

    The fundamentals of research methodology serve as a vital source for offering norms or guidelines for solving problems in different industries. It is an assortment of formal research methodology training that helps you understand the new developments going on in a particular field.  For example, pursuing a research methodology course in social sciences trains you to conduct extensive research and try to uplift society's social standards.

    A research methodology always begins with a research problem or question. This is the first step that defines the statement of an issue or the area of concern. This research problem should be tested or discovered; it must not be too detailed or vague. With this problem statement, you can determine the objectives of the research.

    Determining the research objective is one of the key facets of
    research methodology. The research objectives describe the research intention to discover something. From these objectives, the researchers form a hypothesis (the prediction or assumption or prediction tested by the research). The remaining part of the research is carried out to either support or discredit the hypothesis.  

    From various research methodology courses available, you can begin with a basic research methodology course to learn how to conduct research. The courses also impart training on various techniques, types of research, the most suitable research method based on the problem statement, etc.

    Characteristics of Research

    The fundamentals of research methodology involve understanding the characteristics of research. These characteristics define how the research should be.

    characteristics of research methodology
    • Controlled-

    The research must be controlled because the relation between two or more variables is impacted by each other. In this context, the variables can be internal or external). It can’t design a specific research report if the research is uncontrollable.

    • Systematic-

    Organised research makes it easy to obtain the required information. The researchers can’t evaluate or obtain the relevant information if it's not systematic. Various steps are involved in conducting a systematic research process. All the contained steps of the processes are interconnected.

    The plan must be free from any loopholes. It should begin with a problem or question that needs to be resolved step-by-step.

    • Rigorous-

    The research should be rigorous because it assists you in following the exact procedures to discover the answers related to relevant questions. Usually, the research information comprises two types of sciences: social sciences and physical science. Irrespective of the information contained, the research should be carried out exhaustively.Pursuing a basic research methodology course can familiarise you with how to conduct rigorous research on a topic.

    • Valid-

    It implies that information amassed by the researcher must be accurate and verified by them. If the collected information is valid, the research will be ethical in nature. The fundamental objective of every research is to conduct the research legally and reliably.  Moreover, the techniques and procedures must be well tested. They must be pertinent to the research topic.

    • Empirical-

    In research methodology, any conclusion is entirely based on ethical or hard evidence gathered from observations and practical experiences.

    • Replicable-

    It means that there must be scope to validate the findings of previous research. Somebody can validate your conducted research in a new environment with a new group of subjects or at some different time.


    Objectives of Research

    The fundamental objective of a research is to collect evidence for theories and contribute to enhancing knowledge in a particular field of study. With a clearly defined objective, researchers can know how to begin and go through each research methodology step. Ultimately, this helps them come up with valuable findings about the topic under study.

    A clearly defined research objective helps you choose the best research methodology training methods. When you pursue a basic course in research methodology, the first step involves how to define research objectives.

     

    Types of Research Objectives:

    • General Objective

    • Specific Objectives

    • Ultimate Objective

    • Immediate Objectives


    1. General Objective:



    The general objective of a study mentions the expectations to be achieved from the proposed study in general terms.

     


    2. Specific Objectives:



    Considering that the general objectives are correctly stated, it is logical to categorise them into various smaller, logically linked parts. They are usually referred to as specific objectives.

     


    3. Ultimate Objective:



    It emphasises how the results will be used to encourage policymakers and program managers to implement the recommendations from the survey results.

     


    4. Immediate Objectives:



    These objectives specify the focus of the proposed research in a behavioural context.

    Types of Research

    You can understand all major types of research while continuing the basic course in research methodology. The types of research are explained below:

    • Fundamental research:

    Also called basic research, it intends to help researchers better understand certain phenomena from a practical viewpoint. It focuses on how things work. This research aims to expand your understanding using scientific explanations and theories. For example, fundamental research can entail a company’s study of how various product placements impact product sales.

    • Qualitative research:

    It covers non-numerical data like literature and opinions. The examples include:


    Surveys



    Focus groups



    Observations



    Participant comments



    Interviews



    • Quantitative research:

    It uses fundamental research methodology and statistics, numerical data, and measurements. For example, an automobile manufacturer may compare the number of car sales to bikes.

    • Mixed research:

    It incorporates both quantitative and qualitative data.

    • Applied research:

    It identifies solutions to specific problems or discovers answers to specific questions.

    • Longitudinal research:

    It investigates how certain measurements change with respect to time without influencing any variables.

    • Exploratory research:

    It investigates what is already acknowledged about a topic and what extra information may be relevant.

    • Cross-sectional research:

    It studies a group or subgroup at a specific point in time.

    • Laboratory research:

    It is conducted in a controlled laboratory setting.

    • Field research:

    Field research is conducted wherever the subjects or participants are “on location".

    • Flexible research:

    It permits procedures to change during the experiment.

    • Fixed research:

    It uses experiment procedures that are accurately determined ahead of time. A few examples of experiment procedures it uses are the frequency of testing, the place of testing, types of subjects, and the number of subjects.

    • Action research:

    It involves the process of investigating your actions, evaluating their effectiveness in providing the anticipated outcome, and selecting a course of action depending on your outcomes.

    • Classification research:

    It identifies and classifies individual elements of a group into bigger groups or subgroups.

    • Policy research:

    It helps you to observe the effects of the current government or social policies or foresee the potential effects of the proposed policies.

    • Comparative research:

    It identifies similarities and dissimilarities between two subjects, individuals, or groups.

    • Inductive research:

    Also called theory-building research, it helps you to collect data that may help evolve a new theory about a phenomenon or process.

    • Deductive research:

    Also known as theory-testing, deductive research is the opposite of inductive research. Its focus transits from the broad to the specific.

    •  Causal research:

    Also known as explanatory research, it determines cause and effect relationships between the stated variables.


    Purpose of Research

    Though research can adopt many forms, there are three key purposes of research explained below: