Lawyers help people know about their rights and responsibilities as per the country’s constitution and legislations. There are various grey areas when it comes to dealing with human actions. A lawyer is a client's representative or a neutral third party, a law enforcement official, and a public worker who is particularly accountable for upholding the rule of law. For some, studying law is a noble call to uphold justice, however, the law affects all aspects of society; from the protection of life and liberty to corporate or international relations, law graduates are capable of performing many important roles in a variety of professions.
A law degree is a highly valued qualification that provides significant job chances. It is also one of the oldest academic subjects in the world. You can succeed in any relevant industry such as politics, management, journalism, international relations, police, and so on, with a law degree, as long as you can combine academic strength and a practical approach to every scenario.
Being primarily related to observing, analyzing, and drawing connections, lawyers need to think beyond what can be seen and heard to reach the truth and help their clients. With an advanced law degree like LLM, this task becomes easier as such degrees are usually specializations that provide in-depth knowledge about specific types of law sectors with academic and practical expertise.
The LLM course is a postgraduate law degree that helps undergraduate students and law professionals to have a specialization in a specific legal category. While lawyers who have passed the undergraduate or Bachelor of Law, LL.B, degree are eligible to appeal to the courts and take cases once they get themselves registered as an advocate, having a specialization helps them have a more concrete understanding of all the legal aspects of a specific sector. You also need to have certain skills and academic qualifications for pursuing the master of legislative laws course For instance, if you have an LLM degree in cybercrime, you will be able to tackle all cybercrime-related cases with knowledge of all the penal code sections LL.M. would aid in the appropriate interpretation of laws, thus giving an edge to the advocate.
An advanced degree is highly recommended because people who wish to practice law should be able to understand all the aspects of a certain legal discipline. Apart from this, the major benefits of obtaining an LLM degree are:
The LLM (Master of Laws) is ideally an advanced degree opted for by students and professionals who already have secured a bachelor’s degree in law, or LLB degree or are associated with the field of law in any capacity, such as a CA professional working in a law firm. Lawyers who have a few years of experience can also get a postgraduate degree to improve their employment prospects. But, before getting an LLM degree, it is not mandatory to have an LLB degree; however, the requirement varies with the university.
Being an intense program that deals with only the legal processes and terminologies related to a single area of specialization, you should only consider opting for an LLM degree if you can dedicate and invest yourself completely entirely in the course.
Aspiration to create a successful career overseas as an established law professional is another set segment that should do LLM. Law graduates would get an opportunity to study the new legal system and understand the nuances of legal writing in a much more sophisticated manner.
Aiming to build a niche for oneself is another reason to pursue an LLM. Specialisation is another guiding reason behind pursuing an LLM. Students wish to switch careers by pursuing a specialisation they perceive would reap benefits professionally or financially.
Professionals who want to expand their legal network and establish themselves in the industry by entering into a certain set of opportunities are other kinds of people who pursue an LLM. As LLM would definitely multiply the employability chances and it would give exposure to peers or teachers coming from different backgrounds.
LLM is a postgraduate degree that can be pursued through different modes. Here, we have listed down the same:
The need to become a global citizen is on a rise, especially after the lockdown. Companies adopted the online working model to prevent the business from shutting down. Schools and colleges opted for online teaching and examinations to help students continue their academic years without a break in studies. The scope for global connectivity from one’s own home has become a reality that is implemented on a larger scale.
The same goes for the online LLM course. The acceptability of online courses has increased and many universities are offering online LLM courses along with specializations. The main benefits of opting for online classes are:
Analytical thinking skills: Just reading the case brief is not enough. You must have the ability to read between the lines, find out any inconsistencies, and then work on exploiting those points in your favour.
Oratory and presentation skills: Lawyers are great orators. Being the person responsible for upholding the law, lawyers need to be great orators so that they can appeal to the people and the judge/magistrate. A case is not won just on the basis of facts and evidence. Your presentation and delivery will ultimately help you win the case.
Debate skills: In a court of law, you are representing your client. Another lawyer will be representing their client. Now, either one of them is lying, that is a fact. What is left to be determined is to know which party is lying. As a lawyer, you have to present facts and counter those presented by the opposing lawyer to win. This requires you to have the skills of a debater. This means you should not just stay calm but also catch on to any arbitrary point and develop your argument on that basis.
Language skills: Being able to speak well is incomplete without having proper language skills. Each word, even though it might be synonymous, has a different meaning concerning usage. Knowing the correct word usage and grammar skills are essential to placing an argument.
Research skills: When handling a case, you need to do the research thoroughly. This includes referencing past cases with similar trials and the judgment as well. Drawing upon the points of similarities and differences from related precedents. You also need to perform some extensive research work and know what will help your client win.
The admission process has started and tests are to be conducted by June. To appear for the tests, you need to register for them by visiting the website of the university you’re applying for. In order to clear the tests, you need to be academically prepared. Study question banks and also go through case studies and interviews as questions might also be posed from those sessions.
The postgraduate degree requires you to clear the entrance examinations that the Bar Council deems fit for further education. The examination dates are announced by May and forms are also available from the website. These exams are:
There is no provision for getting accepted into a master of laws course without sitting for entrance examinations. The UGC has mandated the need for clearing the various state or national level entrance examinations.
The LLM syllabus depends on the college you are enrolling in and the specialization you have opted for. But, many subjects have some commonalities. The main syllabus for the LLM degree comprises the following topics:
First Year Syllabus comprising Semester I and Semester II:
Law and Social Transformation in India
Legal Research and Methodology
Law and Technology
Law of Crimes
Second Year Syllabus comprising Semester III and Semester IV:
Privileged Class Deviance
International Business Law
Mass Media Law
Public Utilities Law
Report Work and Publication
Specialization Elective -III
Specialization Elective -III
As mentioned above, LLM is a specialization-oriented course. Here, lawyers choose a specific topic or law type that they want to have in-depth knowledge of for the sake of career progression. But, there are a few subjects that are common to all the specializations. These are known as core subjects and they are as follows:
Legal Research Methodology
Law of Crimes
Law and Social Transformation in India
Law and Technology
The elective subjects could be:
Social Security Law
International Humanitarian Law
Public Utilities Law
Law on Human Rights
Intellectual Property Rights
Law Relating to Designs and Geographical Indication
There are various specialization options available for a master's in law degree. But some of them may not be very useful when you take into consideration the factors like the location from where you want to work, the law firm you aim to join, and the socio-political status of your city and/or country. Hence, you should carefully consider your options before choosing a specialization. Here, we have listed down the most popular specializations based on job demand and professional growth:
The LLM for cyber law course includes:
Businesses and startups are the major elements that constitute the economy of a country. A corporation is usually treated as a separate entity and is considered to have rights that an individual has as per the constitution. The LLM in corporate law is a popular specialization that provides law students with corporate dealings along with the legal aspect of all the corporate work. The main tasks of a corporate lawyer are dealing with clients on behalf of the corporation, overseeing mergers and acquisitions, and operating the corporation’s legal framework.
The LLM in corporate law courses includes:
When a child is born, they have certain rights that are inherently theirs. These are known as human rights and these rights are globally the same. The right to dignity, the right to education, the right to employment, and the overall right to live altogether forms the human rights laws. The current era is predominated by social injustice and communal clashes and this gives rise to the need for more human rights lawyers. The LLM in human rights law helps students understand the fundamental aspect of human rights and how they can help protect those rights.
The LLM in human rights course includes:
Concept of Human Rights
Dialectics of Human Rights
Concept & Classification of Rights
Concept of Human Duties
Emerging Concept of Human Rights
Human Rights & Criminal Justice
Human Duties, Responsibilities & its Effectuation
Constitutional Governance of Human Rights in India
Jurisprudence & Human Rights: Legal Philosophical perspectives
Extension Activities & Educational Tours
People’s Rights to Self-determination
International Humanitarian Law
Human Rights and International & Regional Perspectives: Implementation Mechanism
The Master of Laws (LLM) in Intellectual property and technology law (IPTL) is a graduate degree program that concedes to the demand for literate and skilled intellectual property experts who have already acquired a basic law degree. IPTL is a law specialization wherein creative, as well as commercial work of individuals, is safeguarded. Intellectual property and technology law is a field of law that deals with legal rights related to unique work and inventions. The utilization of innovative products, creative works, and designs is governed by laws relating to intellectual property and technology. To enable individuals who develop or invent things to genuinely profit from their work, Intellectual property and Technology laws were created.
The LLM in IPTL courses includes:
The LLM in Dispute Resolution is considered the premier program in dispute resolution and offers students the most flexibility in their dispute resolution education. It's specially developed for law and non-law graduates who wish to attain a master's qualification in law while expanding a deep understanding of different mediation and arbitration techniques and practices. The program is embedded in the dispute resolution concept which implies you will study a programme that integrates a broad range of interdisciplinary practice and opportunities for individualized study and skills growth.
The LLM in dispute resolution courses includes:
Law plays a vital role in regulating societies and the way people act, work and live. Without law in place, human rights may be violated and there would be no way to ensure justice. A lawyer acts as an agent between a common citizen and the judicial system. But, just a bachelor’s degree does not encompass the entirety of the legal world. The Penal Code CPC and CrPC respectively for Civil and Criminal cases has hundreds of sections and subsections. Memorizing each is a hard task. For an undergraduate degree holder, referencing all kinds of legal terminologies becomes a challenge. But, when they have a specialization in a specific type of law, the work becomes easy.
When you have a master’s degree in law, you become knowledgeable about that particular discipline. For instance, a business lawyer will have a thorough knowledge of all business-related legal cases and terminologies that will help them win cases. This need for specialization increases as companies increase and people across the globe resort to taking legal help. The limited number of lawyers makes cases pile up. Lawyers also act as educators for civil rights and constitutional rights. All these are essential in the coming years.
The primary employers of lawyers with a postgraduate degree are companies looking to strengthen their cybersecurity frameworks, multinational companies dealing with various countries, UN organizations, and even major government organizations like those dealing with coal or energy.
In order to do an LLM course in India, you need to complete the undergraduate law program. Here, the school subject doesn’t impact your admission. You can even pursue law with a science background or a commerce background. Getting an LLM degree depends on clearing the common entrance examination. Being a course-specific degree, you have to study a single discipline and that means you will be getting in-depth knowledge about the same. This requires patience from the student’s end. But, what else can help you more in completing your law postgraduate degree is having a strong sense of justice, a keen eye for details, and the ability to memorize complex legal jargon along with the section numbers. Above all, you must enjoy law as a subject and care for justice.
The LLM course is gaining popularity in India as the current generation wants to attain specialization for landing a higher paying job and to enjoy their profession from an intellectual angle.
Being the entertainment capital of the country, Mumbai offers great opportunities to postgraduates in the entertainment industry. Students who have done specialization in the corporate law field also have plenty of job opportunities once they get the LLM degree. You can also opt for specializations like intellectual property law or criminal law. Some of the top colleges and universities for LLM are:
Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women's University
Maharashtra National Law University
University of Mumbai
Kirit P. Mehta School of Law
The capital of the country, Delhi has some of the best colleges and universities in the country. The cost of living here is within the budget and you can enjoy the typical Delhi lifestyle no matter where your hometown is. Supreme Court is situated in Delhi along with the High Court and District Courts. There are many job options after you have completed your LLM and some of the top specializations are criminal law, cyber law, property law, and entertainment law. Some of the top colleges and universities for LLM are:
Jindal Global Law School
National Law University
Faculty of Law, Jamia Millia Islamia
Indian Law Institute - ILI
Faculty of Law University of Delhi
Campus Law Center, University of Delhi
Kolkata is not only the city of joy but also the city of law. The universities in Kolkata offer top education and students graduating from Kolkata even land jobs abroad. The city has some historical monuments and the current development makes the city a prime hub for people holding law degrees in business or property settlements. Some of the top colleges and universities are:
Chennai is another popular city for studying for a postgraduate law degree. The city with its amalgamation of culture and modern lifestyle offers students the security and freedom that a law student requires. Some of the top universities and colleges are:
Dr Ambedkar Government Law College, Chennai
Being the IT hub of the country, there are various startups and IT hubs that operate from Bangalore. There is a great demand for both corporate law and cyber law. Hence, having a specialization degree in either will help you land a great job at one of the top tech companies. Some of the top universities and colleges are:
Hyderabad is developing to become the second IT hub of the company. Apart from the tech spaces, Hyderabad is also home to many companies and industries like pharmaceuticals, tourism, textile, and manufacturing. All these industries deal with various legal aspects related to corporate law, cyber security, and even human rights. Some of the top universities and colleges are:
Nalsar University of Law
Pendekanti Law College
ICFAI Law School
Ahmedabad offers beautiful city life with a mix of tradition and modernity. The city is the textile capital of the country and is home to some top universities. The city is also known for its diamond cutting industry. Ahmedabad is also redefining itself as a tech space and many IT hubs are present in the city. The LLM in corporate and business laws has great scope in terms of career prospects in Ahmedabad. Some of the top colleges and universities are:
I.M. Nanavati Law College
Institute of Law, Nirma University
Sir L.A. Shah Law College
Motilal Nehru Law College
Pune is a beautiful city with pleasant weather throughout the year. The city is historically important and has seen many battles fought and won by the Marathas. But, Pune is now emerging to be one of the best research and automobile sectors in the country. The city is also famous for its IT hubs and research institutes. Some of the top colleges and universities are:
Law is a tricky subject. Each state has its own legal regulations and requirements. What is considered a minor offence in one country may be considered a major criminal offence in another. All these differences make students think more than twice before opting for a legal degree from foreign universities. There is also a course duration difference between countries and the acceptability of the degree in other countries. But, there are many options and benefits of studying LLM abroad.
More diverse career options: Offering degrees in multiple and untapped legal fields makes many foreign law degrees more appealing. For example, environmental law is considered to be taught best at the University of California. So, if you wish to pursue a career in environmental law and work for various UN organizations, getting a degree for the same from California, US will be advisable.
Greater income: In terms of income, the average salary of a fresh law graduate is higher in countries like the UK, Canada, and Australia than it is in India. This is primarily due to the way the courses in those countries are developed. The LLM course is more practical and case-oriented than just theories.
Working on an international scale: Having an international law college name on your resume makes you eligible to apply to any law firm across the globe. You can even work for multinational corporations and tech firms given you have the required specializations.
Understanding some best practices to apply to your organisation, that helps in bringing international perspectives which helps in the growth of the organisation.
In India, the post-graduate LLM program is undergoing rapid expansion. Despite having the world's largest legal population, India has a higher demand for highly skilled lawyers. LLM Colleges in India are better equipped to meet this need.
Once you complete the master in law degree, you will have so many opportunities in terms of getting into the type of law firm you prefer or even holding a top position in NGOs or businesses. Apart from these, you can also prepare to become a Judge or a legal advisor in any government office.
Once you complete your LLM degree, you are recognized as an authority in your specific legal specialization. The starting package for a fresh LLM graduate is much higher when compared to a basic LLB graduate. Since specialization also plays a role in determining the salary, you need to opt for the ideal specialization for which you are confident. But, more than the salary, an LLM degree should primarily be pursued when you have the intellectual capability and interest in that specific legal field. If you are confident about information technology law, you should follow that rather than pursuing corporate law because specialization means you need to study that subject thoroughly. Without an interest in that field, you cannot gain much momentum and expertise. This will, in retrospect, affect your income.
The scope in terms of specialization in LLM is far greater in foreign universities than it is in India. Apart from a few traditional law fields, most of the legal education related to the various law disciplines is provided as generalized courses. The lack of practical knowledge can be a detrimental factor to your future career path. Their curriculum is more practical and you get trained better in handling international issues. Apart from this, the salary compensation of having a degree from countries like the USA or the UK is also higher than in India.
For more information on law-related salaries abroad, visit our law salaries abroad page.
Average Salary Hike
The Dissertation would be conducted under the guidance of a JGLS Faculty.
Our programs have a strong experiential component that will prepare you to apply your learning in the job.
LLM provides you with a chance to gather specific knowledge about a particular field. This will help you provide specific aid to a company or organization. Apart from the specializations mentioned above, you can get an LLM in various fields. Some of the most popular courses are:
If you opt for a specialization in human rights law, your career path will require the following tasks:
Yes, apart from the overlap of criminal and civil law matters, the specialization fields also overlap. For example, a real estate lawyer might work with an insurance lawyer when there are discrepancies related to the death and transference of ownership.
Yes, pursuing an LL.M. program without having an LL.B. is possible if one has completed a bachelor's degree in any specialization.
In India, the college or university that offers an online LLM degree via the Online Distance Learning or ODL methodology needs to have a Category I HEI accreditation. Only such universities can provide an online LLM degree that will be accepted throughout the nation.
Many foreign countries offer online LLM degrees and those are accepted globally. But, as law and matters related to jurisdiction are subjective to each country and state, it is better to opt for a degree in a specialization that is common to all places.
In order to become a lawyer by profession, you need to have a bachelor's in law or LLB degree. After completion of the degree, you need to clear the All India Bar Examination or AIBE to be eligible to practice law throughout the country. Apart from educational qualifications, you need to be a calm and confident person. As the law is about wits, you also have to be a quick thinker and rationally solve problems.
LLM offers you the opportunity to have in-depth legal knowledge about a specific field. Hence, the comprehensiveness of the topics can make the degree a tough subject, but if you opt for a specialization that you truly love, then the course becomes relatively easy as your interest stays piqued throughout the course work.
Being an advanced degree, LLM graduates can join top positions even as freshers. The career trajectory depends on what you wish to gain in life professionally. If you wish to become a Judge, you need to practice law for a certain amount of time and clear the Judicial Services Examination or PCS (J)-Provincial Civil Service-Judicial Examination. If you wish to freelance, you can work as an attorney who can take up cases as per choice. But, you need to have a good network and verbal promotions for clients to come to you. Other career options after LLM are:
Becoming a lawyer is both professionally satisfying and mentally stimulating. Whether you are caring only about justice or want to help clients win cases, you can pursue law without a worry about not earning enough like the IT sector jobs like a data scientist or cyber security analyst. As legal matters rely on the country’s socio-political stance and how much they care about protecting human rights, not every country will pay a lawyer the same. What you earn in India as a medical lawyer will be nothing compared to how much you can earn in the USA.
Some of the countries that pay the most to lawyers are:
An integrated law degree combines two bachelor’s fields of study. Primarily, you will be studying law. Along with law, you can pursue subjects related to science, commerce, or arts. The duration of the integrated degree is five years and comprises ten semesters. Professionally, the integrated degree opens up more career paths than a single law degree. For example, if you opt for a B.Tech. LLB degree, you can work as a software consultant or a legal analyst.
A paralegal is a person who can offer legal advice but they are not formally educated in the legal field. A paralegal does not complete the undergraduate and postgraduate law degrees. They are not required to sit for examinations. Rather, paralegals take courses curated for a paralegal career. These courses usually are shorter than one year. The main jobs of a paralegal are:
Medical law is gaining momentum as many cases related to medical malpractice surface across the globe. For quite a time, there was no clear understanding of what is considered malpractice in the medical field. Doctors often claim medical knowledge superiority when treating patients. But, the manner they opt to provide the treatment is often in contradiction to the human rights of the patient. Childbirth is one such case where the pregnant woman is treated in the worst possible way. As a medical lawyer, you will be helping such patients understand their rights and to prevent doctors from making rash decisions.
The CLAT or Common Law Admission Test is a prerequisite for admission to the postgraduate law program. The syllabus for CLAT includes:
International law or law of nations deals with the rules and regulations that bind nations. When people travel across borders to live or work, they are required to follow guidelines that will help them make the transition smoother. With international law, all such works and immigrations are dealt with. An example that involves international law is the Bhopal gas leak. While the incident occurred in India and the deaths were that of Indians, the leak was from a company that is owned by a corporation based in America.
Legal pedagogy helps students of law to think and act in a manner that justice gets served. In law schools, mock trials are held for the same. Often older cases or ongoing trials are taken up and the students enact the proceedings. This helps them to know the legal aspects of the case along with the emotional and mental aspects. By getting a degree of LLM in legal pedagogy, a lawyer can become a teacher and guide students down the correct legal path.
A notary is a legal professional who has been commissioned publicly to be eligible to be a witness to the proceedings of documents being signed. A notary is also eligible to verify the photocopies of documents that you have submitted to the court or any company. When companies ask for notarized photocopies, they mean that a notary checks the copies, checks the originals, and attests that they are authentic. This will help applicants verify their identity.
If you wish to become an internationally recognized lawyer, consider getting an LLM degree from one of these universities:
Once you get a degree from any of these colleges or universities, you can practice law almost anywhere and your salary will be higher than the median across the globe.
Criminal law deals with activities that are considered to be crimes and offenders are subjected to punishment by imprisonment. A murder case falls under the criminal law. Any action that has been taken to cause grievous harm, intentionally, falls under the jurisdiction of criminal law. The average salary of a criminal lawyer is around INR 10 lakh per annum. The primary subjects that an LLM in criminal taw teaches are:
While there has been a buzz around the BCI not recognizing a one-year LLM degree, there are countries that have the prerequisite of the LLM course to be a one-year program. If you wish to work abroad but study in India, you can opt for the following colleges and universities whose degrees are globally recognized:
Yes, law students can get placed directly from the campus. For example, the National Law School of India University, Bangalore ensures that the LLM students get a starting package of INR 8 lakhs per annum as they start their career.