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    Database Design Course Overview

    What is a Database?

    Database refers to an organised collection of data curated to negate inconsistencies and make data management easier. For example, a collection of information such as marks of different subjects for some students might be challenging to deal with if not for data collection to manage comprehensively. A large amount of data requires several databases, which often grow into an unmanageable amount as well. This is where DBMS assists the database in managing containing information.

    The database uses DBMS or database management system, and most prominently RDBMS, a relational database management system to maintain neat databases. RDBMS secures the database using tables and also contains the relationship between containing data. The system helps evaluate data to manage, modify, and regulate it per the user’s requirements. These systems use the SQL language to manage databases.

    Why Database Design?

    Database production follows a detailed process which requires the management system to follow a set pattern to design data tables, its storing process, regulation and implementation for the stored data. This process is known as database designing. A database design consists of detailed operations to design, develop, test, implement and maintain created database models for a reliable database system. Consistency in databases is crucial to comprehending the relation between containing data and their usefulness. 

    But why database design is important?

    Database design under the RDBM system extends diverse benefits to users. Here’s why database designing is important. 

    • Database designing works as a blueprint for data storage, defining how data would be saved in the modelled system. This will enable programmers to assess the influence of a database on an application’s performance. 

    • Database design evaluates whether the model meets user requirements or not.

    • Database designing operations allow users to assess application behaviour and how data requests will be processed in the future.

    • Database design, working as a blueprint, would enable designers to work on constraining points and resolve the relevant points for higher efficiency.

    What is the process of Database Design?

    Developers work on creating database design with the vision to deliver robust databases capable of delivering identified objectives without hindering application efficiency. To do so, certain steps are required to be followed. Database designers work on several steps using database management systems to create reliable databases.
    process of database designingLet us look at these steps that accomplish the process of database designing.

    1. Identifying objectives and purposes of the database: The data design process starts with defining the objective of the database. Deriving the purpose beforehand helps developers prepare a plan following its scope and provides a direction to the process. 

    2. Searching and organising relevant information for the database: Collect the required information to be compiled. For example, figures such as a product’s information, order number and other relevant details.

    3. Separating information using tables: Divide the information into major subjects such as product name and order name, creating a separate table for each. 

    4. Identify the information and divide it into columns: The user must identify which information must be included in every table. Every added information gets displayed as a column within the table after turning into a unique field. For example, a student’s table might contain columns such as marks and subjects. 

    5. Specify the primary key for each table: Specify the primary key for each table, which is a column or a group of many columns used to identify every unique row. An apt example would be the marks obtained by students. 

    6. Establish the relationship between each table: Identify interrelationships in each table through analysis and fill additional fields or new tables to refine the relationship if necessary. 

    7. Implement normalisation rules: Data normalisation rules are essential to check the quality of table structure. Make changes if you find any inconsistencies.

    8. Use DBMS to build the database: Follow the derived blueprint and implement the model using a database management system to design the database.

    Reassess for quality check: Assess the created design for any constraints or errors. Run several tests on the tables to evaluate their efficiency and reduce redundancy and inconsistencies.

    The Language Used to Access a Database is Called SQL

    Database management system requires users to practice specialised database languages explicitly created to access database management systems. Standard Query Language (SQL) is a domain-specific language that works with RDBMS to access, store, manage, manipulate, and maintain databases. The standard database language follows a set pattern of grammar and syntaxes to communicate with relational databases to work with query data. 

    Although a standard language, various relational database management systems create their unique subset of SQL to interact with databases and regulate their content. SQL is a predominant query language most commonly paired with the relational database management system called MySQL. Let’s learn more about MySQL to understand how the pair helps create robust databases

    Introduction to MySQL

    Initially created in 1995 for personal use, MySQL worked as a backbone for many organisations, managing its database system to ensure an easy flow of operations. MySQL is a free, open-source relational database management system which works with the standard version of the famous SQL language to support enormous databases. MySQL helps design, develop and implement database tables following interrelationships within containing information. The program implements a relational database in the computer by interacting with the operating system to regulate user access to databases and facilitate various tasks like testing database integrity. 

    Several features add to its success, being one of the top relational database management systems available in the market. 

    • MySQL is free, easy to use, and works with most operating systems.

    • MySQL’s open-source license enables programmers to access the functionality of the most expensive and robust database packages. 

    • Besides SQL, MySQL works with languages such as PHP, JAVA, C, C++, etc.

    • MySQL is comparatively faster than other RDBMSs with the ability to regulate huge data mounds, enabling up to 50 million rows in a single table and more

    Installing MySQL

    Getting one of the most popular relational database management systems is easy. Just follow the given installation steps to get started with MySQL!

    Step 1- Go to the official MySQL website and download the community server edition of the software.

    Step 2- Choose your operating system and download the relevant setup from the given options. Unzip the downloaded setup and double-click the MSI installer .exe file. Wait for the process to end until the next wizard appears.

    Step 3- As the process ends, choose the Setup Type and select the Full Type before proceeding ahead and clicking the Next button. This step will enable the installation of features such as MySQL server, MySQL Router, MySQL Shell, MySQL Connectors, MySQL Workbench and more. 

    Step 4- The next step will assess your system for the lack of requirements. If your system lacks a few features, press the Execute button to get those automatically. You can also choose to Skip to deal with it later. Press Next to proceed.

    Step 5- If you’re skipping installing certain features on the system, click Yes on the next wizard informing you of the missing requirements. The page with features needed to be installed will open up as you proceed. Press Execute to download the features. After installing the features, click on Next.

    Step 6- Next step would require the user to configure the server and router. Click on the Next button. On the next page, choose Standalone MySQL Server/ Classic MySQL Replication or InnoDB Cluster according to your requirements. 

    Step 7- Complete the Config Type and Connectivity options on the next page by choosing Config Type as ‘Development Machine’, Connectivity as TCP/IP and Port number 3306. Click Next and select your preferred authentication method.

    Step 8- Create a MySQL Root Password and click the Next button. Configure the Window service in the next step to start the server. Keep the default setup and click on Next. 

    Step 9- Apply the Server Configuration as your choice and click Execute. As the configuration completes, click on the Finish button. 

    Step 10- As the Product Configuration appears completed, maintain the default setting and click on the Next -> Finish button to complete package installation.

    Step 11- You can choose to configure the routerin the next wizard. Click on Next-> Finish and then the Next button. As you see the Connect to Server option, mention your Root Password from before. Click on Check if your connection is successful, and then click Next. 

    Step 12- Next, select applied configuration and click on Execute. Click on the Finish button on the next page.

    MySQL installation is complete as you click on the Finish button

    The Basic Commands of MySQL: Insert, Select, Update, and Delete

    MySQL comprises a list of basic commands to assist database design development and management for smooth performance. Here’s a list of basic MySQL commands.

    SELECT: The option extracts the data required from the database to show it in the results.

    UPDATE: The option records new data in a table. 

    CREATE: The option creates a table in the database. Users can specify names and columns in the table.

    INSERT: The option assists in inserting data into the containing database tables.

    ALTER: Alter allows changing the structure of any table by adding or removing columns.

    DELETE: Delete option enables users to delete the containing records in the database. 

    These are the basic commands of MySQL. Other than the fundamentals, commands like DROP, CHECK, FROM, WHERE, HAVING, GROUP BY, AVG(), ORDER BY, AS, LEFT JOIN, INNER JOIN, COUNT, FULL OUTER JOIN, and LIKE are a few other commands significant to operate on database.

    Data Definition Language (DDL) Statements in MySQL

    DDL or Data Definition Language statements is a set of SQL statements that deal with entire database schemas rather than individual rows or tables to specify how data must reside within the database. The comprising elements of this language include Create, Alter, Truncate, Drop, Rename, and Comment, regulating the logical structures of the database. These elements help create and manage a table or row in the MySQL database design process. DDL is known to be about ‘Metadata’.

    Data Manipulation Language (DML) Statements in MySQL

    DML or Data Manipulation Language statements manage data within schema objects by manipulating and modifying data. It does not manipulate database objects or schema but the containing information. Hence, it comprises the most common SQL statements such as Update, Select, Insert, Merge, Delete, Explain Plan, Call, and Lock Table. Users can insert, alter, remove or further manipulate data using the features under the DML subset statements of SQL

    Data Control Language (DCL) Statements in MySQL

    DCL or Data Control Language statements work with the database system's rights, controls, and other permissions. DCL regulates database transactions concerning security concerns. The DCL statements in MySQL comprise commands such as Grant and Revoke. These commands regulate access to the database and enable the user to grant or revoke access per the requirements.

    These SQL statements are the key to delivering valid commands to the database system to process requests and redeem required results. DDL, DML, and DCL are a few of the many subgroups of SQL in MySQL. These include Transaction Control Statements, Session Control Statements, System Control Statements and Embedded SQL Statements.

    What are the basic terms used in MySQL?

    An introduction to database design in MySQL is incomplete without learning the basic terms of MySQL. Take a look at these basic terminologies to get started with MySQL!

    • Database- Refers to a collection of data curated in tabled format. 

    • Table- Refers to a specific set of rows and columns containing information. This table follows a simple spreadsheet-like format.

    • Row- A row, also known as entry, tuple or record, is a group of relevant data related to each other. 

    • Column- Refers to a data element containing the same data. 

    • Primary Key- A primary key holds a unique value which cannot occur twice in the database. Users can easily find their relevant content table with just one primary key, appearing only once in a table. 

    • Foreign Key- Foreign key works as a linking pin between two tables. 

    • Unique Key- A combination of one or more columns, a unique key can uniquely identify a row from the table. Unique keys cannot occur twice in the table, excluding rows with a null value in key columns. Though, a table can have more than one unique key. 

    • Compound Key- A compound or composite key comprises multiple columns as a single column lacks uniqueness. A compound key can also be perceived as similar to a unique key but with more columns.  

    • Index- Index refers to a physical data structure of a database similar to the ones present in the book that help find certain information from the enormous database. 

    • Referential Integrity- Referential integrity refers to and manages the relationship between data across multiple tables. This feature ensures that the value of that foreign key always points towards a present row.

    Defining a Database

    How are Databases structured?

    After knowing what databases are, how they are designed and what platform they use to manage data, it is time to unreel how databases are structured. 

    Following the steps of database designing mentioned above, blueprints are created to follow the database model and include the objective features to optimise the structure. In order to create a systematic database, tables are introduced in the model. These tables contain several columns and rows to separate, containing information systematically, based on their relationship. A spreadsheet is a great example of understanding the tabled structure of a database. A list of data can be converted into tables using introducing different fields in separate tables. 

    For example, to insert name, last name, age and marks obtained by a student, you might want to get these fields into separate tables. Tables are divided into rows and columns where rows contain the data record and columns include data relevant to the field in rows. 

    Each column type gets relevant data types assigned to maintain consistency. Some of them are-

    • FLOAT: Contains floating-point numbers

    • CHAR: Contains a specified length of texts

    • TEXT: Contains lengthy texts

    • VARCHAR: Contains texts of variable lengths

    • INT: Contains negative or positive whole numbers

    • BLOB: Contains binary data

    • AUTONUMBER: The data type automatically generates a unique number for every column

    Each table gets specified primary keys, which work as database attributes working as a unique identifier for the entered data, so picking information from the database is not a trouble in future. Primary keys are required to be unchanging and unique so finding information is always simple. 

    While creating a database, users must use SQL's logical and physical data structures in MySQL. Test and run assessments before deploying the database to comprehend its efficiency, quality and performance level. 

    Defining a Database


    Relationships in database design with MySQL refer to the relation between tables. Users comprehend the cardinality of comprising data to gauge database efficiency. Cardinality refers to the qualities exhibited by two interacting elements from different tables. Each entity within a table has a potential relationship with other containing elements. 

    Let’s explore these different types of relationships within databases that enable relational database management systems to design systematic databases.

    One-to-One Relationship

    In a relationship where there is one instance of entity A for every instance of entity B, the entities are said to have a one-to-one relationship.

    One-to-Many Relationship

    A one-to-many relationship appears when multiple entities in table B are associated with the record in table A. 

    Many-to-Many Relationship

    Many-to-many relationships establish when various entities in table A are associated with several entities in table B. 


    Normalisation is a significant step in database designing, referring to an efficient process of organising data within a database. Normalisation rules are applied to a database design model to check its performance and inconsistent points for rectification. The process assists in database designing, followed by a set of rules to maintain data security and ensure inconsistent dependency and redundancy reduction as much as possible.

    However, not every database design requires normalisation. Online Transaction Processing databases usually require normalisation where users are concerned with creating, modifying, and removing records. 

    On the other hand, Online Analytical Processing databases work better with a level of denormalisation with the databases emphasising processing speed over other aspects. 

    Key and Indexes

    Key and indexes are two different structures in database management systems used to identify required data from the database on the results page. Both work towards a similar objective but widely differ in terms of operation and process. 

    Keys are logical structures comprising a set of attributes with unique values to identify records and deliver results. Keys are the unique identifier of rows in a table containing data that occurs only once throughout the database. Keys contain a unique value for every tuple, making it super effective to seek out information. Examples of keys include Primary Key, Unique Key, Foreign Key, and Compound Key.

    On the other hand, indexes refer to physical data structures that work as a performance optimisation feature to access data quickly to deliver search results. Appropriate usage of indexes can enhance query performance. Unlike keys, indexes accept null values and do not require to be unique. Examples of indexes include Full-text Index, Unique Index and Descending Index.

    What is Database Normalisation?

    It is the process of organising data in a database. That helps in creating tables and relationships establishment between the mentioned tables according to the designed rules that protects the data.  This technique reduces the data redundancy along with the removal of undesirable characteristics such as, insertion, update and deletion anomalies. It helps in dividing the larger tables into smaller tables that are linked using the relationships. 

    Benefits of Database Normalization

    Benefits of database normalizationThe reorganisation of database content through normalisation prepares the database design to perform more analysis and queries. Besides structuring data into a comprehensible format for easy retrieval, normalisation has various other benefits to assist database design towards achieving efficiency. Here are some of those. 

    • Reduces redundant data within the database

    • Consistent tables within the database

    • Improved security for containing data

    • Enhanced efficiency with a flexible database design

    • Swift execution and result delivery

    • A systematic organisation in database design

    As organisations are seeking stronger alternatives to deal with enormous data for reaping valuable insights, MySQL can assist businesses with various features to develop systematic databases for easy data retrieval.

    First Normal Form (1NF)

    As mentioned above, not every data structure demands normalisation. Hence normalisation is divided into three parts with varying levels of rules to assist relevant database structures.

    1NF is the first and foundational form of normalisation that specifies a group must not contain two identical values. Tables are eligible to be under the 1NF following several rules that include-

    • Every cell must have a single value
    • Every cell record must be unique

    Second Normal Form (2NF)

    The second normal form specifies that data subsets can be put into multiple rows are placed in separate tables. In order to be eligible for 2NF, tables must satisfy these rules-

    • The primary key must not be functionally dependent on any subset of a candidate key
    • The table must be 1F

    Third Normal Form (3NF)

    The third normal form mandates that non-key columns must be independent of other columns. A change of value in column A must not affect column B. In order to gain eligibility under 3NF, tables must follow these set of rules-

    • Must be a part of 2F
    • Do not have any transitive functional dependencies

    Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

    Also known as 3.5NF, Boyce-Codd normal form is an updated version of 3NF that does not contain various overlapping candidate keys. For any table to become a part of BCNF, it must follow the given set of rules-

    • Must be 3NF eligible
    • ( X → Y ), X should be a super key for every functional dependency

    Fourth Normal Form (4NF)

    The fourth normal form is the highest database normalisation form, where no trivial multivalued dependencies exist except a candidate key. A table eligible for 4NF would be-

    • Must follow the Boyce-Codd normal form
    • The table must not have any multivalued dependencies

    Why an online Database Design course is better than an offline Database Design course

    As the data science market continues to experience a surge of data, the field fo data science expands, demanding more skilful individuals to take lucrative offers in exchange for their technical prowess. Fortunately, database designing study resources are now widely available for aspiring candidates hoping to make a career in data science with database designing. The availability of online study material makes learning a lot more convenient than the offline method. Imagine bagging exciting career opportunities studying right from teh comfort of your home. Now, you don’t have to imagine it as leading education portals like upGrad extend flexible online learning programs to create data science leaders with extensive skillsets. 

    upGrad offers online Data Science Programs in collaboration with top universities worldwide to prepare aspiring candidates for the dynamic data science industry. With a successful learning web comprising over 40,000+ learners worldwide, the program intends to expand relevant tech skills among the new generations to future-proof their careers and stay relevant in the market for a long time. Online courses extended on the platform are cost-effective, consume less time, and expose learners to exciting opportunities, making online database design learning far better than offline learning.

    Database Design Course Syllabus

    A database design course syllabus consists of industry-relevant topics and goes through a revision every year to keep up with the changing trends. Here is what a database design course syllabus consists of!

    • Introduction to databases and database design 

    • Fundamentals concepts of database design

    • Relationships

    • Keys

    • Introduction to the relational model and modelling

    • Fundamentals of database normalisation

    • Functional dependencies

    • Structured query language

    • Joines

    • Outer joins

    • Case Studies

    • Resource

    Projecting Database Design Industry Growth in 2022-23

    With the global database management system market growing at a CAGR of 12.4%, it is estimated to reach $125.6 billion by 2026, advancing further towards expansive growth for candidates working in the data management industry. Database design, being an imperative part of the market, is bound to receive benefits in terms of lucrative opportunities and open roles in leading corporations. Data science industry jobs leading the global top jobs list, narrate its current success, while the future looks equally positive as technological evolution is nowhere near a halt. Data design’s crucial role in keeping up with data influx will lead it to redeem significant benefits.

    The Accelerating Demand for Database Design Courses in India

    The tech sector’s vast reach and lucrative opportunities are not unknown to people. Following its evident expansion and estimated growth of the database software market alone to reach $189,209.2 million by 2030, it fuels tech aspirants to seek opportunities in the relevant field. Perceiving the current and future scenarios, learners are equipping themselves with the industry-relevant skill set, hoping to future-proof their career. 

    India alone serves countless study resources online to keep up with the accelerating demands of database design courses, preparing young minds for a dynamic industry. The numbers speak for database design’s potential to participate as a leading job role in the future. Hence, the accelerated growth of database design courses in India is pretty understandable.

    Database Design Specialist Salary in India

    Database design is a relatively new career for the Indian tech market. However, its eventual growth with rapid digitisation in India leads aspirants to inspect opportunities and prepare to bag exciting opportunities under its wing. For now, a significant gap persists in organisations hoping to obtain experienced and skilled individuals for the role, and as a result, making it a highly lucrative career in the region. 

    Statistics claim database design specialists’ salaries in India can range from 2.6 Lakhs to 26.5 lakhs per annum, with an average salary of around 12 lakhs.

    Factors on which Database Design Specialists' Salary in India Depends

    database design specialist’s salary in IndiaDatabase design specialists’ salary in India or any other region depends on several factors that may add to or take away a significant value from the role, depending on its influence on working conditions, performance and environment. These factors include

    • Experience: The most apparent influencing factor on database design salary is the candidate’s working experience. Your previous work can speak of your worth, which people usually comprehend with your resume. The better and longer your experience in the industry is, the better opportunities you receive.  

    • Region: Regional changes influence the salary of a database designer as living conditions, environment, and available opportunities directly impact a candidate’s performance.

    • Delivered engagement: The delivered performance decides for your frequent raises and hikes in your salary only if the said performance is exceptional. Great corporate performance effectively works like a magnet to attract great salary options. 

    • Place of work: The company you work for also decides your database design salary to lie in the higher or lower hemispheres.

    Database Design Specialist Starting Salary in India

    As a database design specialist, you must have at least two years of experience to bag any such opportunities. The better your experience and resume, the better your chances of receiving higher pay.

    Database Design Specialist Salary Abroad

    Database design specialist is a thriving career overseas, experiencing even more surges with technical advancements. While many job opportunities are extended to database design specialists abroad, the market continues delivering lucrative opportunities with salaries ranging from $80,000 to $165,688. The average salary of a database design specialist is supposedly around $94,122. 
    database design specialist’s salary abroad

    Factors on which Database Design Specialist Salary Abroad Depends

    Database design specialist salary abroad depends on varying factors as well. Here are some to understand and expect changes in the offered wages. 

    • Skill set: Your skill set can win you high-paying opportunities, even better than originally offered sometimes if your skills are immaculate enough.
    • Work experience: The number of projects you have been a part of says a lot about your work, hands-on experience, participation and the team working spirit. Your salary is bound to land in high numbers if you have significant experience. 
    • Working region: Working region plays a key role in identifying the salary. Regional changes switch living conditions, and depending on it; your company might offer you more or less. For instance, Arizona's database design specialist role delivers an average salary of around $155,250. Whereas working in Illinois might grant you a little less pay of around $107,500, creating a huge difference between the two numbers.
    • Employer: Employer and company apparently play a significant role in determining your salary numbers. If you are working for a leading brand, chances are you will get highly paid. Small enterprises might not be able to afford a higher salary, making employers and employing companies a deciding factor in salaries.  

    Database Design Specialist Starting Salary Abroad

    Compared to India, database design specialists abroad have better initial salary numbers, thanks to their significant experience and skill set, leading them to receive lucrative career opportunities. As database designing career is rapidly growing in nations like the USA, starting salaries for database design specialists are also improving. According to reports, the starting salary for a database design specialist is estimated to be around $80,060, which is comparatively better than in many places around the world. 

    As your career and experience grow, this salary will receive equal growth. Consistently improving performance is another key to unlocking better lucrative opportunities!

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    Frequently Asked Questions about Database Design

    How to design a database?

    The process of database designing follows a set of steps, starting with establishing an objective to create a blueprint. Next, the user is required to collect information that needs to be included in the database and separate it using tables. 

    A primary key is specified for the information, which helps to separate the information through tables further. The data is then run under normalisation rules to assess the quality and then implemented in a developer database which is tested and improved to achieve efficiency. 

    What is the difference between SQL and MySQL?

    SQL is a standard query language, while MySQL is a relational database management system controlled using SQL as its commanding language. MySQL system can be used to create databases using SQL language, which consists of specific grammar commands and syntax enabling users to interact with the system, hence making the two completely different yet connected. 

    How does the MySQL database work?

    MySQL follows a client-server model to be used under a networked environment. The server processes various requests made on the physical or client-side of the server using its multi-layered server, which is then displayed with the results on the screen. The scalable, robust, multi-layered server helps MySQL operate on a large amount of data. 

    Does MySQL require coding knowledge?

    Yes, you can easily work on MySQL without any prior programming knowledge; however, it would require you to have a strong understanding of at least the basics of MySQL, which consists of logic, tools and syntax. Consistent practising is the key to gaining expertise, so work on as many projects as possible. 

    What are some good books or resources to learn relational database designing?

    Some good books to learn relational database designing include ‘Database Design for Mere Mortals’ by Hernandez, ‘Six-Step Relational Database Design’ by Captain, ‘Beginning Database Design Solution’ by Stephens, ‘Pro SQL Server 2008 Relational Database Design and Implementation’ by Davidson and ‘SQL Antipatterns: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Database Programming’ by Karwin. 

    What is the difference between database design and data modelling?

    Database designing is the arrangement of data according to a database model. Therefore, data modelling can be deemed as the primary step in designing a database. Systematic data modelling techniques are used in the data modelling part. Hence, the database design creates an output, a detailed data model of the database. 

    How to improve database design schema?

    Using proper data types, eliminating unnecessary attributes within queries to maximise the performance, thinking about the relationships multiple times while considering the environment, keeping the statistics up-to-date, avoiding table or index scans and limiting the use of temporary tables are some ways to improve the database design schema. 

    What type of diagrams are used for database designing?

    Using proper data types, eliminating unnecessary attributes within queries to maximise the performance, thinking about the relationships multiple times while considering the environment, keeping the statistics up-to-date, avoiding table or index scans and limiting the use of temporary tables are some ways to improve the database design schema. 

    What type of diagrams are used for database designing?

    Some diagrams used for database design include Chen ERD, Database /model Diagram, Express-G diagram, ORM Diagram, Martin ERD etc. 

    What is physical database design, and what is its methodology?

    Physical database designing is a process that helps make descriptions of the execution of the database on secondary storage. This process describes the base relations, file organisations along with indexes which helps to gain efficient access to the data, any associated integrity constraints and security measures. 

    The methodology is divided into two major parts, the first is to transform the logical data model for target DBMS, and the other is to design file organisations and indexes. Under the first one, the three steps are to design base relations, then the representation of derived data and the general constraints. Under the second step, there are multiple steps such as analysing transactions, choosing file organisation, choosing indexes, estimating disk space requirements, designing security mechanisms and user views, and monitoring and tuning operational systems. 

    What is the difference between database architecture and database model?

    Database Architecture can be defined as a framework that is created to transfer data from one place to another in an efficient manner. On the other hand, a database model is simply the relationship between objects in a certain application, or it can represent a set of concepts that are put together to define a relationship or formation. 

    What are the responsibilities of a database designer?

    A database designer's primary roles and responsibilities include defining the detailed database design. This includes indexes, constraints, views, triggers, tables stored procedures etc. 

    What are some of the different types of lineage tracing?

    There are majorly two types of different data lineage such as business lineage and technical lineage. Business lineage is an important tool for business analysts who want to ensure the authenticity of the source from where their data is coming. Whereas technical lineage helps IT and data architects to oversee the transformations, column and query-level lineage and follow through the data pipelines conveniently. 

    What is the difference between big data design and typical OLTP database design?

    Data scientists primarily use big database design or OLAP database design, business analysts and other kinds of knowledge workers to support business intelligence, data mining and other decision-making support applications. On the other hand, the OLTP database design is created to optimise and process a massive number of transactions. OLTP is usually used by frontline workers such as cashiers, bank tellers and hotel desk clerks. 

    How to migrate a custom database design to WordPress?

    In order to migrate a custom database design to WordPress, one has to go to the Toolset and then to Relationships. After doing that, a button to add new relationships will appear. 

    How to update non-maintained database tables between production and development?

    The update is always at risk of facing several issues; hence, avoiding it would be preferable manually. Instead, creating an SQL script and replying to that script at an appropriate time while the deployment of the application's next release can be helpful. Using a standard version control system can also be easier.  

    How to do data migration and integration within WordPress?

    After logging in to WordPress, select ‘all-in-One WP Migration’, then click on the ‘export’ option. After clicking on export, click on the “file” option to export the entire content of WordPress. This process works for plugins and themes as well. 

    What are the five stages of the database design process?

    The five stages in the database life cycle include requirement analysis, logical designing, physical designing, implementation and lastly, monitoring, modification and maintenance.  

    Which one is the latest version of MySQL?

    Till now, the latest version of MySQL is MySQL 8.0

    Is MySQL 5.7 still supported?

    The end of life for MySQL 5.7 is dated October 21, 2023. Therefore, as of now, it is still supported. However, the end of life of MySQL 8.0, released in 2018, is declared till April 2026.