Java Tutorial



Java Tutorial

Operators in Java


Operators in Java - they're your new toolbox for writing effective, efficient code. Operators, the building blocks of any programming language, perform specific operations on one, two, or three operands. Whether you're new to the coding game or an old hand seeking a refresher, understanding operators is key.

Here, we'll untangle the complexities of Java operators, helping you master each type - from logical to bitwise, unary to conditional, and everything in between. By understanding these tools, you'll develop a keener intuition for Java, enabling you to solve problems with more precision and creativity.

Remember, Java isn't about memorizing rules - it's about understanding the logic and structure beneath the language. That's where operators come in. They're the DNA of your code, the small instructions that create the larger program. By mastering operators, you're not just learning a Java trick. You're getting to the heart of what it means to think, and problem-solve, like a programmer.

So, let's get started. It's time to discover the power of operators in Java and take your coding skills to the next level. Buckle up - we're about to embark on an exciting coding journey together.

Arithmetic Operators in Java: Enhancing Calculations (with examples)

Arithmetic operators in Java are fundamental in performing basic mathematical calculations. These operators come in five main types: addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%). These tools allow us to create simple and complex calculations within our code, contributing to the versatility of Java.

Let's look closely at each of these operators:

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int num1 = 10;
        int num2 = 5;
        // Addition
        int sum = num1 + num2;
        System.out.println("The sum is: " + sum);  // Output: The sum is: 15
        // Subtraction
        int diff = num1 - num2;
        System.out.println("The difference is: " + diff);  // Output: The difference is: 5
        // Multiplication
        int product = num1 * num2;
        System.out.println("The product is: " + product);  // Output: The product is: 50
        // Division
        int quotient = num1 / num2;
        System.out.println("The quotient is: " + quotient);  // Output: The quotient is: 2
        // Modulus
        int remainder = num1 % num2;
        System.out.println("The remainder is: " + remainder);  // Output: The remainder is: 0

Understanding and using these operators correctly is vital for any Java programmer. Whether you're calculating a rectangle's area or determining an object's speed, arithmetic operators in Java make mathematical operations intuitive and efficient.

Demystifying Unary Operators in Java with Examples: A Comprehensive Guide

In Java, unary operators are a unique set that requires only a single operand (or input) for the operation to take place. They come in several flavors: unary plus (+), unary minus (-), increment (++), decrement (--), and logical complement (!).

Let's take a moment to understand each of these operators:

  1. Unary Plus (+): It's more or less symbolic. It indicates the number is positive but doesn't affect the value. For example, ‘int num = +5;’ Here, ‘num’ will still be 5.

  2. Unary Minus (-): This operator negates the value of the operand. If you have a positive value, it becomes negative, and vice versa. For example, ‘int num = -5;’ Here, ‘num’ will be -5.

  3. Increment (++): This operator increases the value of the operand by 1. It comes in two forms:

  • Prefix: Here, the operator comes before the operand. The value is first incremented, then returned. For instance, ‘int num = 5; ++num;’ Here, ‘num’ will now be 6.

  • Postfix: Here, the operator comes after the operand. The value is first returned, then incremented. For example, ‘int num = 5; num++;’ Here, ‘num’ will still be 5 in the current statement, but it will be 6 in the next statement where num is used.

  1. Decrement (--): This operator decreases the value of the operand by 1. Like increment, it comes in prefix and postfix forms.

  2. Logical Complement (!): It inverts the value of a boolean. For a true value, it turns into a false and vice versa. For example, ‘boolean val = true; val = !val;’ Here, val will now be false.


We can also write i++ as  i+=1 and if we want to increment it by 2 then in that case it will be i+= 2 and the same for the decrement case.

Understanding these unary operators in Java allows us to simplify and streamline our code, making our programming more efficient.

Decoding Assignment Operators in Java

Assignment operators in Java play a key role in assigning values to variables. The most basic form of the assignment operator is the equals sign (=), but there are also many compound assignment operators that combine basic mathematical operations with an assignment.

Here's an overview of these operators:

  1. Equals (=): The simplest of the assignment operators, it assigns the value on the right to the variable on the left. For instance, ‘int num = 5;’ assigns the value 5 to the variable ‘num’.

int num= 5; // num is now 5

In the above example, ‘num’ is now assigned the value ‘5’.

  1. Addition Assignment (+=): This operator adds the value on its right to the variable on its left and then assigns the result to the variable on its left.

int num=5;
Num +=3; // num is now 8

In this example, 3 is added to num (which was 5), making num equal to 8.

  1. Subtraction Assignment (-=): With this operator, the right value is subtracted from the left variable, and the outcome is then assigned to the left variable. 

int num = 10;
Num -=3; // num is now 7

Here, 3 is subtracted from num (which was 10), and so num is now 7.

  1. Multiplication Assignment (*=): It multiplies the left variable by the right value and assigns the result back to the left variable.

int num =4;
Num *=2; // num is now 8

In this case, num (which was 4) is multiplied by 2, making num now 8.

  1. Division Assignment (/=): With this operator, the left variable is divided by the right value, and the outcome is then applied to the left variable.

int num = 20;
num /=4; // num is now 5

In this example, num (which was 20) is divided by 4, resulting in num is 5.

  1. Modulus Assignment (%=): This operator takes the modulus of the left variable by the right value and assigns the result to the left variable. 

int num = 10;
num %=3; // num is now 1

Here, num (which was 10) is divided by 3, and the remainder of 1 is assigned back to num.

These assignment operators not only simplify the code but also enhance readability, making it easier to write and understand complex Java programs.

Understanding Relational (Comparison) Operators in Java

Relational operators, often known as comparison operators in Java, are used to compare two values. These operators return a boolean result, either ‘true’ or ‘false’, depending on whether the comparison is valid or not. There are six primary relational operators: equals to (==), not equal to (!=), greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), and less than or equal to (<=).

Let's delve into these operators with examples:

  1. Equals to (==): This operator checks if two values are equal.

int num1 =5;
int num2 = 10;

System. out. println ( num1 ==num2); // Outputs false

  1. Not Equal to (!=): This operator checks if two values are not equal.

int num1 = 5;
int num2 = 10;

System. out. printin ( num1 != num2); // Outputs true

  1. Greater Than (>): This operator checks if the value on the left is greater than the one on the right.

  1. Less Than (<): This operator checks if the value on the left is less than the one on the right.

  1. Greater Than or Equal to (>=): This operator checks if the value on the left is greater than or equal to the one on the right.

  1. Less Than or Equal to (<=): This operator checks if the value on the left is less than or equal to the one on the right.

Understanding relational operators in Java is crucial, as they play a fundamental role in decision-making constructs like if-else, switch, and loops.

Navigating Through Logical Operators in Java: Real-world Scenarios

Logical operators in Java play a pivotal role in formulating conditions and making decisions in code. They work on boolean operands and return boolean results. The three main logical operators are: AND (&&), OR (||), and NOT (!).

Let's explore each one, using real-world scenarios for context:

  1. AND (&&): If both operands are true, this operator returns true. Picture a situation where you're planning a picnic. You'll go if it's a weekend AND the weather is good. In Java, this condition can be represented as:

boolean isWeekend = true; // It's a weekend

boolean isWeatherGood = false; // But the weather isn't good

boolean willGoForPicnic = isWeekend && isWeatherGood;

System.out. println(willGoForPicnic); // Outputs false, you won't go for a


  1. OR (||): If at least one of the operands is true, this operator returns true. Consider a scenario where a museum allows entry if you're a member OR if you have a ticket. In Java, we can express this condition as:

boolean isMember = false; // You're not a member

boolean hasTicket = true; // But you have a ticket

boolean canEnterMuseum= isMember || hasTicket;

System.outprintln(canEnterMuseum); // Outputs true, you can enter the


  1. NOT (!): This operator reverses the boolean state of the operand. Suppose there's a sign on a shop that reads "Do not enter if the shop is closed." In Java, this can be represented as:

boolean isShopOnen = false; // The shop is closed

boolean canEnterShoop = !isShopOpen;

System.outprintln(canEnterShop); // Outputs false, you cannot enter the


Logical operators construct more complex conditions by combining many simple conditions. They are vital for controlling the flow of a Java program and enhancing its decision-making capability.

Conditional or Ternary Operators in Java: Conditional Programming Simplified

The conditional operators in Java provide a shorter and more streamlined way of writing simple if-else statements. It's called the ternary operator because it needs three operands: a condition to check, a result for when the condition is true, and a result for when the condition is false.

condition ? value _ if _ true : value _ if _ false

The operator first evaluates the condition. For the true condition, it returns the ‘value_if_true’. Otherwise, it returns the ‘value_if_false’.

Here's an example. Let's say we want to find the larger of two numbers:

int num1 = 10;
int num2 = 20;

int largerNum = (num1 > num2) ? num1 : num2;

System.out.println(The larger number is: " + largerNum); // Outputs: The

larger number is: 20

In this example, ‘(num1 > num2)’ is the condition we're checking. ‘num1’ is the value that will be assigned to ‘largerNum’ if the condition is true, and ‘num2’ is the value that will be assigned if the condition is false. Since ‘num1’ is not greater than ‘num2’, ‘num2’ is assigned to ‘largerNum’. 

Bits and Pieces: A Closer Look at Bitwise Operators in Java

Bitwise operators in Java manipulate individual bits of data. This is often required when working with low-level data, like network protocols or file formats. These operators function at the bit level and can be applied to integer types only. There are six types of bitwise operators: AND (&), OR (|), XOR (^), NOT (~), right shift (>>), and left shift (<<).

  1. Bitwise AND (&): Returns a 1 in each bit position if bits of both operands are 1.

  1. Bitwise OR (|): Returns a 1 in each bit position if bits of either or both operands are 1

  1. Bitwise XOR (^): Returns a 1 in each bit position if bits of one operand but not both are 1.

  1. Bitwise NOT (~): Inverts all the bits of the operand.

  1. Right shift (>>): Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills the leftmost bit with the sign bit.

  1. Left shift (<<): Shifts the bits of the number to the left and fills the rightmost bit with a 0.

The instance of Operator in Java: Object Verification Unraveled

When using Java, the 'instanceof' operator determines if an object is an instance of a particular class or interface.  It can be useful when we need to verify the type of an object before performing operations on it.

Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Rules of Engagement in Java

Precedence defines the order in which operations are performed in expressions with more than one operator. For example, multiplication has higher precedence than addition. Associativity, left-to-right or right-to-left, determines the order of operations when the operators have the same precedence.


Mastering operators in Java opens up a new level of proficiency in programming. From arithmetic to relational, bitwise to logical, and assignment to shift operators, each plays a key role in controlling the flow of a Java program. Understanding the 'instanceof' operator helps in type checking while comprehending precedence and associativity guides us in formulating accurate and effective expressions. The exciting problems we tackled stretch our knowledge beyond the basics and prepare us for complex, real-world scenarios. Remember, the key to becoming a Java maestro lies in practice. So, keep coding, and keep exploring!


  1. What is Java Operator Overloading and does Java support it?

Operator overloading is a feature in which an operator is made to provide multiple behaviors based on the context. Java, for the sake of simplicity and predictability, does not support operator overloading. 

  1. What is the role of the 'new' operator in Java?

The 'new' operator in Java creates new objects. It allocates memory for a new object and returns a reference to it. For example, ‘Car myCar = new Car();’ creates a new instance of the Car class.

  1. What is a Type Casting Operator in Java and when should it be used?

Java uses type casting to change an object or variable from one type to another. Java supports two different casting methods: Narrowing Casting (manually converting a bigger type to a smaller size type) and Widening Casting (automatically converting a smaller type to a larger type size). You use casting when you want to perform a certain operation that requires a different data type.

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