Java Tutorial



Java Tutorial

Java Database Connectivity(JDBC)


The full form of JDBC in Java programming is ‘Java Database Connectivity.’ It is a strong application programming interface (API) that provides a standardized front end for connecting Java programs to a variety of databases. It allows developers to execute database operations written in Java code, such as accessing, updating, and deleting data from the database. Within the scope of this paper, we investigate the components, architecture, and operation of the Java JDBC. In addition, we will provide detailed instructions on how to construct a basic JDBC application and how to set up a JDBC environment.


The Java JDBC was designed to function as a bridge between Java programs and databases, making the interaction between the two much simpler. Developers can take advantage of Java's many capabilities and tools to communicate with databases in an effortless manner if they use this Application Programming Interface (API). Since using JDBC does not require familiarization with database-specific APIs or languages, it is frequently selected for use in Java-based project development.

Need for Java JDBC

The Java JDBC was developed in response to the growing need for more effective methods of data management in today's software applications. Developers are able to leverage the power of Java and communicate with databases in a straightforward manner, thanks to this API. JDBC offers a unified method to deal with various database management systems (DBMS) by utilizing a standardized application programming interface. This eliminates the need to develop sophisticated code that is database-specific.

Purpose of JDBC

The major objective of Java Database Connectivity is to deliver developers a complete collection of classes and interfaces that simplify database connectivity. This makes it possible for them to execute a variety of database-related tasks using Java code. By providing a standardized application programming interface (API), JDBC ensures portability and allows migrating data easily between other DBMS.

Components of JDBC

JDBC comprises several components that play vital roles in the database connectivity process:

1. JDBC Drivers: JDBC drivers in Java establish connections between Java applications and specific DBMS. They translate Java calls into DBMS-specific protocols. There are four types of JDBC drivers: Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC Bridge), Type 2 (Native-API), Type 3 (Network Protocol), and Type 4 (Thin Driver).

2. JDBC API: The JDBC API provides classes and interfaces to interact with databases. It includes interfaces for database connections, statements, result sets, metadata, and more.

3. JDBC URL: The JDBC URL (Uniform Resource Locator) specifies the database's location and properties required to establish a connection.

4. JDBC Statement: The JDBC Statement interface enables the execution of SQL statements and retrieval of results.

5. JDBC ResultSet: The JDBC ResultSet interface represents the result of a database query and provides methods to navigate and retrieve data from the result set.

Architecture of JDBC

The JDBC architecture comprises the following components:

1. Application: The application layer is made up of Java programs that perform database operations by interacting with the JDBC Application Programming Interface (API).

2. JDBC Application Programming Interface (API): The JDBC API is a layer that sits in between the application and the JDBC drivers. It supplies the classes and interfaces required to connect to databases and interact with their contents.

3. JDBC Driver Manager: The JDBC Driver Manager is responsible for managing the drivers and establishing connections per the specified JDBC URL.

4. JDBC Drivers: JDBC drivers take the calls made to the JDBC API and convert them into protocols that are particular to the DBMS. These drivers then communicate with the database server.

Data Types in Java JDBC

JDBC supports a wide range of data types to handle various data formats. The table below illustrates some commonly used data types in this API:

Data Types



Variable-length character data


Fixed-length character data


Whole numbers


Single-precision floating-point numbers


Double-precision floating-point numbers


Boolean values (true or false)


Date values (year, month, day)


Time values (hour, minute, second)


Date and time values


Binary large objects


Character large objects


Ordered collection of elements of a particular data type.


Stores reference to rows in another table


Represents a structured object or a composite type in the database


Represents large integer values that exceed the range of regular integer data types.


Stores variable-length binary data

Types of JDBC Architecture (2-tier and 3-tier)

JDBC supports two types of architecture: 2-tier and 3-tier.

1. 2-tier Architecture: In a 2-tier architecture, the JDBC API directly communicates with the database server. The application interacts directly with the database, executing queries and retrieving results.

2. 3-tier Architecture: In a 3-tier architecture, an additional middle tier, known as the application server, is introduced. The JDBC API communicates with this, which in turn interacts with the database server. This architecture helps in separating business logic from database operations and improves scalability and maintainability.

Data Storage Units

JDBC can interact with various data storage units, including relational databases like MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server and non-relational databases like MongoDB. It provides the flexibility to connect to and perform operations on different types of data storage units.

JDBC Environment Setup

To set up a JDBC environment, follow these steps:

1. Import-Package Dependencies: Begin by importing the necessary packages for JDBC. For example:

import java.sql.*;

2. Load and Register the Driver: Load the JDBC driver class using the `Class.forName()` method and register it with the DriverManager. For example, to load the MySQL JDBC driver:


3. Connect to the Database: Use the `DriverManager.getConnection()` method to establish a connection to the database. Provide the JDBC URL, username, and password as credentials. 

For example, to connect to a MySQL database, follow these steps:

String url = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydatabase";
String username = "root";
String password = "password";
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password);

4. Frame Query: Create an SQL query using the SQL syntax for the specific DBMS. 

For example:

String query = "SELECT * FROM employees";

5. Execute Query: Create a `Statement` or `PreparedStatement` object and execute the query using the `executeQuery()` method. For example:

Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery(query);

Query execution is facilitated by a collection of JDBC interfaces and classes that enable programmers to connect to the database, generate and run SQL statements, and retrieve results. It takes care of the underlying communication with the database server, freeing developers of any worry about the technical specifics of database connectivity and letting them concentrate on developing and running queries.

6. Process Result: Iterate over the `ResultSet` to retrieve the data.

For example:

while ( {
    // Retrieve data from the result set

7. Close Statement: Close the statement object after executing the query.


8. Close Connection: Close the connection to release the resources.

Closing the JDBC connection is essential for freeing up system resources and memory. It ensures that the connection is closed appropriately and returned to the connection pool, allowing it to be reused by other parts of the application or other users. It aids in efficient resource management and prevents potential problems such as resource leakage and exceedance of the maximum number of open database connections.

Java JDBC Example

Consider the following example that demonstrates how to retrieve and display employee records from a MySQL database using JDBC:

package com.vinayak.jdbc;
import java.sql.*;
public class JDBCDemo {
public static void main(String args[])
throws SQLException, ClassNotFoundException
String driverClassName
= "sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver";
String url = "jdbc:odbc:XE";
String username = "scott";
String password = "tiger";
String query
= "insert into students values(109, 'bhatt')";
// Load driver class
// Obtain a connection
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(
url, username, password);
// Obtain a statement
Statement st = con.createStatement();
// Execute the query
int count = st.executeUpdate(query);
"number of rows affected by this query= "
+ count);
// Closing the connection as per the
// requirement with connection is completed
} // class

The above example shows the fundamental steps needed to access a database using JDBC. The JDBC-ODBC bridge driver is used by the application to connect to the database. To use the classes in the java.sql package and provide basic SQL functionality, you must import the package. 

Interfaces of JDBC API

The JDBC API provides various interfaces that play a crucial role in database connectivity. Some important ones are listed below:

1. Connection: The ‘Connection’ interface represents a connection to the database and provides methods to execute statements and retrieve results.

2. Statement: The ‘Statement’ interface allows the execution of SQL statements and returns the results.

3. PreparedStatement: The ‘PreparedStatement’ interface extends the ‘Statement’  interface and allows for precompiled SQL statements, which can improve performance and security.

4. ResultSet: The ‘ResultSet’ interface represents the result set of a database query and provides methods to navigate and retrieve data from it.

5. DatabaseMetaData: The ‘DatabaseMetaData’ interface provides methods to obtain metadata information about the database, such as tables, columns, and indexes.

Classes of JDBC API

In addition to the interfaces, the JDBC Application Programming Interface (API) contains a number of classes that can help users connect to databases. Some prominent courses are:

1. DriverManager: The 'DriverManager' class manages the JDBC drivers and establishes connections across databases.

2. SQLException: The 'SQLException' class is used to represent exceptions that take place during database operations and contains information that is specific to the error.

3. ResultSetMetaData: The 'ResultSetMetaData' class offers metadata information for a 'ResultSet's' column.

4. Blob and Clob: The 'Blob' and 'Clob' classes handle binary and character big objects, respectively.

Working of JDBC

The following procedures are involved in the operation of Java JDBC:

1. Import all of the JDBC-related packages that are required.

2. Make sure the JDBC driver is loaded and then register it.

3. Using the 'DriverManager.getConnection()' method, set up a connection to the database that you want to access.

4. Create a statement object and execute SQL queries.

5. Perform the appropriate actions on the database's returned results.

6. Exit the statement and unlink the connection in order to free up resources.

Creating a Simple JDBC Application

Here's a step-by-step guide to creating a simple JDBC application that retrieves and displays employee records from a MySQL database:

1. Import the necessary packages:


import java.sql.*;

2. Load and register the MySQL JDBC driver:



3. Establish a connection to the database:


Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydatabase", "root", "password");

4. Create a statement object and execute the query:


Statement statement = connection.createStatement();

ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM employees");

5. Process the result set:


while ( {
    int empId = resultSet.getInt("emp_id");
    String empName = resultSet.getString("emp_name");
    System.out.println("Employee ID: " + empId + ", Employee Name: " + empName);

6. Close the statement and connection:





In Java JDBC, closing the connection, the statement, and the result set is essential for effective resource management, memory optimization, and consistency maintenance. It ensures that system resources are released, and memory is freed up to permit other application components to reuse connections. Closing these aids in better resource management on database servers, enhancing scalability and overall performance. Additionally, it assures the accurate retrieval of successive result sets and guards against accidental changes or conflicts when running subsequent queries. By adhering to this practice, developers can guarantee seamless application functioning and avoid potential problems with resource leaks and database server scalability.


In conclusion, JDBC makes database connections easier by offering a standardized application programming interface (API) for Java programs. It frees developers from the burden of writing convoluted, database-specific code. It makes it possible for them to effectively use Java's capabilities when interacting with databases. Java allows developers to connect to and interact with databases in a seamless manner if they have a solid understanding of the components, architecture, and operation of the JDBC.


1. What are the types of JDBC drivers?

JDBC supports four types of drivers: Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC Bridge), Type 2 (Native-API), Type 3 (Network Protocol), and Type 4 (Thin Driver).

2. How do you establish a connection to a database using JDBC?

To establish a connection, you need to provide the JDBC URL, username, and password to the `DriverManager.getConnection()` method.

3. What is the purpose of the `ResultSet` interface in JDBC?

The `ResultSet` interface represents the result of a database query and provides methods to retrieve and manipulate data retrieved from the database.

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