Scope and Types of Corporate Finance [Everything Explained]

One of the primary fuels to make any organization work is its financial structure. Whether dealing with the organization’s finances or keeping the cash flow in check, the finance sector of a brand is always on the run to make things work around the clock. However, the finance sector alone is not capable enough to work following the monetary exchanges of any organization. Financial transactions such as dealing with capital funding and investments are out of their responsibility. Hence, corporate finance emerges to relevance over this section. Corporate finance utilizes several resources to allocate finances for demanded areas, keeping the organization’s expansion in mind. But what exactly is corporate finance?

Corporate finance is the study of financial activities, dealing with the utilization and distribution of wealth to maintain a company’s capital and economic structure. This area of finance manages investment, funding aspects to proceed towards stable wealth generation that can help the company experience relentless growth. The corporate finance motto includes making sound financial decisions to enhance the monetary impact by implementing sustainable goals, profiting both the shareholder and organization. It uses proven tools and analysis to aim towards sustainable growth rather than a momentary profit. 

Fundamentals of Corporate Finance

To comprehend the core of corporate finance, initiating from the base is essential. Here are the vital principles of corporate finance to understand actions that management takes to prioritize boosting the company’s value.

1. Investment Principle – opting for the befitting space to allocate resources.

The investment principle’s significance is to warrant the use of scarce financial resources to make the most efficient decisions. A company must allocate its finances to the right decisions, keeping the potential opportunities in mind. The investment must be made to ensure a stable flow of economic opportunities while keeping funds in check for future usage. From estimating the return on a planned investment to allotting credit days to the customers, corporate finance deals with all, choosing investment-worth markets and companies to acquire, also come under the working procedure of corporate finance.  

2. Financing Principle – seeking the right mix of capital to fund your business

Orchestrating a business structure requires capital, which usually is a mix of debt and equity. This principle of corporate finance deals with reaching an optimal mix of many such financial instruments while keeping the future implications under vigilance. Corporate financiers use this principle to help businesses make stable financial decisions leading to a reduction in the acceptable hurdle rate. The value of this optimal mix for capital structure is also kept in mind while making steady decisions. After deciding on the right financing mix to establish the capital structure, the principles also help implement it for the long or short term.

3. Dividend Principle- allocating the generated revenue

As the outcome of relentless participation in investment opportunities, any company that matures is bound to reach the phase when generated cash flow exceeds the existing investments and hurdle rate. At this juncture, companies are to determine the right ways to reward investors and return debts. It can either decide to utilize the excess cash to pay off or use it to expand businesses. The decision has to be made keeping the maximum value of the business in mind. Both private and public corporations handle dividend decisions differently.

 

Types of Corporate Finance

Types of corporate finance include the various methods of raising funds for the business. These are broadly categorized to ensure that the company discovers its best match. Short-term and Long-term are the two divisions that encapsulate several activities relevant to raising funds for the company.

Short-term corporate finance

Short-term is the type of corporate financing that extends its services to a company for a short period of time. The tenure for short-term corporate finance is limited to a few months or a whole year at maximum. Short-term corporate includes various other sub-activities.

  • Financial lease:  Financial lease refers to the type of corporate finance where the financial entity is the owner of the asset till the lease is repaid. In some instances, companies own the operating control over the assets by the time payment structured on time is exhausted.
  • Trade Credit: Trade credit is an agreement where clients can purchase any offered goods while paying the supplier at a scheduled date later on. Prominently part of the B2B structure.
  •  Accrual accounts: This method of corporate finance refers to following the accrual method of accounting, which enters the sale at the time of invoice generation rather than when cash is actually received. Most companies include this method in their work-frame.   

Long-term corporate finance

As the same suggests, Long-term corporate finance refers to corporate financial aids spread over a year or more. The time span tends to get longer with minimum interest rates that can be returned as monthly interest payments. Long-term corporate finance includes various types of activities, such as:

  • Debentures: A debenture, also known as a type of bond, is the debt instrument used by big corporations and governments that agree to borrow finance following a fixed interest rate. Lack of collateral backing makes the reputation of the issuing entity the only aspect to rely on for obtaining the principal amount and interest.
  • Bank Loan: Bank loan is the most common financing option that almost every other company relies upon to structure its expansion. Entities can choose from medium to long-term financing options.  
  • Floatation: Conversion of a private entity into public by issuing shares for the general public. This type of corporate financing ensures obtaining funds from external means rather than depending upon earnings and fresh projects for maximizing the corporation.

Scope of Corporate Finance

Scope of corporate finances refers to the various objectives and responsibilities that are dealt with under the corporate financing sector. These objectives focus on maximizing the sustainable expansion of the company along with generating wealth. Some of them are as follows:

  • Capital budgeting to keep expenditures in check while allocating only the most profitable projects.
  • Market analysis to keep up with the rapidly changing trends by accumulating the same in practices.
  • Decision-making after in-depth market research around raising capital through reliable and most effective sources.
  • Taking up the advisory roles under mergers, acquisitions, and takeovers.
  • Analyzing different investment options using fundamentals of corporate finance to redeem an optimal mix of the most efficient financing instruments.
  • Decisions to diversify and expand as per the growth of the company.

Additional Resources to Strengthen your Knowledge

Millions of people realize a promising career under the umbrella of corporate finance. While a full-time degree may not be accessible to everyone, an online educational platform like upGrad is making a change with its well-curated range of international programs. With 85+ countries learner base, 40,000+ paid learners globally, 500,000+ working professionals impacted, upGrad has emerged as a breakthrough in the education consuming process.

Learners are offered advanced certificate courses equipped with industry-relevant skills, curated specifically by expert faculties and industry professionals. upGrad’s 360-degree career assistance allows students the right place to solve all their grievances and career-related queries, making it an extremely learner-friendly platform. upGrad success stories speak volumes of its dedication to proffer career-enhancing education.

Conclusion

Keeping up with the ever-so-fast pace of the market can get tough with the lack of a responsible and expert workforce. The best way to keep your company unfazed amid the changing winds of the market is with the help of a reliable team. Any business that generates money and seeks expansion in the near future must enable a smoothly running corporate finance section.

A panel of experts, appropriate data, and the needed tools to configure research materials are enough to strengthen your company against all odds.

Students or working professionals, anyone can look for better career opportunities with a strong resume that you can easily win through upGrad. The dynamic field of corporate finance is full of ups and downs, so prepare yourself to go hard for it! 

What is the difference between financial management and corporate finance?

Financial management deals with the day-to-day optimization of the cash flow, while corporate finance aims to maximize the value of a company by analyzing and decision-making. Both might be relevant to the finance department of any company but deal with highly contrasting duties.

What is the role of corporate finance in an organization?

Corporate finance manages the responsibility relevant to capital raising, managing finances for projects, dealing with M&As, financial monitoring, and many such complicated tasks.

Are corporate finance jobs hard to get into?

They are certainly not the easiest considering the high-risk factor and burden responsibilities that come under the position, but one can certainly try their best to get into the business.

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