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Top 5 Image Processing Projects Ideas & Topics [For Beginners]
In this blog, we will walk through the introduction of image processing and then proceed to talk about a few project ideas that revolve around image processing.  Image processing is a technique used to perform some operations on the image in order to obtain some meaningful information from them. Here, the input will be an image and after applying a few operations we get an enhanced image or some features associated with these images.  In image processing, an image is considered as a two-dimensional array of numbers ranging from 0 to 255. Image compression, sharpening, edge-detection are all achieved by using special filters and operators that transform the input image to the output we wish to achieve. For instance, for brightening the image, the operator or filter will behave in a manner that would increase the pixel value of the image. These operators perform mathematical operations with the 2-D array and produce a new set of output arrays with the desired result. These operations are being extensively used in domains like, Computer vision and Artificial Intelligence, and Machine learning. With time, image processing is gaining importance in several sectors. Many industries have leveraged the importance of image recognition and the market is anticipated to experience a CAGR of 15.1% throughout the forecast period, aiming to achieve a market value of USD 53.0 billion by 2025. Moving on, now that we have a basic understanding of what is image processing let us dive into some of the project ideas that can be created by leveraging the aforementioned concept on image processing.  Why Should You Use Image Processing Techniques? Image restoration and processing are pivotal in several applications across various domains. They offer a multitude of advantages that significantly contribute to the understanding and improvement of visual data. One fundamental reason for leveraging image restoration and processing techniques is visual quality enhancement. These techniques can refine and clarify images through sophisticated algorithms and methodologies, making them visually appealing and facilitating a more detailed analysis. In addition to visual enhancement, image processing allows for effective noise reduction, addressing distortions and unwanted elements that may compromise the accuracy and reliability of visual data. By employing advanced filtering and smoothing techniques, image processing mitigates noise, ensuring that the underlying information in the image remains prominent and uncorrupted. This is particularly crucial in applications such as medical imaging, where accurate diagnosis depends on the clarity and fidelity of visual representations. Pattern recognition stands out as another compelling reason to delve into image processing. By enabling systems to recognize patterns and objects within images, image processing opens the door to a plethora of applications. From facial recognition in biometric systems to object detection in autonomous vehicles, the ability to identify and understand visual patterns forms the backbone of cutting-edge technologies. The automation of visual tasks, facilitated by image processing algorithms, enhances efficiency and reduces manual efforts and time involved in manufacturing processes. This not only streamlines operations but also contributes to improved quality control by enabling the identification of defects and irregularities in real time. Moreover, image restoration techniques prove invaluable in the preservation of cultural heritage. Whether restoring old photographs, manuscripts, or artifacts, image restoration ensures the longevity of these historical treasures. By removing imperfections, enhancing colors, and preserving original details, image restoration contributes to conserving and appreciating cultural artifacts for future generations. The role of image processing extends to security and surveillance, where improved identification of objects and individuals is paramount. Through advanced image processing, security systems can accurately monitor and analyze visual data in real-time, enhancing overall safety in public spaces, airports, and critical infrastructure. The deployment of image restoration and processing techniques brings about innovation and exploration. This blog will delve deeper into the use cases of image processing and restoration and explore ideas for projects on image processing.  Top Image Processing Project Ideas Here are some interesting digital image processing mini projects that you must take up.  1. Monitoring Social Distancing With COVID-19 spreading universally, it is prominent to maintain social distancing while travelling in public places. Here image processing can be a game-changer. By taking input from CCTV Cameras and analyzing one frame at a time we will achieve the task at hand.  Firstly, we use morphological operations and detection techniques to detect pedestrians in a frame. Next, we draw a bounding box surrounding each pedestrian. After which, we calculate the distance of one bounding box enclosing a pedestrian to its adjacent bounding boxes. Next, we decide a threshold for the distance between the bounding boxes and then based on their distance we categorize the pedestrians in the frame as red, yellow, or green. The red bounding box would mean people in the frame are very close together and therefore at maximum risk. The yellow box would mean that the people are at a considerable distance and the risk is medium. The green boxes would mean people are following the norms and they are safe. Integrating this system with an alerting mechanism (Loudspeakers)could be a great way to alert the pedestrians violating the COVID-19 norms! Such a project on image processing will not only help hone your technical skills but also stay ahead of your contemporaries in DIP project ideas.  FYI: Free nlp course! 2. Mask Detection An interesting image processing project is mask detection.  Nowadays, wearing masks have been mandatory since the pandemic was discovered. As social distancing, mask detection is equally important to prevent any further surge in COVID cases. To detect mask. we need to first detect the human face. That can be achieved by identifying the facial landmarks such as eyes nose mouth etc. After detecting faces, we need to build an algorithm that can distinguish a face with a mask and a face without a mask. This calls for the need for a deep learning model. Training a deep learning model on datasets comprising of both mask and non-mask images. Once the model is trained it will be able to successfully identify mask and no-mask people. Using this, we can alert pedestrians to wear masks whenever they step out of their house.  Also Read: Python Projects on GitHub 3. Lane and Curve Detection  Autonomous vehicles are the future of driving. With the aim to minimize human intervention and also the potential risk involved, many companies are spending extensively on the Research and Development of autonomous vehicle technologies. By using image segmentation for filtering and edge detection with a deep learning model we detect the presence of lane and their orientation. Among the various image processing research topics available, this one makes for an interesting pick.  A stepwise procedure would look like this Taking input video as frames. Converting each frame into its corresponding grayscale image. Reducing the prevalent noise with the help of filters. Detecting edges using a canny edge detector. Finding the coordinates of the road lanes. Using deep learning to efficiently detect lanes and their orientation. Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses 4. Drowsiness Detection for Drivers A very popular image processing project could be drowsiness detection for drivers.  The need for drowsiness detection in vehicles is necessary owing to the large number of accidents caused due to lack of consciousness amongst drivers. With a drowsiness detection system, it can alert the driver if it senses a potential loss of consciousness in the eye of the driver. By understanding and analyzing eye patterns, this system can proactively alert the driver and prevent the occurrence of accidents. This task is achieved by first locating and segmenting the eye portion from the rest of the face. Then binarization and labelling of images are done so as to understand which images represent the occurrence of drowsiness and which don’t. Then by analyzing the blinks and their duration, the algorithm can detect drowsiness if the eyes are closed for a longer time than the time taken to blink the eye. By integrating this system with an alerting device, it could be useful in mitigating the accidents caused due to lack of consciousness.  If you are searching for ideas for image processing major projects, this one will be a perfect fit for you.  In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses 5. License Plate Recognition One of the major projects on image processing is license plate recognition.  Yes, you heard it right, we can automate the license plate detection. Now the traffic police no longer need to manually pen down the license number of the vehicles violating the traffic rules. Thanks to the advancements in the field of image processing that such a task is possible. The steps that are required for license plate detection include- using appropriate filters to remove noise from the input image and then applying morphological operations on them. Further, on the region of interest i.e the license plat, we apply a technique known as Optical Character Recognition (OCR)to extract text from the images. OCR is a pretrained network that is capable of detecting text from images. Using it directly will help us save the computation cost of training our algorithm by ourselves. Therefore, by following the above steps systematically, one can develop an algorithm/model to identify the license plate and the number associated with it.  Try this as one of your major image processing projects to understand the topic better. 6. Image-to-Text Conversion Image-to-text conversion is one of the most interesting digital image processing projects using MATLAB. It is a departure from more familiar languages like Python. MATLAB’s Computer Vision Toolbox for Optical Character Recognition (OCR) makes the process accessible despite the initial unfamiliarity. You can easily leverage pre-trained language data files from OCR Language Data support in Tesseract Open Source OCR Engine. You may also tailor the model to recognize specific character sets, such as handwritten or mathematical characters. This image-processing project acquaints you with OCR in MATLAB and presents an opportunity for customized model training, making it a versatile and engaging endeavor. 7. Background Subtraction  Background subtraction is a popular image processing project. This critical method is applied in various applications, particularly in video surveillance. Given the frame-wise nature of video analysis, this technique seamlessly integrates into the field of image processing. Its primary function involves the separation of foreground elements from the background by creating a mask. Initiating a representation capturing background characteristics is necessary to establish the background model. Continuous updates are then made to accommodate changes, such as variations in lighting throughout different times of the day. 8. Recognition of Number Plate The Number Plate Recognition project on image processing is ideal for beginners looking to deliver effective results for assignments or final-year projects. The development of this time-saving vehicle identification system hinges on the integration of the OCR technique.  The OCR method accurately recognizes vehicles entering designated zones. The system extracts alphanumeric vehicle numbers, ensuring precise identification. This extracted number undergoes cross-verification with the comprehensive database containing detailed vehicle information. With MATLAB installed on personal workstations, users can seamlessly test the real-time performance of this system. Its ability to extract current data from vehicle images makes it a valuable tool for enhancing safety and security, particularly for traffic management. 9. Tracking Objects Object tracking and surveillance applications are focal points in image processing projects. These projects facilitate effective real-time monitoring, identification, and analysis of objects or individuals within video streams, with wide-ranging implications for security, retail analytics, and traffic management. For instance, consider a project that employs image-processing algorithms in retail environments. The system can track customer movements, analyze shopping behavior, and provide insights into popular product areas. This application is particularly beneficial for optimizing store layouts and improving customer experiences, contributing to enhanced efficiency in the retail sector. This could be one of the interesting image processing projects for final year students.  10. Barcode Detection One of the most interesting image processing projects is barcode detection. In the domain of image processing for barcode detection, the primary objective is to guide a computer in identifying the region within an image exhibiting the maximum contours. The initial step involves converting the image into grayscale. Subsequently, various image processing techniques, such as gradient calculation, image blurring, binary thresholding, and morphology, are applied to pinpoint the area with the highest count of contours. Once identified, this region is labeled as a barcode.  Checkout: Python Project Ideas & Topics Image Recognition using Deep Learning Image recognition, a significant branch of computer vision, involves identifying and classifying objects or patterns within digital images. Deep learning techniques, particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), have revolutionized image recognition tasks, achieving state-of-the-art performance across various applications. CNNs are designed to mimic the human visual system, consisting of multiple layers that automatically learn relevant features from images. Here is a step-by-step guide on building an image recognition project using a popular deep learning framework like TensorFlow or PyTorch: Data Collection: Obtain a labelled dataset of images relevant to your recognition task. For instance, if the project aims to classify cats and dogs, gather a diverse collection of cat and dog images. Data Preprocessing: Resize all images to a consistent resolution and normalize pixel values to improve training efficiency. Split the dataset into training and testing sets to evaluate model performance accurately. Model Architecture: Choose a CNN architecture suitable for image recognition. Common choices include VGG, ResNet, or MobileNet. You can also design a custom model tailored to your specific project requirements. Model Training: Use the training dataset to train the CNN. During training, the model adjusts its internal parameters to minimize the prediction error. This process involves forward propagation, loss computation, and backpropagation to update weights. Hyperparameter Tuning: Experiment with different hyperparameter values, such as learning rate and batch size, to optimize model performance. Evaluation: Assess the trained model using the testing dataset. Calculate metrics like accuracy, precision, and recall to gauge how well the model generalizes to new, unseen images. ​7. Deployment: Once satisfied with the model’s performance, deploy it to make real-time predictions on new images. Image Enhancement and Restoration Image enhancement and restoration techniques aim to improve the visual quality of images by correcting imperfections caused by noise, low resolution, or other factors. These techniques find applications in various fields, including medical imaging, satellite imagery, and historical photograph restoration. Contrast Adjustment: This technique enhances the difference between light and dark regions in an image, making it visually more appealing and improving object visibility. Denoising: Noise is an inevitable part of image acquisition and transmission. Denoising methods, such as median filtering and wavelet denoising, effectively reduce unwanted noise while preserving image details. Super-Resolution: Super-resolution techniques reconstruct high-resolution images from their low-resolution counterparts, enhancing image clarity and sharpness. Image enhancement and restoration methods find practical use in numerous real-world projects: In medical imaging, enhancing the visibility of anatomical structures helps physicians make accurate diagnoses and treatment decisions. In satellite imagery, denoising can improve the quality of remote sensing data, leading to better analysis and interpretation of the Earth’s surface. In historical photograph restoration, these techniques aid in preserving old images by reducing degradation effects and restoring missing details, allowing for a glimpse into the past with improved clarity. As technology advances, image enhancement and restoration continue to play a crucial role in enhancing visual information and enabling a wide range of applications across various industries. Conclusion Until now, we have seen 5 examples where image processing can be applied to solve the issue at hand. However, let me tell you that image processing has diversified into almost every industry almost every field is dependent on it directly or indirectly. Because it uses python as its programming language, it is convenient to use and easier to understand. This post gives you an overview as to what is image processing and few projects associated with it. However, we do encourage you to identify more pressing problems that can be solved by leveraging the concepts of image processing.  To conclude, developing algorithms pertaining to image processing requires skill and if mastered can help you advance in your professional life at a rapid pace whilst solving real-world problems.  If you’re interested to join AI and ML Courses, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s PG Diploma in Machine Learning & AI which is designed for working professionals and offers 450+ hours of rigorous training, 30+ case studies & assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, 5+ practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms. Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to ₹70,000/- You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

30 Nov 2023

Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning: 7 Easy Steps To Follow
Summary: In this article, you will learn about data preprocessing in Machine Learning: 7 easy steps to follow. Acquire the dataset Import all the crucial libraries Import the dataset Identifying and handling the missing values Encoding the categorical data Splitting the dataset Feature scaling Read more to know each in detail. Data preprocessing in Machine Learning is a crucial step that helps enhance the quality of data to promote the extraction of meaningful insights from the data. Data preprocessing in Machine Learning refers to the technique of preparing (cleaning and organizing) the raw data to make it suitable for a building and training Machine Learning models. In simple words, data preprocessing in Machine Learning is a data mining technique that transforms raw data into an understandable and readable format.  Data Preprocessing In Machine Learning: What Is It? Data preprocessing steps are a part of the data analysis and mining process responsible for converting raw data into a format understandable by the ML algorithms.  Text, photos, video, and other types of unprocessed, real-world data are disorganized. It may not only be inaccurate and inconsistent, but it is frequently lacking and doesn’t have a regular, consistent design. Machines prefer to process neat and orderly information; they read data as binary – 1s and 0s.  So, it is simple to calculate structured data like whole numbers and percentages. But before analysis, unstructured data, such as text and photos, must be prepped and formatted with the help of data preprocessing in Machine Learning.  Now that you know what is data preprocessing in machine learning, explore the major tasks in data preprocessing.  Data Preprocessing Steps In Machine Learning: Major Tasks Involved Data cleaning, Data transformation, Data reduction, and Data integration are the major steps in data preprocessing.  Data Cleaning Data cleaning, one of the major preprocessing steps in machine learning, locates and fixes errors or discrepancies in the data. From duplicates and outliers to missing numbers, it fixes them all. Methods like transformation, removal, and imputation help ML professionals perform data cleaning seamlessly.  Data Integration Data integration is among the major responsibilities of data preprocessing in machine learning. This process integrates (merges) information extracted from multiple sources to outline and create a single dataset. The fact that you need to handle data in multiple forms, formats, and semantics makes data integration a challenging task for many ML developers.  Data Transformation  ML programmers must pay close attention to data transformation when it comes to data preprocessing steps. This process entails putting the data in a format that will allow for analysis. Normalization, standardization, and discretisation are common data transformation procedures. While standardization transforms data to have a zero mean and unit variance, normalization scales data to a common range. Continuous data is discretized into discrete categories using this technique.  Data Reduction  Data reduction is the process of lowering the dataset’s size while maintaining crucial information. Through the use of feature selection and feature extraction algorithms, data reduction can be accomplished. While feature extraction entails translating the data into a lower-dimensional space while keeping the crucial information, feature selection requires choosing a subset of pertinent characteristics from the dataset.  Why Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning? When it comes to creating a Machine Learning model, data preprocessing is the first step marking the initiation of the process. Typically, real-world data is incomplete, inconsistent, inaccurate (contains errors or outliers), and often lacks specific attribute values/trends. This is where data preprocessing enters the scenario – it helps to clean, format, and organize the raw data, thereby making it ready-to-go for Machine Learning models. Let’s explore various steps of data preprocessing in machine learning.  Join Artificial Intelligence Course online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career. Steps in Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning  There are seven significant steps in data preprocessing in Machine Learning:  1. Acquire the dataset Acquiring the dataset is the first step in data preprocessing in machine learning. To build and develop Machine Learning models, you must first acquire the relevant dataset. This dataset will be comprised of data gathered from multiple and disparate sources which are then combined in a proper format to form a dataset. Dataset formats differ according to use cases. For instance, a business dataset will be entirely different from a medical dataset. While a business dataset will contain relevant industry and business data, a medical dataset will include healthcare-related data. There are several online sources from where you can download datasets like and You can also create a dataset by collecting data via different Python APIs. Once the dataset is ready, you must put it in CSV, or HTML, or XLSX file formats. 2. Import all the crucial libraries Since Python is the most extensively used and also the most preferred library by Data Scientists around the world, we’ll show you how to import Python libraries for data preprocessing in Machine Learning. Read more about Python libraries for Data Science here. The predefined Python libraries can perform specific data preprocessing jobs. Importing all the crucial libraries is the second step in data preprocessing in machine learning. The three core Python libraries used for this data preprocessing in Machine Learning are: NumPy – NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific calculation in Python. Hence, it is used for inserting any type of mathematical operation in the code. Using NumPy, you can also add large multidimensional arrays and matrices in your code.  Pandas – Pandas is an excellent open-source Python library for data manipulation and analysis. It is extensively used for importing and managing the datasets. It packs in high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for Python. Matplotlib – Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library that is used to plot any type of charts in Python. It can deliver publication-quality figures in numerous hard copy formats and interactive environments across platforms (IPython shells, Jupyter notebook, web application servers, etc.).  Read: Machine Learning Project Ideas for Beginners 3. Import the dataset In this step, you need to import the dataset/s that you have gathered for the ML project at hand. Importing the dataset is one of the important steps in data preprocessing in machine learning. However, before you can import the dataset/s, you must set the current directory as the working directory. You can set the working directory in Spyder IDE in three simple steps: Save your Python file in the directory containing the dataset. Go to File Explorer option in Spyder IDE and choose the required directory. Now, click on the F5 button or Run option to execute the file. Source This is how the working directory should look.  Once you’ve set the working directory containing the relevant dataset, you can import the dataset using the “read_csv()” function of the Pandas library. This function can read a CSV file (either locally or through a URL) and also perform various operations on it. The read_csv() is written as: data_set= pd.read_csv(‘Dataset.csv’) In this line of code, “data_set” denotes the name of the variable wherein you stored the dataset. The function contains the name of the dataset as well. Once you execute this code, the dataset will be successfully imported.  During the dataset importing process, there’s another essential thing you must do – extracting dependent and independent variables. For every Machine Learning model, it is necessary to separate the independent variables (matrix of features) and dependent variables in a dataset.  Consider this dataset: Source This dataset contains three independent variables – country, age, and salary, and one dependent variable – purchased.   Check out upGrad’s free courses on AI. How to extract the independent variables? To extract the independent variables, you can use “iloc[ ]” function of the Pandas library. This function can extract selected rows and columns from the dataset. x= data_set.iloc[:,:-1].values   In the line of code above, the first colon(:) considers all the rows and the second colon(:) considers all the columns. The code contains “:-1” since you have to leave out the last column containing the dependent variable. By executing this code, you will obtain the matrix of features, like this –  [[‘India’ 38.0 68000.0]    [‘France’ 43.0 45000.0]    [‘Germany’ 30.0 54000.0]    [‘France’ 48.0 65000.0]    [‘Germany’ 40.0 nan]    [‘India’ 35.0 58000.0]    [‘Germany’ nan 53000.0]    [‘France’ 49.0 79000.0]    [‘India’ 50.0 88000.0]    [‘France’ 37.0 77000.0]]  Must Read: Free deep learning course! How to extract the dependent variable? You can use the “iloc[ ]” function to extract the dependent variable as well. Here’s how you write it: y= data_set.iloc[:,3].values   This line of code considers all the rows with the last column only. By executing the above code, you will get the array of dependent variables, like so –  array([‘No’, ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘No’, ‘Yes’, ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Yes’],       dtype=object) Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses 4. Identifying and handling the missing values In data preprocessing, it is pivotal to identify and correctly handle the missing values, failing to do this, you might draw inaccurate and faulty conclusions and inferences from the data. Needless to say, this will hamper your ML project.  Basically, there are two ways to handle missing data: Deleting a particular row – In this method, you remove a specific row that has a null value for a feature or a particular column where more than 75% of the values are missing. However, this method is not 100% efficient, and it is recommended that you use it only when the dataset has adequate samples. You must ensure that after deleting the data, there remains no addition of bias.  Calculating the mean – This method is useful for features having numeric data like age, salary, year, etc. Here, you can calculate the mean, median, or mode of a particular feature or column or row that contains a missing value and replace the result for the missing value. This method can add variance to the dataset, and any loss of data can be efficiently negated. Hence, it yields better results compared to the first method (omission of rows/columns). Another way of approximation is through the deviation of neighbouring values. However, this works best for linear data. Read: Applications of Machine Learning Applications Using Cloud 5. Encoding the categorical data Categorical data refers to the information that has specific categories within the dataset. In the dataset cited above, there are two categorical variables – country and purchased. Machine Learning models are primarily based on mathematical equations. Thus, you can intuitively understand that keeping the categorical data in the equation will cause certain issues since you would only need numbers in the equations. How to encode the country variable? As seen in our dataset example, the country column will cause problems, so you must convert it into numerical values. To do so, you can use the LabelEncoder() class from the sci-kit learn library. The code will be as follows – #Catgorical data   #for Country Variable   from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder   label_encoder_x= LabelEncoder()   x[:, 0]= label_encoder_x.fit_transform(x[:, 0])   And the output will be –   Out[15]:    array([[2, 38.0, 68000.0],             [0, 43.0, 45000.0],          [1, 30.0, 54000.0],          [0, 48.0, 65000.0],          [1, 40.0, 65222.22222222222],          [2, 35.0, 58000.0],          [1, 41.111111111111114, 53000.0],          [0, 49.0, 79000.0],          [2, 50.0, 88000.0],         [0, 37.0, 77000.0]], dtype=object)  Here we can see that the LabelEncoder class has successfully encoded the variables into digits. However, there are country variables that are encoded as 0, 1, and 2 in the output shown above. So, the ML model may assume that there is come some correlation between the three variables, thereby producing faulty output. To eliminate this issue, we will now use Dummy Encoding. Dummy variables are those that take the values 0 or 1 to indicate the absence or presence of a specific categorical effect that can shift the outcome. In this case, the value 1 indicates the presence of that variable in a particular column while the other variables become of value 0. In dummy encoding, the number of columns equals the number of categories. Since our dataset has three categories, it will produce three columns having the values 0 and 1. For Dummy Encoding, we will use OneHotEncoder class of the scikit-learn library. The input code will be as follows –  #for Country Variable   from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder, OneHotEncoder   label_encoder_x= LabelEncoder()   x[:, 0]= label_encoder_x.fit_transform(x[:, 0])   #Encoding for dummy variables   onehot_encoder= OneHotEncoder(categorical_features= [0])     x= onehot_encoder.fit_transform(x).toarray()  On execution of this code, you will get the following output –  array([[0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 3.80000000e+01,         6.80000000e+04],        [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.30000000e+01,         4.50000000e+04],        [0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 3.00000000e+01,         5.40000000e+04],        [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.80000000e+01,         6.50000000e+04],        [0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.00000000e+01,         6.52222222e+04],        [0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 3.50000000e+01,         5.80000000e+04],        [0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.11111111e+01,         5.30000000e+04],        [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.90000000e+01,         7.90000000e+04],        [0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 5.00000000e+01,         8.80000000e+04],        [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 3.70000000e+01,         7.70000000e+04]])  In the output shown above, all the variables are divided into three columns and encoded into the values 0 and 1. How to encode the purchased variable? For the second categorical variable, that is, purchased, you can use the “labelencoder” object of the LableEncoder class. We are not using the OneHotEncoder class since the purchased variable only has two categories yes or no, both of which are encoded into 0 and 1. The input code for this variable will be –  labelencoder_y= LabelEncoder()   y= labelencoder_y.fit_transform(y)  The output will be –  Out[17]: array([0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1]) In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses 6. Handling Outliers in Data Preprocessing Outliers are data points that significantly deviate from the rest of the dataset. These anomalies can skew the results of machine learning models, leading to inaccurate predictions. In the context of data preprocessing, identifying and handling outliers is crucial. Outliers can arise due to measurement errors, data corruption, or genuinely unusual observations. Detecting outliers often involves using statistical methods such as the Z-score, which measures how many standard deviations a data point is away from the mean. Another method is the Interquartile Range (IQR), which identifies data points outside a certain range around the median. Once outliers are detected, there are several ways to handle them: Removal Outliers can be removed from the dataset if erroneous or irrelevant. However, this should be done cautiously, as removing outliers can impact the representativeness of the data. Transformation Transforming the data using techniques like log transformation or winsorization can reduce the impact of outliers without completely discarding them. Imputation Outliers can be replaced with more typical values through mean, median, or regression-based imputation methods. Binning or Discretization Binning involves dividing the range of values into a set of intervals or bins and then assigning the outlier values to the nearest bin. This technique can help mitigate the effect of extreme values by grouping them with nearby values. 7. Splitting the dataset Splitting the dataset is the next step in data preprocessing in machine learning. Every dataset for Machine Learning model must be split into two separate sets – training set and test set.  Source Training set denotes the subset of a dataset that is used for training the machine learning model. Here, you are already aware of the output. A test set, on the other hand, is the subset of the dataset that is used for testing the machine learning model. The ML model uses the test set to predict outcomes.  Usually, the dataset is split into 70:30 ratio or 80:20 ratio. This means that you either take 70% or 80% of the data for training the model while leaving out the rest 30% or 20%. The splitting process varies according to the shape and size of the dataset in question.   To split the dataset, you have to write the following line of code –   from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split   x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test= train_test_split(x, y, test_size= 0.2, random_state=0)   Here, the first line splits the arrays of the dataset into random train and test subsets. The second line of code includes four variables: x_train – features for the training data x_test – features for the test data y_train – dependent variables for training data y_test – independent variable for testing data Thus, the train_test_split() function includes four parameters, the first two of which are for arrays of data. The test_size function specifies the size of the test set. The test_size maybe .5, .3, or .2 – this specifies the dividing ratio between the training and test sets. The last parameter, “random_state” sets seed for a random generator so that the output is always the same.  8. Dealing with Imbalanced Datasets in Machine Learning In many real-world scenarios, datasets are imbalanced, meaning that one class has significantly fewer examples than another. Imbalanced datasets can lead to biased models that perform well on the majority class but struggle with the minority class. Dealing with imbalanced datasets involves various strategies: Resampling Oversampling the minority class (creating duplicates) or undersampling the majority class (removing instances) can balance the class distribution. However, these methods come with potential risks like overfitting (oversampling) or loss of information (undersampling). Synthetic Data Generation Some of the ways like Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique generate synthetic samples by interpolating between existing instances of the outvoted class. Cost-Sensitive Learning It is all about allocating varied misclassification costs to various classes during model training that can uplift the complete model to center on correctly classifying the minority class. Ensemble Methods Ensemble techniques like Random Forest or Gradient Boosting can handle imbalanced data by combining multiple models to perform better on both classes. 9. Feature scaling Feature scaling marks the end of the data preprocessing in Machine Learning. It is a method to standardize the independent variables of a dataset within a specific range. In other words, feature scaling limits the range of variables so that you can compare them on common grounds. Consider this dataset for example –  Source In the dataset, you can notice that the age and salary columns do not have the same scale. In such a scenario, if you compute any two values from the age and salary columns, the salary values will dominate the age values and deliver incorrect results. Thus, you must remove this issue by performing feature scaling for Machine Learning. Most ML models are based on Euclidean Distance, which is represented as: Source You can perform feature scaling in Machine Learning in two ways: Standardization Source  Normalization Source  For our dataset, we will use the standardization method. To do so, we will import StandardScaler class of the sci-kit-learn library using the following line of code: from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler   The next step will be to create the object of StandardScaler class for independent variables. After this, you can fit and transform the training dataset using the following code: st_x= StandardScaler()   x_train= st_x.fit_transform(x_train)  For the test dataset, you can directly apply transform() function (you need not use the fit_transform() function because it is already done in training set). The code will be as follows –  x_test= st_x.transform(x_test)  The output for the test dataset will show the scaled values for x_train and x_test as: Source Source All the variables in the output are scaled between the values -1 and 1. Now, to combine all the steps we’ve performed so far, you get:    # importing libraries   import numpy as nm   import matplotlib.pyplot as mtp   import pandas as pd      #importing datasets   data_set= pd.read_csv(‘Dataset.csv’)      #Extracting Independent Variable   x= data_set.iloc[:, :-1].values      #Extracting Dependent variable   y= data_set.iloc[:, 3].values      #handling missing data(Replacing missing data with the mean value)   from sklearn.preprocessing import Imputer   imputer= Imputer(missing_values =’NaN’, strategy=’mean’, axis = 0)      #Fitting imputer object to the independent varibles x.    imputerimputer=[:, 1:3])      #Replacing missing data with the calculated mean value   x[:, 1:3]= imputer.transform(x[:, 1:3])      #for Country Variable   from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder, OneHotEncoder   label_encoder_x= LabelEncoder()   x[:, 0]= label_encoder_x.fit_transform(x[:, 0])      #Encoding for dummy variables   onehot_encoder= OneHotEncoder(categorical_features= [0])     x= onehot_encoder.fit_transform(x).toarray()      #encoding for purchased variable   labelencoder_y= LabelEncoder()   y= labelencoder_y.fit_transform(y)      # Splitting the dataset into training and test set.   from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split   x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test= train_test_split(x, y, test_size= 0.2, random_state=0)      #Feature Scaling of datasets   from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler   st_x= StandardScaler()   x_train= st_x.fit_transform(x_train)   x_test= st_x.transform(x_test)   10. Feature Engineering for Improved Model Performance Feature engineering involves creating new features from existing ones to improve the performance of machine learning models. It aims to enhance the predictive power of models by providing them with more relevant and informative input variables. Common techniques in feature engineering include: Feature Scaling: Scaling features to a similar range can improve the convergence and performance of algorithms sensitive to input variables’ scale. Feature Extraction: Techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can reduce the dimensionality of datasets while retaining most of the original information. One-Hot Encoding: Converting categorical variables into binary indicators (0s and 1s) to ensure compatibility with algorithms that require numerical input. Polynomial Features: Generating higher-degree polynomial features can capture non-linear relationships between variables. Domain-Specific Features: Incorporating domain knowledge to create more relevant features to the problem at hand. Effective feature engineering requires a deep understanding of the dataset and the problem domain and iterative experimentation to identify which engineered features lead to improved model performance. Best Practices For Data Preprocessing In Machine Learning An overview of the best data preprocessing practices are outlined here:  Knowing your data is among the initial steps in data preprocessing.  You can get a sense of what needs to be your main emphasis by simply glancing through your dataset.  Run a data quality assessment to determine the number of duplicates, the proportion of missing values, and outliers in the data.  Utilise statistical techniques or ready-made tools to assist you in visualising the dataset and provide a clear representation of how your data appears with reference to class distribution.  Eliminate any fields you believe will not be used in the modelling or closely related to other attributes.  Dimensionality reduction is a crucial component of data preprocessing. Remove the fields that don’t make intuitive sense. Reduce the dimension by using dimension reduction and feature selection techniques.  Do some feature engineering to determine which characteristics affect model training most. So, that’s data processing in Machine Learning in a nutshell! Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau You can check IIT Delhi’s Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI in association with upGrad. IIT Delhi is one of the most prestigious institutions in India. With more the 500+ In-house faculty members which are the best in the subject matters. Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to ₹70,000/- You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.
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by Kechit Goyal

29 Oct 2023

Natural Language Processing (NLP) Projects & Topics For Beginners [2023]
What are Natural Language Processing Projects? NLP project ideas advanced encompass various applications and research areas that leverage computational techniques to understand, manipulate, and generate human language. These projects harness the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning to process and analyze textual data in ways that mimic human understanding and communication. Here are some key aspects and examples of NLP projects: 1. Text Classification NLP can be used to classify text documents into predefined categories automatically. This is useful in sentiment analysis, spam detection, and topic categorization. For instance, classifying customer reviews as positive or negative to gauge product sentiment. 2. Named Entity Recognition (NER) NLP models can identify and categorize entities such as names of people, organizations, locations, and dates within text. This is crucial for information extraction tasks like news article analysis or document summarization. 3. Machine Translation Projects in this domain focus on developing algorithms that translate text from one language to another. Prominent examples include Google Translate and neural machine translation models. 4. Text Generation NLP models like GPT-3 can generate human-like text, making them useful for content generation, chatbots, and creative writing applications. 5. Question-Answering Systems These nlp project ideas involve building systems that can understand questions posed in natural language and provide relevant answers. IBM’s Watson is a well-known example. 6. Speech Recognition While technically part of the broader field of speech processing, NLP techniques are used in transcribing spoken language into written text, as seen in applications like voice assistants (e.g., Siri and Alexa). 7. Text Summarization NLP can automatically generate concise summaries of lengthy texts, making it easier to digest information from news articles, research papers, or legal documents. 8. Sentiment Analysis Analyzing social media data and customer reviews to determine public sentiment toward products, services, or political issues is a common NLP application. 9. Language Modeling Creating and fine-tuning language models, such as BERT and GPT, for various downstream tasks forms the core of many NLP projects. These models learn to represent and understand language in a generalized manner. What are the Different Best Platforms to Work on Natural Language Processing Projects? Here are some of the best platforms for nlp projects for final year: 1. Python and Libraries Python is the most popular programming language for NLP due to its extensive libraries and frameworks. Libraries like NLTK, spaCy, gensim, and the Transformers library by Hugging Face provide essential NLP functionalities and pre-trained models. 2. TensorFlow and PyTorch These deep learning frameworks provide powerful tools for building and training neural network models, including NLP models. Researchers and developers can choose between them based on their preferences. 3. Google Colab For cloud-based NLP development, Google Colab offers free access to GPU and TPU resources, making it an excellent choice for training large NLP models without needing high-end hardware. 4. SpaCy SpaCy is a fast and efficient NLP library that excels at various NLP tasks, including tokenization, named entity recognition, and part-of-speech tagging. It also offers pre-trained models for multiple languages. 5. Docker Docker containers can create reproducible and portable NLP environments, ensuring consistency across development and deployment stages. 6. AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud These cloud platforms offer scalable compute resources and specialized NLP services like Amazon Comprehend, Azure Text Analytics, and Google Cloud NLP, simplifying the deployment of NLP solutions at scale. 7. Kaggle Kaggle provides datasets, competitions, and a collaborative platform for NLP practitioners to share code and insights. It’s a great resource for learning and benchmarking NLP models. 8. GitHub GitHub is a repository for NLP project code, facilitating collaboration and version control. Many NLP libraries and models are open-source and hosted on GitHub. 9. Apache Spark Apache Spark can be used for handling large-scale NLP tasks for distributed data processing and machine learning. NLP Projects & Topics Natural Language Processing or NLP is an AI component concerned with the interaction between human language and computers. When you are a beginner in the field of software development, it can be tricky to find NLP based projects that match your learning needs. So, we have collated some examples to get you started. So, if you are a ML beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some NLP projects. We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting NLP projects which beginners can work on to put their knowledge to test. In this article, you will find top NLP project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on NLP. But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind: why to build NLP projects? When it comes to careers in software development, it is a must for aspiring developers to work on their own projects. Developing real-world projects is the best way to hone your skills and materialize your theoretical knowledge into practical experience. NLP is all about analyzing and representing human language computationally. It equips computers to respond using context clues just like a human would. Some everyday applications of NLP around us include spell check, autocomplete, spam filters, voice text messaging, and virtual assistants like Alexa, Siri, etc. As you start working on NLP projects, you will not only be able to test your strengths and weaknesses, but you will also gain exposure that can be immensely helpful to boost your career. In the last few years, NLP has garnered considerable attention across industries. And the rise of technologies like text and speech recognition, sentiment analysis, and machine-to-human communications, has inspired several innovations. Research suggests that the global NLP market will hit US$ 28.6 billion in market value in 2026.  When it comes to building real-life applications, knowledge of machine learning basics is crucial. However, it is not essential to have an intensive background in mathematics or theoretical computer science. With a project-based approach, you can develop and train your models even without technical credentials. Learn more about NLP Applications. To help you in this journey, we have compiled a list of NLP project ideas, which are inspired by actual software products sold by companies. You can use these resources to brush up your ML fundamentals, understand their applications, and pick up new skills during the implementation stage. The more you experiment with different NLP projects, the more knowledge you gain. Before we dive into our lineup of NLP projects, let us first note the explanatory structure.  The project implementation plan All the nlp projects for final year included in this article will have a similar architecture, which is given below: Implementing a pre-trained model Deploying the model as an API Connecting the API to your main application This pattern is known as real-time inference and brings in multiple benefits to your NLP design. Firstly, it offloads your main application to a server that is built explicitly for ML models. So, it makes the computation process less cumbersome. Next, it lets you incorporate predictions via an API. And finally, it enables you to deploy the APIs and automate the entire infrastructure by using open-source tools, such as Cortex.  Here is a summary of how you can deploy machine learning models with Cortex: Write a Python script to serve up predictions. Write a configuration file to define your deployment. Run ‘cortex deploys’ from your command line. Now that we have given you the outline let us move on to our list!  Must Read: Free deep learning course! So, here are a few NLP Projects which beginners can work on: NLP Project Ideas This list of NLP projects for students is suited for beginners, intermediates & experts. These NLP projects will get you going with all the practicalities you need to succeed in your career. Further, if you’re looking for NLP based projects for final year, this list should get you going. So, without further ado, let’s jump straight into some NLP projects that will strengthen your base and allow you to climb up the ladder. This list is also great for Natural Language Processing projects in Python.  Here are some NLP project idea that should help you take a step forward in the right direction. 1. A customer support bot One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on projects on nlp for students is working on customer support bot. A conventional chatbot answers basic customer queries and routine requests with canned responses. But these bots cannot recognize more nuanced questions. So, support bots are now equipped with artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies to overcome these limitations. In addition to understanding and comparing user inputs, they can generate answers to questions on their own without pre-written responses.  For example, has built a custom ML-powered bot to provide customer support. According to the company, an average organization can take care of almost 40 % of its inbound support requests with their tool. Now, let us describe the model required to implement a project inspired by this product.  You can use Microsoft’s DialoGPT, which is a pre-trained dialogue response generation model. It extends the systems of PyTorch Transformers (from Hugging Face) and GPT-2 (from OpenAI) to return answers to the text queries entered. You can run an entire DialoGPT deployment with Cortex. There are several repositories available online for you to clone. Once you have deployed the API, connect it to your front-end UI, and enhance your customer service efficiency! Read: How to make chatbot in Python? 2. A language identifier Have you noticed that Google Chrome can detect which language in which a web page is written? It can do so by using a language identifier based on a neural network model.  This is an excellent nlp project in python for beginners. The process of determining the language of a particular body of text involves rummaging through different dialects, slangs, common words between different languages, and the use of multiple languages in one page. But with machine learning, this task becomes a lot simpler. You can construct your own language identifier with the fastText model by Facebook. The model is an extension of the word2vec tool and uses word embeddings to understand a language. Here, word vectors allow you to map a word based on its semantics — for instance, upon subtracting the vector for “male” from the vector for “king” and adding the vector for “female,” you will end up with the vector for “queen.” A distinctive characteristic of fastText is that it can understand obscure words by breaking them down into n-grams. When it is given an unfamiliar word, it analyzes the smaller n-grams, or the familiar roots present within it to find the meaning. Deploying fastTExt as an API is quite straightforward, especially when you can take help from online repositories. 3. An ML-powered autocomplete feature Autocomplete typically functions via the key value lookup, wherein the incomplete terms entered by the user are compared to a dictionary to suggest possible options of words. This feature can be taken up a notch with machine learning by predicting the next words or phrases in your message. Here, the model will be trained on user inputs instead of referencing a static dictionary. A prime example of an ML-based autocomplete is Gmail’s ‘Smart Reply’ option, which generates relevant replies to your emails. Now, let us see how you can build such a feature.  For this advanced nlp projects, you can use the RoBERTa language model. It was introduced at Facebook by improving Google’s BERT technique. Its training methodology and computing power outperform other models in many NLP metrics. To receive your prediction using this model, you would first need to load a pre-trained RoBERTa through PyTorch Hub. Then, use the built-in method of fill_mask(), which would let you pass in a string and guide your direction to where RoBERTa would predict the next word or phrase. After this, you can deploy RoBERTa as an API and write a front-end function to query your model with user input. Mentioning NLP projects can help your resume look much more interesting than others. 4. A predictive text generator This is one of the interesting NLP projects. Have you ever heard of the game AI Dungeon 2? It is a classic example of a text adventure game built using the GPT-2 prediction model. The game is trained on an archive of interactive fiction and demonstrates the wonders of auto-generated text by coming up with open-ended storylines. Although machine learning in the area of game development is still at a nascent stage, it is set to transform experiences in the near future. Learn how python performs in game development. DeepTabNine serves as another example of auto-generated text. It is an ML-powered coding autocomplete for a variety of programming languages. You can install it as an add-on to use within your IDE and benefit from fast and accurate code suggestions. Let us see how you can create your own version of this NLP tool.  You should go for Open AI’s GPT-2 model for this project. It is particularly easy to implement a full pre-trained model and to interact with it thereafter. You can refer to online tutorials to deploy it using the Cortex platform. And this is the perfect idea for your next NLP project! Read: Machine Learning Project Ideas 5. A media monitor One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on NLP projects for students is working on media monitor. In the modern business environment, user opinion is a crucial denominator of your brand’s success. Customers can openly share how they feel about your products on social media and other digital platforms. Therefore, today’s businesses want to track online mentions of their brand. The most significant fillip to these monitoring efforts has come from the use of machine learning.  For example, the analytics platform Keyhole can filter all the posts in your social media stream and provide you with a sentiment timeline that displays the positive, neutral, or negative opinion. Similarly, an ML-backed sift through news sites. Take the case of the financial sector where organizations can apply NLP to gauge the sentiment about their company from digital news sources.  Such media analytics can also improve customer service. For example, providers of financial services can monitor and gain insights from relevant news events (such as oil spills) to assist clients who have holdings in that industry.  You can follow these steps to execute a project on this topic:  Use the SequenceTagger framework from the Flair library. (Flair is an open-source repository built on PyTorch that excels in dealing with Named Entity Recognition problems.) Use Cortex’s Predictor API to implement Flair. We are currently experiencing an exponential increase in data from the internet, personal devices, and social media. And with the rising business need for harnessing value from this largely unstructured data, the use of NLP instruments will dominate the industry in the coming years. Such developments will also jumpstart the momentum for innovations and breakthroughs, which will impact not only the big players but also influence small businesses to introduce workarounds.  Also read: AI Project Ideas and Topics for Beginners Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses Natural Language Processing Techniques to Use in Python Making computers read unorganized texts and extract useful information from them is the aim of natural language processing (NLP). Many NLP approaches can be implemented using a few lines of Python code, courtesy of accessible libraries like NLTK, and spaCy. These approaches can also work great as NLP topics for presentation.  Here are some techniques of Natural Language Processing projects in Python –  Named Entity Recognition or NER – A technique called named entity recognition is used to find and categorise named entities in text into groups like people, organisations, places, expressions of times, amounts, percentages, etc. It is used to improve content classification, customer service, recommendation systems, and search engine algorithms, among other things. Analysis of Sentiment – One of the most well-known NLP approaches, sentiment analysis examines text (such as comments, reviews, or documents) to identify whether the information is good, poor, or indifferent. Numerous industries, including banking, healthcare, and customer service, can use it. BoW or Bag of Words – A format that transforms text into stationary variables is called the Bag of Words (BoW) model. This makes it easier for us to convert text to numbers to be used in machine learning. The model is simply interested in the number of terms in the text and isn’t focused on word order. It may be used for document categorisation, information retrieval, and NLP. Cleaning raw text, tokenisation, constructing a vocabulary, and creating vectors are all steps in the normal BoW approach. TF-IDF (Term Frequency – Inverse Document Frequency) – The TF-IDF calculates “weights” that describe how significant a word is in the document.  The quantity of documents that include a term reduces the TF-IDF value, which rises according to the frequency of its use in the document. Simply said, the phrase is rare, more distinctive, or more important the higher the TF-IDF score, and vice versa. It has uses in information retrieval, similar to how browsers try to yield results that are most pertinent to your request.  TF and IDF are calculated in different ways.  TF = (Number of duplicate words in a document) / (Number of words in a document) IDF = Log {(Number of documents) / (Number of documents with the word)} Wordcloud – A common method for locating keywords in a document is word clouds. In a Wordcloud, words that are used more frequently have larger, stronger fonts, while those that are used less frequently have smaller, thinner fonts. With the ‘Wordcloud’ library and the ‘stylecloud’ module, you can create simplistic Wordclouds in Python. This makes NLP projects in Python very successful.  In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses NLP Research Topics –  To ace NLP projects in Python, it is necessary to conduct thorough research. Here are some NLP research topics that will help you in your thesis and also work great as NLP topics for presentation –  Biomedical Text Mining Computer Vision and also NLP Deep Linguistic Processing Controlled Natural Language Language Resources and also Architectures for NLP Sentiment Analysis and also Opinion Mining NLP includes Artificial Intelligence Issues includes Natural language understanding and also Creation Extraction of Actionable Intelligence also from Social Media Efficient Information also Extraction Techniques Use of Rule also based Approach or Statistical Approach Topic Modelling in Web data Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau Conclusion In this article, we covered some NLP projects that will help you implement ML models with rudimentary knowledge software development. We also discussed the real-world applicability and functionality of these products. So, use these topics as reference points to hone your practical skills and propel your career and business forward!  Only by working with tools and practise can you understand how infrastructures work in reality. Now go ahead and put to test all the knowledge that you’ve gathered through our NLP projects guide to build your very own NLP projects! If you wish to improve your NLP skills, you need to get your hands on these NLP projects. If you’re interested to learn more about machine learning online course, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI which is designed for working professionals and offers 450+ hours of rigorous training, 30+ case studies & assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, 5+ practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

04 Oct 2023

15 Interesting MATLAB Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners [2023]
Learning about MATLAB can be tedious. It’s capable of performing many tasks and solving highly complex problems of different domains. If you’ve been learning about MATLAB, you’d surely want to test your skills. The best way to do so is through working on MATLAB project ideas. That’s why in this article, we’ve brought you a detailed list of the same.  We have projects of matlab for beginners a gentle approach of multiple skill levels. Whether you’re a beginner or an expert, you’d find a brain-teasing project here. What is MATLAB? MATLAB is a programming platform for scientists and engineers. It uses the MATLAB language, combining matrix and array mathematics with design processes and iterative analysis. By using MATLAB, you can create algorithms, analyze data, build models, and apply them. MATLAB’s apps, built-in functions, and language allow you to use different methods to solve a particular problem. MATLAB finds applications in many areas, including control systems, communications, machine learning, computational biology, and deep learning.  What are the Skills That You Will Acquire Through MATLAB Projects? Engaging in matlab for beginners projects offers a diverse range of skills that are valuable across various industries and fields of study. MATLAB, a powerful programming and numerical computing platform, enables individuals to tackle complex problems, conduct data analysis, and develop innovative solutions. Here are some skills you can acquire through MATLAB projects: 1. Programming Proficiency Matlab simulation projects involve writing code, which helps you develop strong programming skills. You’ll learn about variables, data structures, loops, and conditional statements, which are fundamental concepts in programming. 2. Data Analysis and Visualization It helps in excels in data analysis and visualization. Through projects, you’ll gain expertise in importing, processing, and visualizing data, which is crucial in fields like data science, finance, and engineering. 3. Algorithm Development It allows individual to develop and implement algorithms efficiently. On top of that, you’ll also learn about designing and optimizing algorithms for tasks like, image processing, signal processing, and machine learning. 4. Mathematical Modeling ML is widely used for mathematical modeling and simulations. You’ll acquire skills in creating mathematical models of real-world phenomena and simulating their behavior. 5. Image and Signal Processing MATLAB is renowned for its capabilities in image and signal processing. You’ll learn how to enhance images, analyze signals, and extract meaningful information from them. 6. Machine Learning It offers extensive tools and libraries for machine learning. Through projects, you can develop skills in building and training machine learning models for tasks like classification, regression, and clustering. 7. Numerical Optimization MATLAB is ideal for solving optimization problems. You’ll gain experience in formulating and solving optimization problems, which are valuable in engineering and operations research. 8. Simulink Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox, is used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems. You can acquire skills in system modeling and control design, which are essential in fields like robotics and control engineering. 9. Parallel and Distributed Computing MATLAB allows you to leverage parallel and distributed computing resources. Learning to distribute your computations efficiently is valuable for handling large datasets and complex simulations. 10. Problem-Solving Skills The projects often involve tackling real-world problems. You’ll develop problem-solving skills by breaking down complex challenges into manageable tasks and finding creative solutions. 11. Collaboration and Documentation Working on projects in MATLAB encourages collaboration and the documentation of your code and findings, which are essential skills for teamwork and knowledge sharing. 12. Project Management Managing and completing MATLAB projects requires organizational skills, time management, and goal setting, which are transferable to various professional settings. Why Opt for MATLAB Projects? Engaging in MATLAB projects offers several compelling reasons: 1. Practical Application MATLAB is a versatile platform used in academia and industry for solving real-world issues. Through projects, you can apply theoretical knowledge to practical scenarios, enhancing your understanding and skills. 2. Skill Development MATLAB projects cultivate a wide range of skills, including programming, data analysis, and mathematical modeling, which are highly transferable and sought after in many professions. 3. Interdisciplinary Applications MATLAB is not limited to a specific field; it’s used in diverse domains such as engineering, finance, biology, and physics. This versatility allows you to explore various areas of interest and adapt your skills to different contexts. 4. Research Opportunities MATLAB is a common tool in research. Engaging in MATLAB projects can open doors to research collaborations, enabling you to contribute to cutting-edge advancements in your field of study. 5. Career Advancement Proficiency in MATLAB can be a valuable asset on your resume, making you more attractive to employers in technical and scientific fields. 6. Problem-Solving MATLAB projects often involve complex problem-solving, honing your ability to analyze challenges, devise solutions, and make informed decisions. 7. Portfolio Building Completing MATLAB projects creates a portfolio showcasing your practical skills and problem-solving abilities, which can impress potential employers or academic institutions. 8. Personal Growth Working on projects in MATLAB fosters perseverance, creativity, and self-confidence as you overcome obstacles and see tangible results. Join the ML Courses online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career. MATLAB Project Ideas The following are some of the most exciting matlab projects with source code so that you can test your skills. Let’s get started: 1. Build a Car Parking Indicator Parking a car can be tricky. It requires precision and a lot of practice. You can use MATLAB to make things easier for the driver, however, by building a car parking indicator. You can take inspiration from various parking indicator systems.  An automated car parking indicator would alert the driver when the car is too close to an object. This way, the driver can avoid those objects and turn the vehicle accordingly. You can build a car parking indicator for private parking spaces or open spaces. Such a system can have many benefits: The driver would save time and park his/her car more efficiently. Parking spaces would also be used more efficiently. The chances of a vehicle getting damaged would decrease drastically. Your system can guide the driver to a nearby suitable parking space. You can take it a step further and add the functionality of suggesting a parking space only if it’s available. Maybe your system can determine if a car park has open slots or not, and it can indicate a parking space to the driver of the vehicle accordingly. The sensors can co-ordinate and help in guiding the driver to an open and nearby parking slot. Here’s more info on this car parking indicator project.  2. Use Artificial Neural Network for Image Encryption Privacy issues have become highly prevalent in recent years. This is one of the best matlab project ideas for mechanical engineering for you on this list if you take an interest in cybersecurity and cryptography. You can perform image encryption by taking the help of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs in short).  Image encryption can prevent unauthorized parties from viewing and accessing images. This way, your data can remain safe. In simple terms, image encryption hides its information. In image encryption, you convert the original plaintext into ciphertext (which can seem like a bunch of nonsense). You can save and transmit this ciphertext over your network, and at the receiver’s end, the ciphertext would convert into the original plaintext.  Neural Networks are machines that behave similarly to how a human brain functions. You can encrypt images on the sender’s end through one ANN and use another ANN to decrypt the image on the receiver’s end. You can use MATLAB to build a complete image encryption system that uses Artificial Neural Networks. After completing this project, you’d be familiar with cryptography as well.  3. Design and Apply an Electronic Differential System An Electronic Differential System allows vehicles to balance them better while turning or running on curved paths. Automotive manufacturers use this system in place of the mechanical differential. This system provides every driving wheel with the required torque and enables multiple wheel speeds.  In a curved path, the vehicle’s inner and outer wheels would have different rotation speeds as the inner wheels would require a smaller radius. An Electronic Differential System uses the motor speed signals and steering wheel command signal to determine the required power for every wheel, so they get the necessary torque. Must Read: Free nlp online course! It’s an advanced technology that offers many advantages, which its mechanical counterpart fails in providing. For example, the electronic differential is lighter than mechanical differential in terms of weight. The wheel with the least traction wouldn’t limit the torque as it would with a mechanic differential. These systems respond faster and offer many functionalities unavailable in the other one, such as traction control. You can use ml projects for final year to design and implement an electronic differential system. You’ll need to create an embedded system design as well for better application. Also try: 13 Exciting IoT Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners 4. Build a MATLAB Based Inspection System with Image Processing In this project, you’ll build a MATLAB-based inspection system. Machine vision is becoming an accessible technology in the manufacturing industry because of its versatility. And one of the most significant areas where machine vision can find use is in the inspection stage of product development. Quality inspection is necessary to make sure the product doesn’t have any defects.  You can use MATLAB to create an automated inspection system, and you’ll have to employ image processing. With machine vision image processing, you can perform multiple tasks at once: Counting the number of dark and light pixels Discovering blobs of joined pixels in an image Segmenting a part of an image or change the representation Recognizing patterns in an image by matching templates Reading barcode and 2D code. You can perform many other tasks with machine vision. Your automated inspection system would have to determine whether to accept the final product or reject it. It will make the manufacturing process far more efficient and effective.  Read : 5 Ways Intelligent Automation Helps Your Business Grow 5. Perform Image Encryption and Verification with Chaotic Maps The project is a little different from the one we’ve discussed previously. In this project, you’ll use chaotic maps to encrypt images on the block and steam levels. There is n number of chaotic maps present that generate keys for encryption, so there would be n number of equations involved. Every equation can have n number of constants.  All of these constants would have specific values (random numbers). You can use a neural network to produce a particular series of numbers for image encryption. For image authentication, you’d have to create a simple algorithm to ensure that the sender and receivers are the right people.  Chaos maps would make the encryption secure through substituting the image with the cover image and encrypting the former n times. Such secure encryption would ensure that your end product remains free from brute force attacks and differential attacks.  Also try: Python Project Ideas and Topics 6. Measure an Object’s Diameter in an Image by using MATLAB Computer vision is a prominent field of study. It finds applications in many areas due to its unique utility. You can use MATLAB to measure an object’s diameter in an image.  This application can find uses in many areas where you can’t find the diameter of an object physically. For example, suppose you need to measure the size of a building. In this case, the physical measurement would be nearly impossible, so you’ll need to use computer vision. Your MATLAB script should first import the image, separate the required object from the background, and in the end, use MATLAB functions to find the object’s diameter. While this project might seem quite simple, it will help you showcase your image processing skills while also highlighting your knowledge of multiple MATLAB functions. Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses 7. Use MATLAB to Automate Certificate Generation This project is also among the beginner-level MATLAB project ideas. In this project, you’ll create an automated certificate generator by using MATLAB. Many institutions certify companies according to their performance and achievements. Educational institutions also generate report cards and certificates for their students. You can create an automated certificate generator, which will make this process efficient and straightforward.  This project idea might seem too simple, but you can make it complicated by adding the functionality of generating detailed reports for large datasets.  8. Create Light Animations with MATLAB and Arduino This is one of the beginner level MATLAB projects on our list. In this project, you’ll use MATLAB and Arduino to create a graphical user interface to control the lighting patterns of multiple lights. By controlling their lighting pattern, you can create various light animations. Using a GUI will allow you to perform many other tasks while running the animation.  We recommend using Arduino Uno for this project. It’d be the hardware of this project, and the software would be the Arduino IDE. You can connect the Arduino Uno board with the required lights. After you’ve connected Arduino Uno with MATLAB, you’ll be able to create simple light animations with the same.  It’s an easy project, but it’ll surely help you explore real-life MATLAB applications and help you realize its versatility. After you’ve made simple light animations, you can take this project a step further and add more lights to create more complex animations.  9. Log Sensor Data in MS Excel This project requires you to use Arduino Uno with MATLAB to log sensor data in MS Excel. You can add LM35 (a temperature sensor) to your Arduino interface, which would connect to MATLAB through ArduinoIO.  Once you’ve connected Arduino with MATLAB, you’ll need to create a program that transmits the sensor’s data into an Excel sheet. You’ll need to have MS Excel installed on your PC to complete this project. Once you’ve finished this project, you’d have a graphic user interface that allows you to see the logs of the sensor data. To take it a step further, you can add more sensors and log their data into the same excel file (or in multiple different files). This project will give you plenty of experience in using GUI with MATLAB.  10. Simulate an Artificial Neural Network Artificial Neural Networks are machines that imitate the functioning of a human brain. Their purpose is to mimic the behavior of a mind and act accordingly. In this project, you can simulate an ANN by creating models and training them.  Before you work on this project, you should be familiar with the basic concepts of artificial intelligence and machine learning. You’ll first need to create a data model that takes particular input and generates a particular output. First, you’ll need to train the model by giving it a list of inputs and outputs. Once you’ve prepared the model, you’d give the model a data list with no outputs.  After completing this project, you’d be familiar with artificial intelligence, machine learning, and relevant technologies.  11. Analyze and Design an Antenna While everything is becoming wireless, their connectivity relies largely on antennas. An antenna’s design can have a significant impact on its connection, power consumption, and data retention capabilities. The design should make the antenna compact while allowing it to have a substantial beam width to perform information transmission without any loss.  It’s an excellent project for anyone interested in electronics and communications. You should be familiar with the workings of antennas before you work on this project, however. For example, you should know about the ideal antenna pattern and how a real antenna works. You should also be familiar with the Yagi-Uda antenna, which is the most common TV antenna you see on rooftops. You can estimate (approximately) the operating frequency of such an antenna by viewing its length. You can build a MATLAB program that can perform such estimation with high accuracy and give you the required results.  12. Build a Circuit Design Calculator To build a circuit, you must calculate the component values by using the circuit theory and its formulae. Circuit theory is among the oldest and essential branches of electrical engineering. And its calculations take a lot of time and effort. You can create a MATLAB program that can perform those calculations and help an engineer design a better circuit. Not only will such a system save the user a lot of time, but it will also enhance the accuracy of circuit analysis by minimizing human error.  Your program can analyze and figure out circuit design with inductors, transistors, diodes, capacitors, and other critical components. The program can design highly complex circuits and solve problems accordingly.  In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses 13. Compress Images without Loss Modern cameras have become capable of taking highly detailed images. But an increase in an image’s level of detail also leads to a rise in its size. That’s why image compression technologies have become prevalent. You can use MATLAB to perform image compression as well.  In this project, you would aim to compress an image without compromising its quality. In other words, you’ll have to perform lossless image compression. To do so, you can use the discrete cosine transform algorithm. To find out how much loss took place while compressing the image, you can derive the mean-square error (also known as MSE) of your process. To implement these algorithms in MATLAB, you’ll have to use the required functions.  Also Read: Machine Learning Project Ideas 14. Perform Real-Time Face Detection with MATLAB Face detection can find applications in many areas. You can use face detection capabilities for image enhancement, security, as well as surveillance. While it’s quite natural for us humans to detect faces, we can’t say the same about computers. A simple change in lighting can cause various intra-class variations, that’s why it’s a complicated issue for machines.  You can build a MATLAB-based face detection system, and you can use the Viola-Jones algorithm. There are many other facial recognition algorithms, but we have chosen the viola-jones algorithm for this project.  It first creates a detector object, then takes the primary image, finds the necessary features, and annotates them. This project will give you experience working with facial recognition technology, which has gained popularity in many fields.  Know more: TensorFlow Object Detection Tutorial For Beginners 15. Build Laser Guidance for a Vehicle In this project, you’d develop a program that can use lasers to inform the vehicle of upcoming road conditions. This technology can be really helpful for harsh terrains (such as snowy roads, dirt roads, etc.). You’d need to develop an algorithm in MATLAB that converts the scan sequences into readable data so the user can see what kind of terrain is up ahead. This way, the driver can prepare him or herself accordingly and drive safely. An autonomous vehicle can use this technology, as well.  This project will help you get familiar with the application of MATLAB in automotive engineering. It’ll also help you understand how autonomous vehicles work. You can learn more about this project here.  Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau   Learn More About MATLAB We hope you liked our list of MATLAB project ideas. We’ve kept it as accessible as possible. You can bookmark it for future reference. This list would’ve also shown how versatile and powerful this technology is. From electronics to AI, you can use it in various industries for multiple applications. If you’re interested to learn more about MATLAB, machine learning, and its relevant topics, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI which is designed for working professionals and offers 450+ hours of rigorous training, 30+ case studies & assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, 5+ practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms. You’ll find plenty of valuable resources to answer your questions. Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to ₹70,000/- You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

03 Oct 2023

Top 16 Artificial Intelligence Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners [2023]
Summary: In this article, you will learn the 16 AI project ideas & Topics. Take a glimpse below. Predict Housing Price Enron Investigation Stock Price Prediction Customer Recommendation Chatbots Voice-based Virtual Assistant for Windows Facial Emotion Recognition and Detection Online Assignment Plagiarism Checker Personality Prediction System via CV Analysis Heart Disease Prediction Project Banking Bot Differentiate the music genre from an audio file Image reconstruction by using an occluded scene Identify human emotions through pictures Summarize articles written in technical text Filter the content and identify spam Read the full article to know more about all the AI based projects for final year in detail. Only learning theory is not enough. That’s why everyone encourages students to try artificial intelligence projects and complete them. From following the artificial intelligence trends to getting their hands dirty on projects. So, if you are a beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time Artificial Intelligence project ideas. We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Artificial Intelligence project ideas which beginners can work on to put their Python knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 16 top Artificial Intelligence project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on AI. You may often catch yourself talking to or asking a question to Siri or Alexa, right? Self-driving cars are no longer something you dreamed of or watched in a sci-fi, either, is it? So, how are machines acting and doing things that we thought only humans could? The simple answer is artificial intelligence or AI. For decades scientists have worked on making AI possible. And today, we have reached a point where we have access to them in our daily lives. It doesn’t matter whether you are navigating the streets with the help of your AI-enabled navigation system or asking for movie recommendations from the comforts of your home- AI has touched all our lives.  If you read the reports on the future of jobs or the digital transformations today, you will come across several interesting topics in artificial intelligence. Conversations revolving around artificial intelligence topics, such as its impact on our work and life, have become a mainstay in the mainstream media.  According to data, the global AI market has been valued at US$ 51.08 billion. This number is expected to rise to US$ 641.30 billion by 2028. In fact, the pandemic has been driving investment in AI, with 86% of organizations saying that they have or will invest in AI initiatives. Experts have even predicted that AI-related jobs will increase by 31.4% by 2030. With such an optimistic outlook, it is not surprising that many are turning to artificial intelligence and machine learning for their future. The career prospects are immense in this field, and exposing yourself to the practical dimensions of artificial intelligence topics is very important.  Also, Check out our free courses These projects will help you in advancing your skills as an expert while testing your current knowledge at the same time. You can use artificial intelligence in multiple sectors. The more you experiment with different Artificial Intelligence project ideas, the more knowledge you gain. In this article, we’ll be discussing some of the most exciting artificial intelligence project ideas for beginners: As beginners, choosing among these AI topics and research ideas for your project may seem daunting.  After all, artificial intelligence topics are very new, and you will read about many interesting topics in artificial intelligence. Reading about the fundamentals of these AI topics is very important, but you have to gain practical know-how to grow in the field.  You can also consider doing our Python Bootcamp course from upGrad to upskill your career. What are Artificial Intelligence Projects? Artificial Intelligence (AI) projects are initiatives or endeavors that involve applying AI techniques, technologies, and methodologies to solve specific problems or create innovative solutions. These projects leverage the capabilities of AI, such as machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and more, to automate tasks, make predictions, analyze data, and mimic human-like intelligence. AI projects vary widely in scope and complexity, ranging from small-scale experimental prototypes to large-scale, enterprise-level systems. They can be applied across various domains and industries, including healthcare, finance, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and more. Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses Why you should do AI-Based Projects There are many benefits to doing AI projects for students. This topic is extensive and diverse. Moreover, it requires you to have a considerable amount of technical knowledge. Doing AI-based projects can help you in multiple ways. Here are the main reasons why: Learning Experience You get hands-on experience with these projects. You get to try out new stuff and understand how everything works. If you want to learn the real-life application of artificial intelligence, then it’s the best way to do so. Artificial Intelligence projects cover numerous industries and domains. And unless you complete them yourself, you won’t know what challenges they give. By completing these projects, you will become more proficient with AI as well. Also, check Full Stack Development Bootcamp Job Guaranteed from upGrad You will need to acquaint yourself with new tools and technologies while working on a python project. The more you learn about cutting-edge development tools, environments, libraries, the broader will be your scope for experimentation with your projects. The more you experiment with different AI project ideas, the more knowledge you gain. Must Read: Free deep learning course! Portfolio After learning AI, you’d surely want to get a job in this field. But how will you showcase your talent? AI projects can help you in that regard too. They help you show your skills to the recruiters. Each project poses a different challenge, and you can mention them while describing the project. Apart from that, it also shows that you have experience in applying your AI knowledge in the real-world. There’s a considerable difference between theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge. The artificial intelligence projects for students you would’ve completed will enhance your portfolio. Also visit upGrad’s Degree Counselling page for all undergraduate and postgraduate programs. See your Progress You can find out how much of an AI expert you have become only by completing such projects. These projects require you to use your knowledge of artificial intelligence and its tools in creative ways. If you want to see how much progress you’ve made as an artificial intelligence expert, you should test your knowledge with these unique and interesting projects. What are the best Platforms to Work on AI Projects? 1. TensorFlow Introduced by Google, TensorFlow is one of the open-source library for both machine learning and in-depth learning projects. Delivers a flexible ecosystem for creating and training various AI models, including neural networks. Provides tools for beginners and experts and support for deployment on various platforms. 2. PyTorch Backed by Facebook’s Artificial Intelligence Research lab it is another famous and most used open-source framework. Known for its dynamic computation graph, making it more intuitive for research and experimentation. Offers a strong community and extensive documentation, suitable for a wide range of AI projects. 3. Keras Keras is a another highly advanced neural networks API that works on top of various AI platforms like, TensorFlow, Theano, or Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit (CNTK). Ideal for rapid prototyping due to its easily navigational interface and ease of use. Enables quick experimentation with neural network architectures. 4. Scikit-learn A versatile open-source machine learning library that provides simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis. Well-suited for classical machine learning algorithms, including classification, regression, clustering, and more. Integrates well with other scientific Python libraries. 5. Microsoft Azure ML Microsoft’s cloud-based machine learning platform offers tools for building, training, and deploying AI models. Provides a drag-and-drop interface for beginners and advanced capabilities for data scientists. Offers integration with other Azure services for seamless deployment. 6. Google Cloud AI Platform This platform supports end-to-end AI model development as part of the Google Cloud ecosystem. Provides managed services for training and deploying machine learning models at scale. Offers integration with TensorFlow and scikit-learn. 7. Amazon SageMaker Amazon’s machine learning platform simplifies the process of building, training, and deploying models. Supports various popular frameworks and algorithms, along with tools for data preprocessing. Seamlessly integrates with Amazon Web Services (AWS) for scalable deployment. 8. IBM Watson IBM’s AI platform offers tools and services for building and deploying AI applications. Supports natural language processing, computer vision, and data analytics. Provides APIs for incorporating AI capabilities into applications. 9. offers an open-source platform for scalable machine learning and deep learning. Suitable for data scientists and engineers to develop AI models with a focus on scalability and performance. Provides automated machine learning (AutoML) features for streamlined model building. 10. FastAI FastAI is a deep learning library that simplifies training high-quality models. Offers pre-built architectures and techniques for tasks like image classification and natural language processing. Designed to make deep learning more accessible and practical for beginners. These platforms offer a range of tools and services to cater to different skill levels and project requirements. Your choice of platform should depend on factors like your familiarity with the tools, the complexity of your project, and any specific integration needs with other technologies or services. So, here are a few Artificial Intelligence Project ideas which beginners can work on: Artificial Intelligence Project Ideas – Basic & Intermediate Level This list of simple AI projects ideas for students is suited for beginners, and those just starting out with AI. These AI project ideas will get you going with all the practicalities you need to succeed in your career as a AI Engineer. Further, if you’re looking for Artificial Intelligence project ideas for final year, this list should get you going. So, without further ado, let’s jump straight into some Artificial Intelligence project ideas that will strengthen your base and allow you to climb up the ladder. Finding artificial intelligence project ideas for students can be tricky. That’s why we have assorted the following list of the same: 1. Predict Housing Price Just getting into our first Artificial Intelligence Project Ideas. In this project, you will have to predict the selling price of a new home in Boston. The dataset of this project contains the prices of houses in different areas of the city. You can get the datasets for this project at the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Apart from the prices of various homes, you will get additional datasets containing the age of the residents, the crime rate in the city, and locations of non-retail businesses. For beginners, it’s a great project to test your knowledge.  Join the Artificial Intelligence Course online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career. 2. Enron Investigation Enron was one of the biggest energy companies at a time in the US, but it collapsed in 2000 because of a significant allegation of fraud. It was a massive scandal in American history. Enron might have gone, but its database hasn’t. The database we’re talking about is its email database, which has around 500,000 emails between its former employees and executives. All the emails in the database are real, so this project gets more interesting. You can use this database for social network analysis (building graph models to find influencers) or anomaly detection (find abnormal behavior by mapping the distribution of sent emails). This is one of the popular AI projects.  This project is quite popular among data scientists, so don’t hesitate to ask a question in the community. You can get the data for this project here. 3. Stock Price Prediction This is one of the excellent Artificial Intelligence project ideas for beginners. ML experts love the share market. And that’s because it’s filled with data. You can get different kinds of data sets and start working on a project right away. Students who are planning to work in the finance sector would love this project as it can help them get a great insight into different sections of the same. The feedback cycles of the stock market are also short, so it helps in validating your predictions. You can try to predict 6-month price movements of a stock by using the data you get from the organization’s provided reports in this AI project.  In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses 4. Customer Recommendation E-commerce has benefitted dramatically from AI. The finest example is Amazon and its customer recommendation system. This customer recommendation system has helped the platform in enhancing its income tremendously thanks to better customer experience. You can try to build a customer recommendation system for an E-commerce platform, as well. You can use the browsing history of the customer for your data. 5. Chatbots One of the best AI-based projects is to create a chatbot. You should start by creating a basic chatbot for customer service. You can take inspiration from the chatbots present on various websites. Once you’ve created a simple chatbot, you can improve it and create a more detailed version of the same. You can then switch up the niche of the chatbot and enhance its functions. There are many new chatbots you can create using AI. Click to learn more if you are interested to learn about creating chatbot in python.  Artificial IntelligenceProject Ideas – Advanced Level 6. Voice-based Virtual Assistant for Windows This is one of the interesting Artificial Intelligence project ideas. Voice-based personal assistants are handy tools for simplifying everyday tasks. For instance, you can use virtual voice assistants to search for items/services on the Web, to shop for products for you, to write notes and set reminders, and so much more.  This voice-based virtual assistant is specially designed for Windows. A Windows user can use this assistant to open any application (Notepad, File Explorer, Google Chrome, etc.) they want by using voice command – “open.” You can also write important messages using the “write” voice command. Similarly, the voice command for searching the Web is “search.” The NLP trained assistant is trained to understand natural human language, so it will hear the speech and save the command in the database. It will identify a user’s intent from the spoken word and perform the actions accordingly. It can convert text to speech as well.  7. Facial Emotion Recognition and Detection This is one of the trending artificial intelligence project ideas. This project seeks to expand on a pioneering modern application of Deep Learning – facial emotion recognition. Although facial emotion recognition has long been the subject of research and study, it is only now that we are witnessing tangible results of that analysis.  The Deep Learning facial emotion detection and recognition system are designed to identify and interpret human facial expressions. It can detect the core human emotions in real-time, including happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprise, disgust, and neutral. First, the automatic facial expression recognition system will detect the facial expressions from a cluttered scene to perform facial feature extraction and facial expression classification. Then, it will enforce a Convolution Neural Network (CNN) for training a dataset (FER2013). This dataset contains seven facial features – happy, sad, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and neutral. The unique aspect of this facial emotion detection and recognition system is that it can monitor human emotions, discriminate between good and bad emotions, and label them appropriately. It can also use the tagged emotion information to identify the thinking patterns and behavior of a person. 8. Online Assignment Plagiarism Checker This is one of the needed AI projects of the hour. Plagiarism is a serious issue that needs to be controlled and monitored. It refers to the act of blindly copying someone else’s work and presenting it as your unique work. Plagiarism is done by paraphrasing sentences, using similar keywords, changing the form of sentences, and so on. In this sense, plagiarism is like theft of intellectual property.  In this project, you will develop a plagiarism detector that can detect the similarities in copies of text and detect the percentage of plagiarism. This plagiarism detector used the text mining method. In this software, users can register by login by creating a valid login id and password. So, you can log in using your unique ID and password and upload your assignment file. After the upload is complete, the file will be divided into content and reference link. The checker will then process the full content, check grammatical errors, visit each reference link, and scan the content of all the links to find matches with your content. Users can also store their files and view them later.  9. Personality Prediction System via CV Analysis This is one of the interesting Artificial Intelligence project ideas. It is a challenging task to shortlisting deserving candidates from a massive pile of CVs. What if there’s a software that can interpret the personality of a candidate by analyzing their CV? This will make the selection process much more manageable. This project aims to create advanced software that can provide a legally justified and fair CV ranking system.  The system will work something like this – candidates will register in the system by entering all the relevant details and upload their CV. They will also take an online test that focuses on personality traits and a candidate’s aptitude. Candidates can also view their test results.  First, the system will rank candidates based on their skills and experience for a particular job profile. It will also consider all other crucial aspects, like soft skills, interests, professional certifications, etc. This will eliminate all the unsuitable candidates for a job role and create a list of the most suitable candidates for the same. Together with the online personality test and CV analysis, the system will create a comprehensive picture of the candidates, simplifying the HR department’s job.  10. Heart Disease Prediction Project This project is beneficial from the medical perspective since it is designed to provide online medical consultation and guidance to patients suffering from heart diseases. Patients often complain that they cannot find good doctors to support their medical needs, which further aggravates their situation. This heart disease prediction application will help combat the issue.  The proposed online application will allow patients (users) to get instant access to the consultation and services of certified medical professionals on matters related to heart diseases. The application will be trained and fed with the details of a wide range of different heart diseases. Users can share and mention their heart-related issues on the online portal. The system will then process that information to check the database for various possible illnesses associated with those specific details. This intelligent system uses data mining techniques to guess the most accurate disease that could be associated with the details provided by a patient. Users can then consult specialist doctors based on the diagnosis of the system. The system allows users to view the details of different doctors as well.  11. Banking Bot  This is one of the excellent Artificial Intelligence project ideas for beginners. This AI project involves building a banking bot that uses artificial intelligence algorithms that analyze user queries to understand their message and accordingly perform the appropriate action. It is a specially designed application for banks where users can ask for bank-related questions like account, loan, credit cards, etc. If you are looking for a good AI projects to add to your resume, this is the one.  The banking bot is an Android application. Like a chatbot, it is trained to process the users’ queries/requests and understand what services or information they are looking for. The bot will communicate with users like another human being. So, no matter how you ask a question, the bot can answer it and, if required, even escalate issues to human executives.  Artificial Intelligence Project Ideas – Additional Topics When you complete the projects mentioned above, you can start working on some of the other topics for AI projects mentioned below: 12. Differentiate the music genre from an audio file 13. Image reconstruction by using an occluded scene 14. Identify human emotions through pictures 15. Summarize articles written in technical text 16. Filter the content and identify spam Wrapping up: Learn AI the Smart Way In this article, we have covered 16 Artificial Intelligence project ideas. We started with some beginner projects which you can solve with ease. Once you finish with these simple projects, I suggest you go back, learn a few more concepts and then try the intermediate projects. When you feel confident, you can then tackle the advanced projects. If you wish to improve your AI skills, you need to get your hands on these Artificial Intelligence project ideas. As our lives (both personal and work) become deeply tied with artificial intelligence and machine learning, we have to account for its importance. To sustain and grow in your professional lives, you must familiarize yourself with artificial intelligence topics or AI topics.  Practical knowledge will help you in the future. So, when you come across interesting topics in artificial intelligence, why don’t you bet on yourself and take up the challenge of working on a project idea? The abundance of artificial intelligence topics may be confusing. But we are here to help. You can also check IIT Delhi’s Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI in association with upGrad. IIT Delhi is one of the most prestigious institutions in India. With more the 500+ In-house faculty members which are the best in the subject matters. Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau Learning AI can be quite easy if you have the right guidance, mindset, and study material. We’re sure that these projects will help you in enhancing your expertise in artificial intelligence. And by looking at the variety of projects present, you must’ve figured out how powerful AI is. Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to ₹70,000/- You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

27 Sep 2023

Top 15 Deep Learning Interview Questions & Answers
Although still evolving, Deep Learning has emerged as a breakthrough technology in the field of Data Science. From Google’s DeepMind to self-driving cars, Deep Learning innovations have left the whole world in awe. Companies and organizations around the globe are adopting Deep Learning tech to enhance business possibilities. The result – demand for skilled professionals in Deep Learning and Machine Learning is increasing at an unprecedented pace. In fact, Data Science is so hot in the market right now, that if you can build a career in Data Science, you are good to go! Read on to know more about What is cnn, deep learning, and neural network. Additionally, discover deep learning interview questions to excel in your interview. As you know, to land a successful job in Deep Learning, you must first nail the interview – one of the toughest challenges in the job-hunting process.  Hence, we’ve decided to make it a little easier for you to get a headstart and compiled a list of ten most commonly asked Deep Learning interview questions! Enrol for the Machine Learning Course from the World’s top Universities. Earn Masters, Executive PGP, or Advanced Certificate Programs to fast-track your career. Top 15 Deep Learning Interview Questions and Answers What is Deep Learning? Deep Learning is the subset of Machine Learning that uses Artificial Neural Nets to allow machines to simulate decision making like humans. Neural Nets are inspired by the neuron structure of the human brain. Deep Learning has found numerous applications in areas like feature detection, computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing. What is Perceptron? To understand this, you must first understand how a biological neuron works. A neuron consists of a cell body, an axon, and dendrites.  While dendrites receive signals from other neurons, the cell body sums up all the inputs received, and the axon transmits the information compiled by the cell body as signals to other cells.  Just like this, Perceptron in a neural net receives multiple inputs, applies various transformations and functions to those inputs, and finally combines the information to produce an output. It is a linear model used for binary classification.  What is the function of Weights and Bias? To activate a node within a neural network, we have to use the following formula: output = activation_function(dot_product(weights, inputs)+ bias) Here, weights determine the slope of the classifier line, whereas bias enables the activation function to shift the slope either to the left or right. Generally, bias is treated as a weight input having the value x0. What is the role of an Activation Function? An activation function is used to interject non-linearity into a neural network to help it learn complex tasks. It triggers or activates a neuron by calculating the sum of the weights and adding further bias to it. Without an activation function, a neural network will only be able to perform a linear function, that is, the linear combination of its input data. What is Gradient Descent? Gradient Descent is an optimization algorithm that is used to minimize the cost function of a particular parameter by continually moving in the direction of steepest descent as determined by the negative of the gradient. What is a Cost Function? A cost function (also referred to as “loss”) is a measure of the accuracy of the neural network in relation to a specific training sample and expected output. It determines how well a neural network performs as a whole. With neural networks, the goal always remains the same – to minimize the cost function or errors.  What is Backpropagation? Backpropagation is a training algorithm used in multilayer neural networks to enhance the performance of the network. The method requires to move the error from one end of the network to all the weights contained inside the network, thereby facilitating efficient computation of the gradient and minimizing the error. Here’s how it works: First, the training data is moved forward propagation to produce the output. Use the target value and output value to calculate the error derivative in relation to the output activation. Backpropagate the data for all the hidden layers and update the parameters (weights and biases). Continue this until the error is reduced to a minimum. Now you can feed inputs into your model, and it can predict outputs more accurately. What is Data Normalization? Why is it important? Data normalization is a preprocessing step during backpropagation. It aims to eliminate or minimize data redundancy. Data normalization helps rescale values to fit within a specific range to obtain better convergence for backpropagation – the mean of each data point is subtracted and divided by its standard deviation. How do you initialize weights in a neural network? Basically, there are two ways for weight initialization –  Initialize the weights to zero (0): By doing this, your model becomes just like a linear model, which means that all the neurons and all the layers will perform the same function, thereby hampering the productivity of the deep net. Initialize the weights randomly: In this method, you assigning the weights randomly by initializing them very close to 0. Since different neurons perform different computations, this method ensures better accuracy. What are Hyperparameters? Hyperparameters are variables whose values are set before the training process. They determine both the structure of a network and how it should be trained.  There are many hyperparameters used in neural networks like Activation Function, Learning Rate, Number of Hidden Layers, Network Weight Initialization, Batch Size, and Momentum, to name a few. Here are some cnn interview questions: What is a CNN? What are its different layers? CNN or Convolutional Neural Network is a kind of deep neural networks primarily used for analyzing visual representations. These networks use a host of multilayer perceptrons that require minimal preprocessing. While neural networks use a vector as an input, in a CNN, the input is multi-channeled images.  The different layers of CNN are as follows: Convolutional Layer – This layer performs a convolutional operation to create many smaller picture windows to parse the data. ReLU Layer – This layer introduces non-linearity to the network. It changes all the negative pixels to zero. Pooling Layer – This layer performs a down-sampling operation to reduce the dimensionality of each feature map. Fully Connected Layer – This layer recognizes and classifies all the objects present in the sample image. What Is CNN Pooling, and How Does It Operate? Pooling is used to scale down a CNN’s spatial dimensions. The dimensionality is decreased by down-sampling processes, and a pooled feature map is produced by overlaying a filter matrix over the input matrix. What does CNN mean when it refers to valid padding and the same padding? When padding is not necessary, it is utilised as valid padding. After convolution, the output matrix will be (n – f + 1) X (n – f + 1).  The same padding is used here, covering the output matrix in padding elements. It will have similarities with the input matrix’s dimensions. Here are some neural network interview questions: What is a Neural Network? Neural networks are simplified versions of our brain’s neurons, that simulate how people learn. Three network layers make up the most popular neural networks: A base layer A hidden layer (the most crucial layer where feature extraction occurs and modifications are made to train more quickly and perform better) A layer of output There are “nodes,” or neurons, on each sheet that carry out different functions. Deep learning algorithms like CNN, RNN, GAN, and others employ neural networks. What benefits do neural networks offer? These are some benefits of neural networks: Neural networks are quite flexible and may be applied to much more complicated challenges as well as classification and regression issues.  Additionally, neural networks are very scalable. Any number of layers, each with a unique set of neurons, is possible. It has been demonstrated that neural networks produce the greatest results when there are a lot of data points. With non-linear data, including pictures, text, and other types, they work well. Any information that may be converted into a numerical value can be subject to their use. Once taught, neural network modes produce results quite quickly. They save time as a result. What is the meaning of the term weight initialization in neural networks? Weight initialization is one of the key components of neural networking. A network can not evolve if the initialization of the weights is poor. A good weight initialization, on the other hand, contributes to faster convergence and a lower total error. Biases may be started out from zero. The weights should generally be set so that they are near zero but not too low. So, that’s 15 fundamental Deep Learning questions your interviewer will probably ask you during your DL interview. You must prepare the above interview questions on deep learning properly to excel in your interview. However, just reading up on interview questions isn’t enough to crack a job interview – you must possess in-depth knowledge of the field. The best course of action would be to sign up for a Deep Learning and Machine Learning certification program. These programs are designed to teach you the a-z of both ML and DL.
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by Prashant Kathuria

21 Sep 2023

Top 8 Exciting AWS Projects & Ideas For Beginners [2023]
AWS Projects & Topics Looking for AWS project ideas? Then you’ve come to the right place because, in this article, we’ve shared multiple AWS projects. The projects are of various sectors and skill-levels so you can choose according to your expertise and interests. The more projects you have in your portfolio, the better. Companies are always on the lookout for skilled AWS Developers who can develop innovative AWS projects. So, if you are a beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some top AWS projects. We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting AWS projects which beginners can work on to put their knowledge to test. In this article, you will find top AWS projects for beginners to get hands-on experience on Java. Amid the cut-throat competition, aspiring AWS Developers must have hands-on experience with real-world AWS projects. In fact, this is one of the primary recruitment criteria for most employers today. As you start working on AWS projects, you will not only be able to test your strengths and weaknesses, but you will also gain exposure that can be immensely helpful to boost your career. What is AWS?  AWS stands for Amazon Web Service, which is among the most popular cloud platforms. AWS provides developers and organizations with cloud services and helps them stay agile. From multi-million startups to government agencies, many organizations are using AWS. If you want to become a cloud-computing professional, you should learn about AWS. AWS provides a variety of services to its clients. By elevating e-commerce beyond the norms of software development, AWS has completely changed the way business is done online. Fast-paced business and service delivery from remote places are made possible by AWS, which uses cutting-edge technology to create a strong community of customers and service partners. Whether you’re a BI expert or a web developer, being familiar with AWS will enhance your resume nonetheless. It is the leading cloud platform in the world, and the demand for its experts is evergreen.  AWS Projects’ Applications The applications of projects on AWS span a wide spectrum, catering to basic and advanced needs. AWS real time projects can be swiftly developed and deployed, serving cloud computing professionals in creating projects ranging from fundamental to enterprise-level applications. An illustrative instance is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which facilitates the rental of virtual computing resources for seamless application execution. Complementing this is AWS Lambda, a fundamental service for serverless computing, where code execution becomes effortless, free from concerns about service management or intricate cluster scaling.  The allure of AWS Lambda projects lies in their administration-free nature. Moreover, as one of the burgeoning technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT) finds fertile ground in AWS resources, offering an array of possibilities in AWS IoT projects. AWS boasts remarkable versatility, granting the liberty to handpick operating systems, databases, and supplementary services. This virtual environment empowers the incorporation of services and software tailored to match application requisites. The transition from a pre-existing platform to an AWS-based solution is equally straightforward, accompanied by the added attributes of security, dependability, and user-friendliness inherent to AWS projects for beginners and applications. Consequently, these ventures find relevance in academic pursuits and professional pathways. Students can engage with these AWS mini project concepts to enrich their resumes, spotlighting their adeptness in cloud computing to potential recruiters and securing coveted job roles. Furthermore, AWS projects for students’ seamless infrastructure facilitate the creation of intricate projects catering to the demands of industrial and business domains. Importance of AWS Projects As per a 2018 Accenture survey, Amazon Web Services stands out as the platform with the most forward-looking perspective, a sentiment shared by developers. The survey participants also bestowed high marks on AWS for its developer-friendly nature. Several defining characteristics underline AWS’s significance: AWS Auto Scaling This functionality empowers developers to adjust resources in response to shifting demands dynamically. Pay-as-You-Go Model The budget-friendly pay-as-you-go approach ensures cost-effectiveness, aligning payment with the services used. Immediate Service Provisioning AWS promptly delivers services upon demand, seamlessly deploying additional servers without perceptible delays. These attributes collectively highlight why AWS is highly regarded and essential in technology. AWS and Website Development This project aims to craft a remarkably secure and dependable website using AWS Lightsail as a virtual private server (VPS). Through this endeavor, you will gain hands-on experience in AWS by constructing a website intrinsically linked to a database. The site creation process is streamlined by leveraging AWS EC2 and Lambda services, which furnish SSD-based storage alongside an array of web development capabilities preconfigured within Lightsail’s virtual private server environment. Generating Alexa Functionalities  This project aims to create a functional replica of Amazon Alexa, complete with its diverse set of skills. This will be achieved using AWS Lambda, incorporating custom Alexa skill sets directly within the AWS Console. The handler function within AWS Lambda will be invoked, and you can also opt to employ the built-in Alexa Handler function, supplemented with personalized logic to execute the handler function. Furthermore, this project provides the opportunity to harness external third-party functions hosted beyond the Alexa ecosystem. With these enhancements, tasks like playing music or setting reminders can be seamlessly accomplished, empowering users to issue specific commands for the execution of designated tasks. Engaging with AWS real time project examples and AWS cloud projects facilitates familiarity with cloud technologies. It acquaints you with cutting-edge concepts like Artificial Intelligence and Big Data, which play pivotal roles in numerous project endeavors. As you delve into these projects, you’ll garner enhanced analytical, problem-solving, and risk mitigation skills through hands-on engagement, further enriching your expertise in AWS projects. Why You Should Work on AWS Projects The best way to showcase your knowledge of a particular skill or topic is through projects. Projects can help the other person see that you have used the required technology in the past. When you work on projects, you get to discover your weak areas too. You can work on AWS projects for resume strengthening. If you are new to AWS, then most of the online repositories contain AWS projects for beginners with source code. You can use  AWS projects with source code such as python AWS projects online to get a better understanding of what we’re proceeding with. Let’s start looking for AWS projects to build your very own AWS projects! So, here are a few AWS Projects which beginners can work on: Top AWS Projects This list of AWS projects for students is suited for beginners, intermediates & experts. These AWS projects will get you going with all the practicalities you need to succeed in your career. You will find most of these AWS projects with source code online. Further, if you’re looking for AWS projects for final year, this list should get you going. So, without further ado, let’s jump straight into some AWS projects that will strengthen your base and allow you to climb up the ladder. Here are some AWS project ideas that should help you take a step forward in the right direction. 1. Deploy a Windows Virtual Machine One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on AWS projects for students is working on deploying a windows virtual machine. Virtual machines are emulations of computer systems. The more sophisticated definition says that a virtual machine is a product abstracted resources of a physical device. They are isolated environments within the system, which means they operate independently of other virtual machines present within the same network. This is one of the most suitable AWS projects for beginners with source code available on online repositories. Virtual machines find applications in many areas. They are useful in enhancing the efficiency of an operation. You can deploy a Windows virtual machine through AWS and learn how one works. Getting familiar with VMs will help you in becoming a proficient engineer and is quite a necessary skill.  To deploy a Windows VM in AWS, you can use Amazon Lightsail, simplifying this task considerably. Amazon Lightsail is a cloud platform that provides you with the required resources to build a website or application. Its UI is straightforward to learn, and completing this project will make you familiar with this software.  Must Read: Free deep learning course! After you have created the VM, you can use Lightsail to connect with an RDP client.  2. Create a Website on AWS One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on AWS projects for students is creating a website. This is among the most straightforward AWS project ideas on this list. Here, you have to create a website by using the AWS cloud platform. You can use Amazon Lightsail in this project to simplify things. As a virtual private server (VPS) provider, Amazon Lightsail offers developers and other users, a simple entry point into AWS for the purpose of creating and hosting applications in the cloud. Lightsail offers SSD-based storage, and its interface is easy to learn. As a beginner, you wouldn’t have any difficulty using this solution to build your website.  We recommend Amazon Lightsail in this project because it comes pre-configured with many popular web development solutions such as Joomla and WordPress. We recommend you build a WordPress website because it’s the most popular CMS out there. You should start by creating a blog. WordPress requires a web server as part of an Internet hosting service to act as a network host. On the other hand, if you have worked with websites before, you can build an eCommerce site or a portfolio site.  Must Read: Cloud Computing Project Ideas 3. Launch a Serverless Web App It might be one of the advanced AWS projects in this list; however, once you’ve completed it, you’d be familiar with many concepts of AWS and its services. Here are the technologies we’ll use in this project along with their purpose: AWS Amplify – For front-end of the web app and hosting the HTML, CSS, and JS Amazon Cognito – For Use management and authentication for the backend API Amazon API Gateway and AWS Lambda – For building and using the backed API Amazon DynamoDB – For adding a persistence layer for storage To complete this project, you should be familiar with all of these technologies, including HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. You will also have to implement RESTful APIs in this project, so you should know about their implementations. However, once you’re done, you would know how various Amazon services work together. We recommend building a simple web app first and then making a more complex one. For starters, you can create a BMI calculator or a simple reminder app. Mentioning AWS projects can help your resume look much more interesting than others. Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses 4. Set up Kubernetes Clusters on Amazon EC2 Spot This is one of the interesting AWS projects to create. Kubernetes is an open-source solution you can use to automate deployment, management, and scaling of containers. This software enables you to create, manage, and orchestrate containers in cloud computing. It’s among the most significant AWS projects in this list because Kubernetes is a vital skill for cloud-computing professionals. Because Kubernetes is open-source, it’s widely popular in the industry too. This is an excellent AWS projects for beginners. As you’re working on AWS, you’d have to use Amazon EC2, a service for getting dynamic computing capabilities on the cloud. But we’ll take it a step further and use Amazon EC2 Spot Instances, which allow users to capitalize on most of the capacities of EC2. EC2 Spot Instances and Kubernetes have the same approach towards containers, so you can easily use both of them. Make sure that you adhere to Spot Instances’ best practices while working on this project. You can build multiple node groups and focus on capacity optimization for allocation to ensure the worker nodes function correctly.  5. Build a Content Recommendation System  Recommendation systems are among the most popular AI and ML implementations. From Netflix to Flipkart, every major company uses them to enhance user experience and engagement. You can build a recommendation system on the AWS cloud by applying nearest neighbour algorithms.  In this project, you’d use Amazon SageMaker, an excellent tool for machine learning implementations. It has built-in algorithms that don’t require label data, and it uses semantic search instead of string matching, so using SageMaker will simplify the task considerably. Use the K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm in this project so your recommendation system would provide accurate and practical suggestions to the user.  6. Use Rekognition and Identify Famous People Computer vision is among the most popular concepts of machine learning and AI. If you’re interested in working on a computer vision project, you should start with this one. If you have some knowledge of Computer vision, you definitely have heard of OpenCV. With its extensive open-source library for computer vision, machine learning, and image processing, OpenCV has become an integral part of today’s systems’ crucial need for real-time performance. You should be familiar with the basics of computer vision and its related algorithms before you begin working on this project.  In this project, you have to create a face recognition model that can identify specific people in a picture. Usually, training face recognition takes some time and effort, but because we’re using AWS, things are more comfortable. It is one of the trending AWS projects. You will use Amazon Rekognition in this project to perform face recognition because it allows users to add and analyze images quickly by using deep learning. It is regarded as an API for image analysis, while OpenCV is used for real-time image classification. This software offers identification of many sorts of objects, activities, people, and text in videos and pictures. This is one of the trending AWS projects. Building and training a facial recognition model will become substantially comfortable with Rekognition.  In the beginning, you can train your model in identifying a particular famous person, such as MS Dhoni or Robert Dowrey Jr. When you’ve prepared the model, you can test it out and see how well it performs. To make things more complicated, you can train your model to identify multiple people by adding more famous people.   Also Read: Machine Learning Project Ideas 7. Use Lex to Create Chatbots Chatbots are among the most popular uses of artificial intelligence. They allow companies to enhance customer experience and reduce costs. There are many types of chatbots present, and they all perform different tasks. A chatbot is an application that conducts a conversation with someone else in the place of a person.  In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses Businesses use chatbots to provide quick answers to questions and sometimes to resolve complaints. Around 58% of B2B companies and 42% of B2C companies use chatbots on their sits (source).  You will use Amazon Lex to build a chatbot in this project. Amazon Lex is a service that simplifies chatbot building for developers. It offers one-click deployment, so when you’ve created the bot, you can add it to multiple platforms. It eases the process of building a chatbot that speaks naturally as you’ll only have to add a few phrases and samples to train the model.  Moreover, you can easily integrate Amazon Lex with other AWS services (such as AWS Lambda). Amazon’s AWS Lambda is a serverless, event-driven computing platform. It’s a kind of cloud service that monitors for events and then executes predetermined actions(mainly code execution) in response while handling all of the necessary resource management in the background. Since most chatbots are created using python, you may look for python AWS projects to look at how other people have integrated python with Amazon Web Services. Read: How to make chatbot in Python? 8. Train a Machine Learning Model with SageMaker The demand for machine learning professionals is soaring, and if you want to enter this sector, you’d have to work on some ML projects too. Amazingly, AWS offers machine learning solutions in its services, and also among which, the most popular is Amazon SageMaker. In this project, you can train a machine learning model by using SageMaker.  Amazon SageMaker provides you with a unique, integrated development environment for machine learning. The IDE allows you to create notebooks, switch between steps, check the results, and do much more. SageMaker notebooks will enable you to get the compute instances quickly and efficiently. You can also use the Autopilot feature of SageMaker to complete the process with much less effort.  To work on this project, you should be familiar with machine learning concepts and algorithms. We recommend starting with a simple model if you haven’t worked on an ML project before. You should first begin with a simple question-answering bot with a set of questions present in its options. Then you can work your way up to build a more sophisticated and conversational chatbot.  Join the ML Course online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career. Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau Learn More About AWS These are a few AWS projects that you could try out! Now go ahead and put to test all the knowledge that you’ve gathered through our data engineering projects guide to build your very own AWS projects! Working on AWS projects will help you understand its various services and their uses. We hope you found this list of project ideas useful. If you have any questions or suggestions on this article, please let us know in the comments.  Which AWS project are you going to work on? Which one do you think is the most straightforward project in this list? Share your thoughts. If you are curious to master Machine learning and AI, boost your career with an our Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI with IIIT-B & Liverpool John Moores University.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

19 Sep 2023

Top 15 IoT Interview Questions & Answers 2023 – For Beginners & Experienced
These days, the minute you indulge in any technology-oriented discussion, interview questions on cloud computing come up in some form or the other. This brings us to the question: what is cloud computing? In the older days, people would merely speculate that the world population is separated from each other through a six degrees of separation. With the advent of information technology and advanced communications, that has become a lived reality. Today you can jump into a video conference with anyone from any nook and corner of the world. Compare this to the days of those cumbersome telegrams and trunk calls. Remember eagerly waiting for MTV or Channel V to play your favourite music and then waiting again for hours to hear it one more time? Cut to 2020, every other house has this otherwise unimpressive gadget on their tabletops. Looks are deceptive because any nondescript or tiny these gadgets may be, they have single-handedly transformed the lives of their owners. Yes, you guessed it right. These are the contemporary virtual assistants which will play your favourite song at any point of time without requiring you to even press a button. All you need to do is simply voice out your instructions and let the likes of Siri, Alexa or Google Home do the needful. The wonders don’t simply stop there. From dimming the lights to turning on your TV, these virtual assistants will follow your command instantly as soon as you spell your commands aloud. What would seem like a distant dream a few years back is indeed an everyday phenomenon now. And, we have cloud computing to thank for transforming our lives for the better.  The internet of things has a lot many applications and is regarded as one of the fastest-growing industries in today’s times. One of the applications of the IoT is the smart wearables, like smartwatches, they do more than just tell the time, from tracking the fitness ratio to the music, texts, emails, etc. It is the technology that helps there. Another application of IoT would be a smart city, smart home, etc.  Cloud computing is having various application which has enabled regular devices to expand their functionality and bandwidth and perform intuitive tasks without any human intervention. At the crux of this cloud computing lies the IoT software.  IoT stands for the Internet of Things which is essentially an advanced form of technology that extends connectivity from devices like computers and mobile phones to other appliances like television, air conditions and even a toaster. With the help of IoT, internet bandwidth can be extended to a wide array of gadgets and facilitate interaction between these devices. The end result is usually a time, energy and performance efficient technology which runs with minimal human intervention. The predominance of the IoT technology in every aspect of our lives has brewed an intense demand for professionals who are adept at devising and handling IoT devices. There are various benefits of using Internet of Things devices in today’s times, first of all, they have made the living smart, trackable, measurable, and data-centric. The activities can be tracked effectively from smart watches to traffic tracking. Another benefit of using IoT devices is that it has optimised the security level, these devices tend to keep the data of the users secure to bring more adaptability. Another most important benefit is better customer experience and the production of customer-centric devices that are created. This also answers the internet questions of why IoT is seeing more adaptability in today’s times. Must Read: Free deep learning course! So if you’re preparing for a software development role, it will help to familiarise yourself with some of the key IoT concepts and get on the top of the commonly asked interview questions on IoT.  Top IoT Interview Questions and Answers Let’s learn all about internet of things interview questions or IoT interview questions for freshers:  1. What is IoT interview questions(Internet of Things)? The Internet of Things is a complete network of hooked physical devices, mechanism, structure, and various other objects embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies to collect and exchange data over the Internet. These devices can communicate with each other and centralized systems, often without direct human interaction. The main idea behind IoT is to create a seamless environment where objects or “things” can be monitored, controlled, and optimized remotely, leading to improved efficiency, convenience, and even new opportunities for innovation. IoT devices starts from simple devices like smart thermostats and fitness trackers to more complex systems in the form of industrial machinery and smart city infrastructure. 2. What are the different layers of the IoT protocol stack? The IoT protocol stack consists of multiple layers, each responsible for specific functionalities and communication aspects of IoT devices and systems. These layers help ensure interoperability and smooth communication between various components in the IoT ecosystem. The commonly recognized layers of the IoT protocol stack are as follows: Physical Layer This is the lowest layer of the stack and deals with the actual transmission of data over the physical medium. It includes hardware components like sensors, actuators, transceivers, and the methods by which data is modulated and transmitted (e.g., radio frequencies, wired connections). Link Layer Also known as the Data Link Layer, this layer manages the communication link between two directly connected devices. It includes protocols that ensure reliable and error-free data transmission over the physical medium. Examples include Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Zigbee, and Bluetooth. Network Layer The Network Layer is responsible for routing data packets between devices on different networks. It handles addressing, routing, and packet forwarding. Internet Protocol (IP) is a crucial protocol at this layer, allowing devices to communicate across different networks. Transport Layer This layer manages end-to-end communication and ensures data reliability and integrity. It handles data segmentation, reassembly, flow control, and error detection. Protocols like Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are commonly used in this layer. Session Layer The Session Layer establishes, maintains, and terminates communication sessions between devices. It manages session synchronization, checkpointing, and recovery. Presentation Layer This layer deals with data formatting, encryption, and compression to ensure that data exchanged between devices is in a format both parties can understand. It’s responsible for translating between different data formats and ensuring data security. Application Layer The top layer of the stack, the Application Layer, directly interacts with end-user applications. It defines the protocols and formats applications use to exchange data. Common IoT protocols like MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport), CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol), and HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) operate at this layer. 3. What do you mean by the smart city in IoT? In the context of IoT, a smart city refers to an urban area that utilizes advanced technologies and data-driven solutions to enhance efficiency, sustainability, and the overall quality of life for its residents. Integrating various IoT-enabled devices, sensors, and data analytics creates a more connected and intelligent urban environment. Here’s a concise explanation in points: IoT Integration Smart cities leverage the Internet of Things (IoT) to connect and manage diverse elements, including infrastructure, transportation, utilities, and public services. Data-Driven Insights Sensors and devices collect real-time data on traffic patterns, energy consumption, waste management, and more. This data is analyzed to optimize city operations and resource allocation. Efficient Services IoT-enabled solutions enhance public services such as smart traffic management, waste management, and energy distribution, reducing congestion and improving efficiency. Sustainability Smart cities prioritize sustainable practices by monitoring environmental factors, optimizing energy consumption, and promoting eco-friendly transport options. Improved Quality of Life IoT applications improve citizen experiences by offering convenient services like smart parking, responsive street lighting, and enhanced public safety measures. Urban Planning Data-driven insights aid city planners in making informed decisions about infrastructure development, zoning, and resource allocation. Real-Time Monitoring IoT allows city officials to monitor critical systems and respond quickly to emergencies like natural disasters or accidents. Citizen Engagement Smart city initiatives involve citizens in decision-making through digital platforms, enabling them to provide feedback and actively participate in urban governance. 4. How does the Internet of Things (IoT) affect our everyday lives? What we know as “smart devices” in our everyday lives, are actually devices embedded in IoT technology which are able to manifest greater quantum of automation than those available before. IoT creates a greater network that enables different devices to interact freely with each other. Consequently, their bandwidth to perform tasks are expanded and are able to create a collaborative environment to automate different aspects of human lives. From sensor driven home appliances like refrigerators that automatically turn off when not in use to virtual assistants which can regulate most of your devices from your lights to your television, from your air conditioning to playing your favourite music, IoT’s utility in our everyday lives is all-pervasive. IoT is simply not limited to our gadgets. Even our wearables have evolved to keep pace with IoT. Be it smartwatches or sunglasses which double up as earphones, you name it and you’ll have the mark of IoT. Even on a large-scale application, the transportation industry, the government infrastructure or educational initiatives are other domains where there is a huge scope of involving IoT technology. According to a report by Garter, by 2020, approximately 20.6 billion devices will have IoT elements that connect them to each other.  Internet of Things is very well impacting our day-to-day lives, not only the leisure lifestyle but the healthcare aspect of our lives as well. Some examples of how the IoT has made an entry into the healthcare lifestyle such as hearing aid, heart rate calculator, blood pressure sensors, etc. Another reason how the IoT is making an entry is through the connected car, transportation, etc. Also, making smart homes effective is another way of how IoT is applicable and impacts lives daily. The IoT is reducing the cost and labour of everyday lives. The devices which are IoT driven are cheaper and save energy. It not only is cost-effective but also environmentally friendly. From the remote door locks, remote AC navigation, smart lights, and smart homes the IoT is driving the lifestyles as well and providing a quality of life. 5. How does IOT work? IoT devices are built on the concept of artificial intelligence. Since the mainstay of the IoT technology is enhanced communication, paired with intuitive performance, it incorporates sensor devices and unique data processing mechanisms. In many ways, IoT devices are an amalgamation of several advanced technologies. IoT benefits of artificial intelligence When it comes to classifying different components of IoT, we can divide them into the sensors, cloud components, data processing software and finally cutting-edge user interface. So as the sensors collect data, the cloud facilitates the network connection between the devices, the software processes and stores the data collected and finally the user interface programs the device to respond to its environmental stimuli. The end result is a highly reactive and intuitive device which greatly increments the existing levels of automation.  Internet of Things (IoT) is guided by sensors, and software, and is driven by technology. The devices are connected and exchanged the data and systems. The IoT devices give result on a real-time basis, that is effective, accurate and data-driven. It is not constricted to a few things but is also applicable to various things, such as manufacturing, agriculture, medical and healthcare, transportation, navigation, armed forces, etc.   Read: IoT Developers Salary in India 6. Describe the different components of IOT An IoT device typically comprises four major components.  Sensors – Much of IoT involves environment adaptability and the major factor contributing to it are the sensors in the IoT devices. Sensors are devices which enable the IoT devices to gather data from its surroundings. Effectively, they may be perceived as instruments which sense the environment and perform multiple tasks. Senors make the IoT devices capable of real world integration. It can be of varied types. From a simple GPS in your phones to the live video feature on a social media platform. The question of “What is IoT?” can be very well answered with reference to the sensors. There are various kinds of sensors that work in the IoT devices. Such as temperature sensors, humidity sensors, proximity sensors, etc. These sensors respond to the changes happening in the environment and they react and adapt accordingly. These sensors gain insights, track and alert of the potential problems that may be caused. There is no one specific shape assigned to the sensors as they come in various shapes and sizes. Connectivity- With the advent of cloud computing, devices can be launched on a cloud platform and in the due course, devices can interact freely with each other at a cheaper and more transparent scale. For IoT devices, cloud computing facilitates freedom from exclusive network providers. Instead, small network connection mediums like mobile satellite networks, WAN, Bluetooth etc. are used. The data that is collected by the IoT sensors are connected to each other through the IoT gateway. The sent information is analysed and carried forward to the cloud by these devices from one place to another. Data Processing – As as soon as the environmental stimuli are gathered by the sensors and transmuted to the cloud, it is the job of the data processors to process the information collected and perform the required tasks. From adjusting the temperatures of the AC to facial recognition on mobile phones or biometric devices, data processing software are largely responsible for enhancing the automation in IoT devices.Edge computing is the technology behind the data processing. The data is transferred through the devices to the local edge computing system that stores and processes the data. Edge computing is nothing but the range of devices that are connected near the user. Edge computing is present all around us from the smart watches, to the smart lights. User Interface – The IoT introduced a new paradigm among the available devices for active interaction and engagement. This has transformed the user interface widely. Instead of one-way communication mechanisms of traditional devices, IoT enables cascading effects on end-user commands. This is precisely why IoT devices are all the more communicative and active. The user interface is the feature that the user interacts with. The user interface is the screen, buttons, pages, etc. The user interfaces that the users interact with shows the data that the IoT captures. Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses 7. What is the scale of use of IoT devices in contemporary times? Going by the figures deduced by a Cisco report, IoT devices are not only omnipresent but also are major contributors to the global capital. The report predicts that in the next decade, IoTs are likely to create value to the tune of 14.4 trillion USD across different industries. If we look at IOT’s influence in our everyday lives, it doesn’t seem surprising at all. You name an aspect of life, you’ll find IOT’s footprints, carbon footprints, albeit there. From watches that supplement time telling features with body parameters count and monitor your fitness routines to refrigerators which automatically switch off when not in use, IoTs have permeated every aspect of our everyday lives. Compare today’s trends of Alexa and Siri steered music listening patterns to the era of walkmans and CDROMs. You’d know what a boon IOTs really have been. Even at the macrocosmic level, governments, transportation and education sectors are implementing IOT technology to revolutionise their services. This has set the stage for the birth of smart cities. IoT has also transformed the healthcare industry. The devices has brought automation in the healthcare management. From measuring the hospital resources, optimising patient care, and managemet of the hospital assets such as tools, labs, pharmacy, bed count, patient count, etc. The Internet of devices has touched each and every aspect of the industry on a major scale. 8. How does IoT influence the development of smart cities? A smart city is a concept to create more developed cities in the country. These cities are technologically driven and manage the resources and communicate using electronic devices. The collected data through these devices use to better understand the gap areas and solve those using scientifically methods that help to operate the cities smoothly. The IoT can resourcefully use IoT devices and can optimise the data effectively in order to better the quality of life in the cities. The intuitive facets of IoT devices paired with enhanced network engagement enable IoT to promote versatility, transparency and efficiency in infrastructure planning. IOT also embeds energy-efficient projects to take off. Overall, with the whole array of advantages that IoT brings in, it is possible for the government to work towards building smart cities all across the globe.  With the help of IoT, clever energy grids, automated waste management systems, smart homes, better security systems, improved traffic management mechanisms, advanced security features, water conservation mechanisms and so much more is possible. The two pronged blessings of artificial intelligence and innovation, IoT has allowed public utilities and urban planning to be highly intuitive. These have triggered the birth of smart homes and smart cities.  9. How does the community assist in the development of IoT? Internet of Things relies greatly on the network engagement for the appropriate functioning of the end-user goals. The cloud platforms enable active network interactions between several “smart devices” which in turn scale up the functionalities of numerous active gadgets with IoT properties.  Net of entirety is often the term used to refer to the electromagnetic spectrum that cloud platforms provide for IoT to be deployed. IoTs require both certified and unlicensed platforms to operate. To know more about IoT one must be aware of the IoT Real world application in 2020. Extra effort is also required to utilise the benefits of IoT in socially neglected areas in order to uplift them. Proper device installation and maintenance becomes of paramount importance here, where the IoT can be utilised in order to better the quality of education, healthcare and transportation facilities. This allows the state to save costs and bring society to par. 10. What is the difference between business IOT and IIOT? While the Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the consumer-oriented gadgets which perform tasks that provide consumer utilities like smartphones, thermostats etc., business IoT or IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) are large-scale structures or systems that are usually used at the industrial levels. For instance, fire alarms etc. Since the major difference lies in the scale of impact, a failure in IIOT is likely to affect a wider range of populations.  In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses 11. In what ways is IoT energy efficient? One of the major advantages of IoT is that it makes gadgets environment-friendly and substantially reduces carbon emissions. By engaging in context-conscious automation, IoT gadgets are able to save energy. For instance, refrigerators which switch off when not in use or road light fixtures are able to save almost 40% of electricity.  The IoT measures the utlised energy by the devices and quantify the energy that is used. This allows the devices to eliminate the energy wastage that reduces the carbon footprint. This allows the device makers to understand the energy consumption and take control of the same in order for it to help the environment. Smart grids is another feature of the IoT that allows the manual switching between the renewable and traditional energy sources so to facilitate the saving of energy.  12. What are the economic impacts of the increased application of IoT? IoT is known to positively impact the economic standards of different industries. From facilitating better resource management to reducing response time and human interventions, IoTs can vastly reduce labour costs and energy costs. This in turn can boost supply chains of major industries, thus enabling product distribution at cheaper costs. This not only helps industries to earn greater profits but also is a great way to improve the available production infrastructure. Overall, scalability is great in IoT and hence, in the long run IoT applications prove to be cost-saving as well.  Along with that, the time taken to do work is also reduced with the aid of IoT. It is calculated that IoT has increased productivity by 0.2 % and is positively impacting businesses from manufacturing to transport, e-commerce, healthcare, etc. All of these benefit the production of the goods and bring less scope of manual error and more effective ways of doing a function. 13. What are the major impacts of IoT in the Healthcare Industry? IoT has transformed healthcare services and diagnostic practises to a large extent. From attaining more precision in testing to making surgeries and implants prompt and efficient, IoT devices in the healthcare industries have largely contributed towards making medical practices more efficient, transparent and affordable. Besides, fitness parameters can be easily tracked these days with fitness bands and smartwatches. This has enhanced the scope of fitness monitoring and we have IoT to thank for it.  Some of the other impacts of the IoT in the healthcare sector would be the cost reduction, disease diagnosis,  remote monitoring, better accuracy of the results, resoure management and automation of the tasks. All of these are the recent improvements in the healthcare industry which are allowing the benefit of better healthcare management. These resources are not restricted to the Tier 1 cities but with proper government interventions and contribution from the citizens are reaching and helping the remote areas as well. Learn more about machine learning applications in healthcare industry. 14. What are the types of data that can be communicated between IoT devices? At present, it would not be far-fetched to state that when it comes to IoT, the sky’s the limit for the type of data, the IoT objects can process and store. Since the crux of IOT’s functionality is intercommunication between network devices, pretty much any data that can be launched on the cloud can be communicated from one IoT device to the other. The type of information that an IoT object can gather and respond to depends on its environment and its sensor settings. For example, a thermometer can communicate the weather statistics intuitively but it will take a clinical sensor to be able to provide information about health parameters like body temperature, pulse, pressure etc.  Best Machine Learning Course online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career. 15. What are the challenges to the widespread use of IoT? While the boons of IoT are manifold and the economy seems to be rapidly moving towards an IoT oriented environment, there are a few disadvantages to the use of IoT.  Firstly, security remains a predominant threat of the use of IoT. This is because by forging connection between multiple devices within a cloud network, control over system authentication gets diluted. Anyone can access any information from a wide network of connected devices now.  Secondly, related to security, the privacy of data is another major challenge. Within the network, a substantial amount of user data gets released and the users often lose control over their own data.  Moreover, while the overall usage of IoT is resource efficient, the deployment process entails layers of complexities and can be potentially expensive.  Finally, due to the complex connectivity features, compliance to regulations are often offset. IoT can go against the norm of usage on several occasions. Another disadvantages of the IoT is to keep pace with the customer’s demands. With the fast evolving society, the demand of the users are also changing and the IoT has to cater to the changed demands that is keeping the original and primary feature along with the new additions. And sometimes less matured technologies fail to impress the users. Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau Wrapping Up If you are interested to know more about IoT, deep learning and artificial intelligence, check out our Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI program which is designed for working professionals and provide 30+ case studies & assignments, 25+ industry mentorship sessions, 5+ practical hands-on capstone projects, more than 450 hours of rigorous training & job placement assistance with top firms.
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by Kechit Goyal

15 Sep 2023

45+ Interesting Machine Learning Project Ideas For Beginners [2023]
Summary: In this Article, you will learn Stock Prices Predictor Sports Predictor Develop A Sentiment Analyzer Enhance Healthcare Prepare ML Algorithms – From Scratch! Develop A Neural Network That Can Read Handwriting Movie Ticket Pricing System Iris Flowers Classification ML Project BigMart Sales Prediction ML Project Recommendation Engines with MovieLens Dataset Predicting Wine Quality using Wine Quality Dataset MNIST Handwritten Digit Classification Human Activity Recognition using Smartphone Dataset Object Detection with Deep Learning Fake News Detection…. and so on.. Read the full blog to know all the 45+ ML Projects in detail. Machine Learning Project Ideas As Artificial Intelligence (AI) continues to progress rapidly in 2022, achieving mastery over Machine Learning (ML) is becoming increasingly important for all the players in this field. This is because both AI and ML complement each other. So, if you are a beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some Machine Learning projects. We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Machine Learning projects which beginners can work on to put their Machine Learning knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 15 top machine learning project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience. But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind: why to build Machine Learning projects? When it comes to careers in software development, it is a must for aspiring developers to work on their own projects. Developing real-world projects is the best way to hone your skills and materialize your theoretical knowledge into practical experience. The more you experiment with different Machine Learning projects, the more knowledge you gain. While textbooks and study materials will give you all the knowledge you need to know about Machine Learning, you can never really master ML unless you invest your time in real-life practical experiments – projects on Machine Learning. As you start working on machine learning project ideas, you will not only be able to test your strengths and weaknesses, but you will also gain exposure that can be immensely helpful to boost your career. In this tutorial, you will find 15 interesting machine learning project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on machine learning.  These courses will guide you to create the best ML projects. Learn Machine Learning Online Courses from the World’s top Universities. Earn Masters, Executive PGP, or Advanced Certificate Programs to fast-track your career. What are the uses of machine learning? Machine learning has various uses across various industries and domains due to its ability to analyze and learn from data to make predictions, identify patterns, and automate tasks. Here are some common uses of machine learning: Predictive Analytics Predictive analytics is a cornerstone of machine learning applications. Machine learning models can predict future trends and outcomes by analyzing historical data. This is invaluable for industries such as finance, where predicting stock prices, currency exchange rates, and market trends can provide a competitive edge. Retailers also use predictive analytics to forecast demand, optimize inventory, and enhance supply chain management. Image and Video Recognition Machine learning algorithms can be trained to recognize objects, people, and patterns in images and videos. Applications include facial recognition, object detection, medical image analysis, and autonomous vehicles. Natural Language Processing (NLP) NLP is a subset of machine learning that deals with human language. It’s the foundation of voice assistants like Siri and language translation services like Google Translate. Sentiment analysis, another NLP application, helps businesses understand the public sentiment around their products or services through social media and reviews. Recommendation Systems These systems use machine learning to suggest products, services, or content to users based on their past behavior and preferences. Examples include Netflix’s movie recommendations and Amazon’s product recommendations. Fraud Detection Machine learning can detect fraudulent activities by identifying unusual patterns in data. This is used in financial institutions to detect credit card fraud, insurance fraud, and other types of scams. Healthcare Applications Machine learning has revolutionized healthcare by assisting in early disease detection, personalized treatment, and drug discovery. Models trained on medical data can identify patterns that may not be apparent to human physicians. Medical imaging analysis using machine learning aids in diagnosing conditions from X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans. Additionally, predictive models can anticipate disease outbreaks, enhancing public health responses. Autonomous Vehicles Machine learning algorithms enable self-driving cars to perceive their environment, make decisions, and navigate safely. They process data from sensors like cameras, lidar, and radar to drive autonomously. Customer Segmentation Businesses use machine learning to segment customers into groups based on their behavior, preferences, and demographics. This helps in targeted marketing and improving customer experiences. Financial Analysis Machine learning can be used to analyze large financial datasets, detect patterns, and make investment decisions. High-frequency trading, credit scoring, and risk assessment are some examples. Industrial Automation Machine learning helps optimize manufacturing processes, predict equipment failures, and manage supply chains more efficiently. It can also enhance quality control and reduce downtime. Energy Management Machine learning is used to optimize energy consumption in buildings, predict demand, and improve energy efficiency in various industries. Agriculture Machine learning aids precision agriculture by analyzing data from drones, sensors, and satellites. This helps farmers make informed decisions about irrigation, fertilization, and pest control, leading to higher crop yields and reduced resource waste. Gaming and Entertainment Machine learning is employed for character animation, game strategy optimization, and generating realistic graphics. Social Media Analysis Machine learning algorithms can analyze social media data to extract insights, sentiment analysis, and trends for businesses and researchers. Environmental Monitoring Machine learning models can process data from sensors and satellites to monitor environmental changes, weather patterns, and natural disasters. Enhanced Customer Experience Businesses leverage machine learning to understand customer preferences and behaviors, leading to better-targeted marketing and improved customer experiences. Recommendation systems, commonly seen on platforms like Netflix and Amazon, suggest products and content based on user history. Chatbots powered by machine learning offer instant customer support, enhancing engagement and satisfaction. So, here are a few Machine Learning Projects which beginners can work on: Here are some cool Machine Learning project ideas for beginners Watch our video on machine learning project ideas and topics… This list of machine learning project ideas for students is suited for beginners, and those just starting out with Machine Learning or Data Science in general. These machine learning project ideas will get you going with all the practicalities you need to succeed in your career as a Machine Learning professional.  Further, if you’re looking for Machine Learning project ideas for final year, this list should get you going. So, without further ado, let’s jump straight into some Machine Learning project ideas that will strengthen your base and allow you to climb up the ladder.  1. Stock Prices Predictor One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on Machine Learning projects for students is working on Stock Prices Predictor. Business organizations and companies today are on the lookout for software that can monitor and analyze the company performance and predict future prices of various stocks. And with so much data available on the stock market, it is a hotbed of opportunities for data scientists with an inclination for finance. However, before you start off, you must have a fair share of knowledge in the following areas: Predictive Analysis: Leveraging various AI techniques for different data processes such as data mining, data exploration, etc. to ‘predict’ the behaviour of possible outcomes. Regression Analysis: Regressive analysis is a kind of predictive technique based on the interaction between a dependent (target) and independent variable/s (predictor). Action Analysis: In this method, all the actions carried out by the two techniques mentioned above are analyzed after which the outcome is fed into the machine learning memory. Statistical Modeling: It involves building a mathematical description of a real-world process and elaborating the uncertainties, if any, within that process.   What is Machine Learning and Why it matters 2. SportsPredictor In Michael Lewis’ Moneyball, the Oakland Athletics team transformed the face of baseball by incorporating analytical player scouting technique in their gameplan. And just like them, you too can revolutionize sports in the real world! This is an excellent machine learning projects for beginners. Since there is no dearth of data in the sports world, you can utilize this data to build fun and creative machine learning projects such as using college sports stats to predict which player would have the best career in which particular sports (talent scouting). You could also opt for enhancing team management by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the players in a team and classifying them accordingly. 6 Times Artificial Intelligence Startled The World With the amount of sports stats and data available, this is an excellent arena to hone your data exploration and visualization skills. For anyone with a flair in Python, Scikit-Learn will be the ideal choice as it includes an array of useful tools for regression analysis, classifications, data ingestion, and so on. Mentioning Machine Learning projects for the final year can help your resume look much more interesting than others. Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online Master of Science in Machine Learning & AI from LJMU Executive Post Graduate Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & NLP from IIITB Advanced Certificate Programme in Machine Learning & Deep Learning from IIITB Executive Post Graduate Program in Data Science & Machine Learning from University of Maryland To Explore all our courses, visit our page below. Machine Learning Courses 3. Develop A Sentiment Analyzer This is one of the interesting machine learning project ideas. Although most of us use social media platforms to convey our personal feelings and opinions for the world to see, one of the biggest challenges lies in understanding the ‘sentiments’ behind social media posts. And this is the perfect idea for your next machine learning project! Social media is thriving with tons of user-generated content. By creating an ML system that could analyze the sentiment behind texts, or a post, it would become so much easier for organizations to understand consumer behaviour. This, in turn, would allow them to improve their customer service, thereby providing the scope for optimal consumer satisfaction. Must Read: Free deep learning course! You can try to mine the data from Twitter or Reddit to get started off with your sentiment analyzing machine learning project. This might be one of those rare cases of deep learning projects which can help you in other aspects as well. 4. Enhance Healthcare AI and ML applications have already started to penetrate the healthcare industry and are also rapidly transforming the face of global healthcare. Healthcare wearables, remote monitoring, telemedicine, robotic surgery, etc., are all possible because of machine learning algorithms powered by AI. They are not only helping HCPs (Health Care Providers) to deliver speedy and better healthcare services but are also reducing the dependency and workload of doctors to a significant extent. So, why not use your skills to develop an impressive machine learning project based on healthcare? To handle a project with Machine Learning algorithms for beginners can be helpful to build your career with a good start. These 6 Machine Learning Techniques are Improving Healthcare The healthcare industry has enormous amounts of data at their disposal. By harnessing this data, you can create: Diagnostic care systems that can automatically scan images, X-rays, etc., and provide an accurate diagnosis of possible diseases. Preventative care applications that can predict the possibilities of epidemics such as flu, malaria, etc., both at the national and community level. In-demand Machine Learning Skills Artificial Intelligence Courses Tableau Courses NLP Courses Deep Learning Courses 5. Prepare ML Algorithms – From Scratch! This is one of the excellent machine learning project ideas for beginners. Writing ML algorithms from scratch will offer two-fold benefits: One, writing ML algorithms is the best way to understand the nitty-gritty of their mechanics. Two, you will learn how to transform mathematical instructions into functional code. This skill will come in handy in your future career in Machine Learning. You can begin by choosing an algorithm that is straightforward and not too complex. Behind the making of each algorithm – even the simplest ones – there are several carefully calculated decisions. Once you’ve achieved a certain level of mastery in building simple ML algorithms, try to tweak and extend their functionality. For instance, you could take a vanilla logistic regression algorithm and add regularization parameters to it to transform it into a lasso/ridge regression algorithm. Mentioning machine learning projects can help your resume look much more interesting than others. 6. Develop A Neural Network That Can Read Handwriting One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on Java projects for students is working on neural network. Deep learning and neural networks are the two happening buzzwords in AI. These have given us technological marvels like driverless-cars, image recognition, and so on. So, now’s the time to explore the arena of neural networks. Begin your neural network machine learning project with the MNIST Handwritten Digit Classification Challenge. It has a very user-friendly interface that’s ideal for beginners. Machine Learning Engineers: Myths vs. Realities 7. Movie Ticket Pricing System With the expansion of OTT platforms like Netflix, Amazon Prime, people prefer to watch content as per their convenience. Factors like Pricing, Content Quality & Marketing have influenced the success of these platforms. The cost of making a full-length movie has shot up exponentially in the recent past. Only 10% of the movies that are made make profits. Stiff competition from Television & OTT platforms along with the high ticket cost has made it difficult for films to make money even harder. The rising cost of the theatre ticket (along with the popcorn cost) leaves the cinema hall empty. An advanced ticket pricing system can definitely help the movie makers and viewers. Ticket price can be higher with the rise in demand for ticket and vice versa. The earlier the viewer books the ticket, the lesser the cost, for a movie with high demand. The system should smartly calculate the pricing depending on the interest of the viewers, social signals and supply-demand factors. 8. Iris Flowers Classification ML Project One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on Machine Learning projects for students is working on Iris Flowers classification ML project. Iris flowers dataset is one of the best datasets for classification tasks. Since iris flowers are of varied species, they can be distinguished based on the length of sepals and petals. This ML project aims to classify the flowers into among the three species – Virginica, Setosa, or Versicolor. This particular ML project is usually referred to as the “Hello World” of Machine Learning. The iris flowers dataset contains numeric attributes, and it is perfect for beginners to learn about supervised ML algorithms, mainly how to load and handle data. Also, since this is a small dataset, it can easily fit in memory without requiring special transformations or scaling capabilities. And this is the perfect idea for your next machine learning project! You can download the iris dataset here. 9. BigMart Sales Prediction ML Project  This is an excellent ML project idea for beginners. This ML project is best for learning how unsupervised ML algorithms function. The BigMart sales dataset comprises of precisely 2013 sales data for 1559 products across ten outlets in various cities.  The aim here is to use the BigMart sales dataset to develop a regression model that can predict the sale of each of 1559 products in the upcoming year in the ten different BigMart outlets. The BigMart sales dataset contains specific attributes for each product and outlet, thereby helping you to understand the properties of the different products and stores that influence the overall sales of BigMart as a brand.  10. Recommendation Engines with MovieLens Dataset Recommendation engines have become hugely popular in online shopping and streaming sites. For instance, online content streaming platforms like Netflix and Hulu have recommendation engines to customize their content according to individual customer preferences and browsing history. By tailoring the content to cater to the watching needs and preferences of different customers, these sites have been able to boost the demand for their streaming services. As a beginner, you can try your hand at building a recommendation system using one of the most popular datasets available on the web – MovieLens dataset. This dataset includes over “25 million ratings and one million tag applications applied to 62,000 movies by 162,000 users.” You can begin this project by building a world-cloud visualization of movie titles to make a movie recommendation engine for MovieLens. You can check out the MovieLens dataset here. 11. Predicting Wine Quality using Wine Quality Dataset It’s a well-established fact that age makes wine better – the older the wine, the better it will taste. However, age is not the only thing that determines a wine’s taste. Numerous factors determine the wine quality certification, including physiochemical tests such as alcohol quantity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, density, and pH level, to name a few.  In this ML project, you need to develop an ML model that can explore a wine’s chemical properties to predict its quality. The wine quality dataset you’ll be using for this project consists of approximately 4898 observations, including 11 independent variables and one dependent variable. Mentioning Machine Learning projects for the final year can help your resume look much more interesting than others. 12. MNIST Handwritten Digit Classification  This is one of the interesting machine learning projects. Deep Learning and neural networks have found use cases in many real-world applications like image recognition, automatic text generation, driverless cars, and much more. However, before you delve into these complex areas of Deep Learning, you should begin with a simple dataset like the MNIST dataset. So, why not use your skills to develop an impressive machine learning project based on MNIST? The MNIST digit classification project is designed to train machines to recognize handwritten digits. Since beginners usually find it challenging to work with image data over flat relational data, the MNIST dataset is best for beginners. In this project, you will use the MNIST datasets to train your ML model using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Although the MNIST dataset can seamlessly fit in your PC memory (it is very small), the task of handwritten digit recognition is pretty challenging. You can access the MNIST dataset here. 13. Human Activity Recognition using Smartphone Dataset This is one of the trending machine learning project ideas. The smartphone dataset includes the fitness activity record and information of 30 people. This data was captured through a smartphone equipped with inertial sensors.  This ML project aims to build a classification model that can identify human fitness activities with a high degree of accuracy. By working on this ML project, you will learn the basics of classification and also how to solve multi-classification problems. 14. Object Detection with Deep Learning This is one of the interesting machine learning projects to create. When it comes to image classification, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) should be your go-to choice. While DNNs are already used in many real-world image classification applications, this ML project aims to crank it up a notch. In this ML project, you will solve the problem of object detection by leveraging DNNs. You will have to develop a model that can both classify objects and also accurately localize objects of different classes. Here, you will treat the task of object detection as a regression problem to object bounding box masks. Also, you will define a multi-scale inference procedure that can generate high-resolution object detections at a minimal cost.  15. Fake News Detection This is one of the excellent machine learning project ideas for beginners, especially how fake news are spreading like wildfire now. Fake news has a knack for spreading like wildfire. And with social media dominating our lives right now, it has become more critical than ever to distinguish fake news from real news events. This is where Machine Learning can help. Facebook already uses AI to filter fake and spammy stories from the feeds of users. This ML project aims to leverage NLP (Natural Language Processing) techniques to detect fake news and misleading stories that emerge from non-reputable sources. You can also use the classic text classification approach to design a model that can differentiate between real and fake news. In the latter method, you can collect datasets for both real and fake news and create an ML model using the Naive Bayes classifier to classify a piece of news as fraudulent or real based on the words and phrases used in it. 16. Enrol Email Project The Enron email dataset contains almost 500k emails of over 150 users. It is an extremely valuable dataset for natural language processing. This project involves building an ML model that uses the k-means clustering algorithm to detect fraudulent actions. The model will separate the observations into ‘k’ number of clusters according to similar patterns in the dataset. 17. Parkinson’s project The Parkinson dataset includes 195 biomedical records of people with 23 varied characteristics. The idea behind this project is to design an ML model that can differentiate between healthy people and those suffering from Parkinson’s disease. The model uses the XGboost (extreme gradient boosting) algorithm based on decision trees to make the separation. 18. Flickr 30K project The Flickr 30K dataset consists of more than 30,000 images, each having a unique caption. You will use this dataset to build an image caption generator. The idea is to build a CNN model that can effectively analyze and extract features from an image and create a befitting caption describing the image in English. 19. Mall customers project As the name suggests, the mall customers dataset includes the records of people who visited the mall, such as gender, age, customer ID, annual income, spending score, etc. You will build a model that will use this data to segment the customers into different groups based on their behavior patterns. Such customer segmentation is a highly useful marketing tactic used by brands and marketers to boost sales and revenue while also increasing customer satisfaction.  20. Kinetics project  For this project, you will use an extensive dataset that includes three separate datasets – Kinetics 400, Kinetics 600, and Kinetics 700 – containing URL links of over 6.5 million high-quality videos. Your goal is to create a model that can detect and identify the actions of a human by studying a series of different observations. 21. Recommendation system project  This a rich dataset collection containing a diverse range of datasets gathered from popular websites like Goodreads book reviews, Amazon product reviews, social media, etc. Your goal is to build a recommendation engine (like the ones used by Amazon and Netflix) that can generate personalized recommendations for products, movies, music, etc., based on customer preferences, needs, and online behavior. 22. The Boston housing project The Boston housing dataset consists of the details of different houses in Boston based on factors like tax rate, crime rate, number of rooms in a house, etc. It is an excellent dataset for predicting the prices of different houses in Boston. In this project, you will build a model that can predict the price of a new house using linear regression. Linear regression is best suited for this project since it is used where the data has a linear relationship between the input and output values and when the input is unknown. 23. Cityscapes project This open-source dataset includes high-quality pixel-level annotations of video sequences collected from the streets across 50 different cities. It is immensely useful for semantic analysis. You can use this dataset to train deep neural nets to analyze and understand the urban cityscape. The project involves designing a model that can perform image segmentation and identify various objects (cars, buses, trucks, trees, roads, people, etc.) from a street video sequence.  24. YouTube 8M project  The Youtube 8M is a huge dataset that has 6.1 million YouTube video IDs, 350,000 hours of video, 2.6 billion audio/visual features, 3862 classes, and an average of 3 labels for each video. It is widely used for video classification projects. In this project, you will build a video classification system that can accurately describe a video. It will consider a series of different inputs and classify the videos into separate categories. 25. Urban sound 8K The urban sound 8K dataset is used for sound classification. It includes a diverse collection of 8732 urban sounds belonging to different classes such as sirens, street music, dog barking, birds chirping, people talking, etc. You will design a sound classification model that can automatically detect which urban sound is playing in the 26. IMDB-Wiki project  This labeled dataset is probably one of the most extensive collections of face images gathered from across IMDB and Wikipedia. It has over 5 million face images labeled with age and gender. with labeled gender and age. You will create a model that can detect faces and predict their age and gender with accuracy. You can make different age segments/ranges like 0-10, 10-20, 30-40, and so on.  27. Librispeech project The librispeech dataset is a massive collection of English speeches derived from the  LibriVox project. It contains English-read speeches in various accents that span over 1000 hours and is the perfect tool for speech recognition. The focus of this project is to create a model that can automatically translate audio into text. You will build a speech recognition system that can detect English speech and translate it into text format.  28. German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) project This dataset contains more than 50,000 images of traffic signs segmented into 43 classes and containing information on the bounding box of each traffic sign. It is ideal for multiclass classification which is exactly what you will focus on here. You will build a model using a deep learning framework that can recognize the bounding box of signs and classify traffic signs. The project can be extremely useful for autonomous vehicles as it detects signs and helps drivers take the necessary actions. 29. Sports match video text summarization This project is exactly as it sounds – obtaining an accurate and concise summary of a sports video. It is a useful tool for sports websites that inform readers about the match highlights. Since neural networks are best for text summarization, you will build this model using deep learning networks such as 3D-CNNs, RNNs, and LSTMs. You will first fragment a sports video into multiple sections by using the appropriate ML algorithms and then use a combination of SVM(Support vector machines), neural networks, and k-means algorithm. 30. Business meeting summary generator Summarization involves extracting the most meaningful and valuable bits of information from conversations, audio/video files, etc., briefly and concisely. It is generally done by feature capturing the statistical, linguistic, and sentimental traits with the dialogue structure of the conversation in question. In this project, you will use deep learning and natural language processing techniques to create precise summaries of business meetings while upholding the context of the entire conversation. 31. Sentiment analysis for depression Depression is a major health concern globally. Each year, millions of people commit suicide due to depression and poor mental health. Usually, the stigma attached to mental health problems and delayed treatment are the two main causes behind this. In this project, you will leverage the data gathered from different social media platforms and analyze linguistic markers in social media posts to understand the mental health of individuals. The idea is to create a deep learning model that can offer valuable and accurate insights into one’s mental health much earlier than conventional methods. 32. Handwritten equation solver  Handwritten mathematical expression recognition is a crucial field of study in computer vision research. You will build a model and train it to solve handwritten mathematical equations using Convolutional Neural Networks. The model will also make use of image processing techniques. This project involves training the model with the right data to make it adept at reading handwritten digits, symbols, etc., to deliver correct results for mathematical equations of different complexity levels. 33. Facial recognition to detect mood and recommend songs It is a known fact that people listen to music based on their current mood and feelings. So, why not create an application that can detect a person’s mood by their facial expressions and recommend songs accordingly? For this, you will use computer vision elements and techniques. The goal is to create a model that can effectively leverage computer vision to help computers gain a high-level understanding of images and videos. 34. Music generator A music composition is nothing but a melodious combination of different frequency levels. In this project, you will design an automatic music generator that can compose short pieces of music with minimal human intervention. You will use deep learning algorithms and LTSM networks for building this music generator. 35. Disease prediction system This ML project is designed to predict diseases. You will create this model using R and R Studio and the Breast Cancer Wisconsin (Diagnostic) Dataset. This dataset includes two predictor classes – benign and malignant breast mass. It is essential to have a basic knowledge of random forests and XGBoost for working on this project. 36. Finding a habitable exo-planet  In the past decade, we’ve been successful in identifying many transiting and exo-planets. Since the manual interpretation of potential exoplanets is pretty challenging and time-consuming (not to forget, it is also subject to human error), it is best to use deep learning to identify exoplanets. This project aims to find out if there are any habitable exoplanets around us using CNNs and noisy time-series data. This method can identify habitable exoplanets with more precision than the least-squares method. 37. Image regeneration for old & damaged reels Restoring old or damaged picture reels is a challenging task. It is almost always impossible to restore old photos to their original state. However, deep learning can solve this problem. You will build a deep learning model that can identify the defects in an image (scuffs, holes, folds, decoloration, etc.) and using Inpainting algorithms to restore it. You can even colorize old B&W images. 38. Loan Eligibility Prediction Loans are currently the core business especially for banks because their key profit derives from the interest levied on loans. Generally, economic growth is guaranteed when individuals put some part of their money into some business with the hope that it could multiply in the future. Although it comes with risk, sometimes it becomes inevitable to take a loan. Because loans contribute to one of the most important components of our lives, loan eligibility prediction can be greatly beneficial. Therefore, it is one of the important ML mini projects. Moreover, it is among those ML projects with great influence on various sectors. The model for evaluating the loan eligibility prediction needs to be trained through a dataset that comprises data including data. Examples of data can be marital status, gender, income, credit card history, loan amount, etc. Moreover, this machine learning idea guarantees better planning in addition to the loan being accepted or rejected. If you are looking for some AI ML projects for final year, this could be a great opportunity. 39. Inventory Demand Forecasting Zomato is a famous mobile app in India that connects customers to neighboring food chains by offering them their delivery persons. Preparing enough inventories is a responsibility that Zomato and the registered restaurants have to complete. The majority of the companies that provide need to ascertain that they have sufficient stock to meet their customers’ expectations. Therefore, it becomes vital to get a rough approximation of how much preparation is required. You can achieve this preparation using one of the valuable ML projects for beginners i.e. Inventory Demand Forecasting. The corresponding predictions in demand forecasting could be accomplished using the application of corresponding ML algorithms. Moreover, these ML projects for beginners can be executed by using ML algorithms like Boosting, Bagging, Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM), XGBoost, Support Vector Machines, and more. 40. Customer Churn Prediction Analysis Using Ensemble Techniques in Machine Learning This is one of the best Machine Learning projects. Customers are the greatest asset of any company. Retaining customers is vital to enhance revenue and develop a lasting relationship with them. Furthermore, acquiring new customers is approximately five times more expensive than retaining a prevailing customer. One of the prevalent ML mini projects when it comes to predicting customers’ churn is the “Customer Churn Prediction Analysis Using Ensemble Techniques in Machine Learning”. For this project idea, the question is how to begin solving the customer churn rate prediction ML problem. Like other ML problems, machine learning engineers or data scientists must gather and prepare the relevant data for processing. Moreover, it must use data engineering in the proper format to ensure effectiveness. It is important to note that for these ML mini projects, Feature Engineering is the greatest creative aspect of the churn prediction ML model. It implies that data specialists apply their domain knowledge of the data, business context, experience, and creativity to design features. Also, these aspects help to personalize the ML model to comprehend why customer churn takes place in a business.  41. Predict Credit Default -Credit Risk Prediction Project For MBA or management course students, this one is one of the important machine learning projects for final year. It aims to predict customers who would default on a loan. When implementing this project idea, the banks may encounter losses on credit card products from different sources. One probable reason for this loss is whenever the customers default on the loan, their debt prevents banks from collecting the payments for the offered services. In these types of machine learning projects for final year, you will scrutinize a group of the customer database to determine the number of customers seriously aberrant in paying in the subsequent 2 years. Various ML models are available to predict which customers default on a loan. Based on this information, the banks can cancel the credit lines for precarious customers or reduce the credit limit issued on the card to reduce losses.  42. Predicting Interest Levels of Rental Listings We all want to comfortably lie in our homes after working for long hours at the workplace. The pandemic has revamped the work culture and facilitated work from home culture. So, the significance of finding a comfortable house has increased. This project idea performs a sentimental investigation on the viewers for different rental listings. It becomes easy to evaluate their reactions to specific houses. Accordingly, it becomes easy to determine the popularity of those houses available for rent. Furthermore, it can predict the interest rates of new locations yet to be listed.  43. Driver Demand Prediction Food delivery services and ride-sharing worldwide depend on the drivers’ availability. This is an easy-to-use ML project for beginners that predicts the driver demand by transforming a time series problem into a controlled machine learning problem. Moreover, exploratory analysis needs to be carried out on the time series to recognize patterns. Partial Auto-Correlation Function (PACF) and Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) will be employed to evaluate the time series. Furthermore, this project idea implies building the regression model to solve the time-series problem.  44. Market Basket Analysis In terms of customer purchase patterns, Market Basket Analysis is one of the valuable machine learning based projects.  It understands the combinations in which the customers usually purchase different commodities. Moreover, it is somewhat similar to the AI ML projects because it uses a data mining technique that observes purchasing patterns of consumers to understand them and eventually boost sales effectively. This project idea is such that if a customer buys an item(s), it raises the chances of buying another item(s). The interest in other items (s) is based on the purchasing behaviors of former customers. Furthermore, this project idea is used for targeted promotions and to provide customers with tailored recommendations. 45. Production Line Performance Checker Leading engineering and technology companies, for example, Bosch deals with various business sectors like consumer goods, industrial technology, etc. One of the greatest challenges such companies face is to keep track of the manufacturing of the companies’ mechanical modules. One of the most practical machine learning based projects is the Production Line Performance Checker. Like AI ML projects, this one also uses the latest technologies to predict the failures in the components’ production over the assembly line. It faces a challenge while implementing the analytical techniques because the production lines are usually complex, and the data may not be analyst-friendly. This challenge makes this machine learning project idea interesting. Real-world industry projects  Magenta This research project focuses on exploring the applications of machine learning in the creation process of art and music. You will develop unique reinforcement learning and deep learning algorithms that can generate images, songs, music, and much more. It is the perfect project for creative minds passionate about art and music.  BluEx BluEx is among the leading logistics company in India that has developed quite a fanbase, thanks to its timely and efficient deliveries. However, as is true of all logistics providers, BluEx faces one particular challenge that costs both time and money – its drivers do not frequent the optimal delivery paths which causes delays and leads to higher fuel costs. You will create an ML model using reinforcement learning that can find the most efficient path for a particular delivery location. This can save up to 15% of the fuel cost for BluEx.  Motion Studios Motion Studios boasts of being Europe’s largest Radio production house with revenue exceeding a billion dollars. Ever since the media company launched their reality show, RJ Star, they’ve received a phenomenal response and are flooded with voice clips. Being a reality show, there’s a limited time window for choosing candidates. You will build a model that can differentiate between male and female voices and classify voice clips to facilitate quicker filtration. This will help is faster selection, easing the task of the show executives.  LithionPower Lithionpower builds batteries for electric vehicles. Usually, drivers rent the company’s batteries for a day and replace them with a charged battery. The battery life depends on factors like distance driven/day, overspeeding, etc. LithionPower employs a variable pricing model based on a driver’s driving history. The goal of this project is to build a cluster model that will group drivers according to their driving history and incentivize drivers based on those clusters. While this will increase profits by 15-20%, it will also charge more from drivers having a poor driving history.  Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses IoT: History, Present & Future Machine Learning Tutorial: Learn ML What is Algorithm? Simple & Easy Robotics Engineer Salary in India : All Roles A Day in the Life of a Machine Learning Engineer: What do they do? What is IoT (Internet of Things) Permutation vs Combination: Difference between Permutation and Combination Top 7 Trends in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Machine Learning with R: Everything You Need to Know AI & ML Free Courses Introduction to NLP Fundamentals of Deep Learning of Neural Networks Linear Regression: Step by Step Guide Artificial Intelligence in the Real World Introduction to Tableau Case Study using Python, SQL and Tableau Steps to Keep in Mind to Complete a Machine Learning Project for Beginners –  You must adhere to a set of established procedures when working on AI and ML projects. For each initiative, we must first gather the information in accordance with our operational requirements. The following stage is to clean the data, which includes deleting values, addressing outliers, handling unbalanced datasets, and converting them to a numeric value, among other things. There are different algorithms that you can follow to create the best machine learning projects.  Gathering Data  When collecting data for AI ML projects, it is necessary to ask certain questions yourself. For example, what is the problem you are trying to solve? Are there previously existing data sources? Is the data publicly available?  When talking about structured data, they can be of different types, like, as categorical, numerical, and ordinal.  Categorical data – Categorical data in AI ML projects refers to the data that is collected based on the name, age, sex, or even hair colour. For example, when selling a car, there are several categories, like colour, type of wheel, etc.  Numerical – Any data that is collected in the form of numbers is called numerical data. It is also known as quantitative data. For example, if you are selling a house, the numerical data would be the price or the surface area.  Ordinal – Ordinal data in AI ML projects  refers to a set order or scale is used with ordinal data, which is a type of categorical data. For example, using a scale of 1-10, a person’s response indicates their level of financial happiness.  Preparing the Data  The act of data preparation for AI and ML projects involves gathering the information you need, converting it to a computer-readable format, and testing its accuracy and bias by asking hard questions about it.  Instead of concentrating exclusively on the data of the AI ML projects for beginners, take into account the problem you’re attempting to solve. That could make decisions regarding the sort of data to collect, how to make sure it serves the main objective, and how to structure it appropriately for a particular sort of algorithm easier to make. In addition to allowing them to adjust to model performance drifts and changes in direction to data analytical challenges, good information preprocessing may result in more precise and effective methods and ultimately spare data analysts and entrepreneurs a great deal of time and effort. This could help you prepare AI ML projects for beginners.  Evaluation of Data  Plans for evaluation of best ML projects should include where, how, and from what sources data is gathered. The structure used to gather both quantitative (numerical) and qualitative data must keep up with performance objectives, project schedules, and programme goals.  Model Production This is one of the most important steps in preparing for AI ML projects for beginners. This step helps you determine how the model is performing. To make sure that the testing is fine, you may use machine learning tools like PyTorch Serving, Sagemaker, Google AI Platform, and more. You can also use MLOps (a mixture of machine learning and software engineering), which includes all the technologies that are required to make sure that the machine learning model works just fine. This is also an important step when making AI ML projects for final year.  Conclusion Here is a comprehensive list of machine learning project ideas. Machine learning is still at an early stage throughout the world. There are a lot of projects to be done, and a lot to be improved. With smart minds and sharp ideas, systems with support business get better, faster and profitable. If you wish to excel in  Machine Learning, you must gather hands-on experience with such machine learning projects. You can also check our Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI from IIT Delhi. IIT Delhi is one the most prestigious institutions in India. With more the 500+ In-house faculty members which are the best in the subject matters. Only by working with ML tools and ML algorithms can you understand how ML infrastructures work in reality. Now go ahead and put to test all the knowledge that you’ve gathered through our machine learning project ideas guide to build your very own machine learning projects! Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to ₹70,000/- You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.
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by Jaideep Khare

14 Sep 2023

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