Homebreadcumb forward arrow iconBlogbreadcumb forward arrow iconArtificial Intelligencebreadcumb forward arrow iconData Preprocessing in Machine Learning: 7 Easy Steps To Follow

Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning: 7 Easy Steps To Follow

Last updated:
18th Feb, 2024
Read Time
24 Mins
share image icon
In this article
Chevron in toc
View All
Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning: 7 Easy Steps To Follow


In this article, you will learn about data preprocessing in Machine Learning: 7 easy steps to follow.

  1. Acquire the dataset
  2. Import all the crucial libraries
  3. Import the dataset
  4. Identifying and handling the missing values
  5. Encoding the categorical data
  6. Splitting the dataset
  7. Feature scaling

Read more to know each in detail.

Data preprocessing in Machine Learning is a crucial step that helps enhance the quality of data to promote the extraction of meaningful insights from the data. Data preprocessing in Machine Learning refers to the technique of preparing (cleaning and organizing) the raw data to make it suitable for a building and training Machine Learning models. In simple words, data preprocessing in Machine Learning is a data mining technique that transforms raw data into an understandable and readable format. 

Data Preprocessing In Machine Learning: What Is It?

Data preprocessing steps are a part of the data analysis and mining process responsible for converting raw data into a format understandable by the ML algorithms. 

Ads of upGrad blog

Text, photos, video, and other types of unprocessed, real-world data are disorganized. It may not only be inaccurate and inconsistent, but it is frequently lacking and doesn’t have a regular, consistent design. Machines prefer to process neat and orderly information; they read data as binary – 1s and 0s. 

So, it is simple to calculate structured data like whole numbers and percentages. But before analysis, unstructured data, such as text and photos, must be prepped and formatted with the help of data preprocessing in Machine Learning

Now that you know what is data preprocessing in machine learning, explore the major tasks in data preprocessing. 

Why is Data Preprocessing important?

Data preprocessing steps or data preprocessing techniques in machine learning is important for varied reasons. They are: –

  • Enhancing Data Quality

Data preprocessing in machine learning is crucial for enhancing data quality, forming the bedrock of reliable insights. Cleaning and refining raw data eliminates inaccuracies, missing values, and inconsistencies, ensuring that subsequent analyses and models are built on a solid foundation. This meticulous data preprocessing in machine learning directly impacts the accuracy and credibility of the conclusions drawn from the data.

  • Handling Missing Data

Addressing missing data preprocessing in machine learning is a pivotal aspect of data preprocessing. By employing techniques such as imputation or removal, the gap in information is effectively mitigated. This ensures that analytical models are not skewed by the absence of crucial data points, contributing to more robust and accurate outcomes.

  • Standardizing and Normalizing

Standardizing and normalizing data during data preprocessing steps ensure consistency in measurements, a critical factor in data analysis. This step transforms diverse scales and units into a standardized format, facilitating fair comparisons and preventing certain features from dominating others. The result is a leveled playing field where each variable contributes proportionately to the analysis.

  • Eliminating Duplicate Records

Steps in data preprocessing involves identifying and eliminating duplicate records, a key element in maintaining data integrity. Duplicate entries can distort analyses and mislead decision-making processes. By removing redundancies, the dataset retains its accuracy, and subsequent analyses yield trustworthy and actionable insights.

  • Handling Outliers

Detecting and handling outliers is imperative in steps in data preprocessing. Outlier anomalies in the dataset can significantly impact statistical analyses and modeling outcomes. Robust data preprocessing techniques in machine learning such as trimming or transforming outliers, ensure that the influence of extreme values is mitigated, fostering more reliable and resilient data analyses.

  • Helps in Improving Model Performance

Preprocessing steps in machine learning significantly contributes to improving model performance in predictive analytics. Clean, standardized, and well-processed data serves as the input for machine learning models. By providing models with high-quality data, preprocessing optimizes their performance, enhancing their ability to generate accurate predictions and insights.f

Overall, preprocessing steps in machine learning is a critical phase in the data analysis pipeline. It goes beyond mere data cleaning by ensuring that data is refined, standardized, and prepared for analysis, contributing to the reliability and accuracy of subsequent modeling and decision-making processes. The attention given to data preprocessing directly translates into the quality and trustworthiness of insights derived from the data.

Data Preprocessing Steps In Machine Learning: Major Tasks Involved

Data cleaning, Data transformation, Data reduction, and Data integration are the major steps in data preprocessing

Data Cleaning

Data cleaning, one of the major preprocessing steps in machine learning, locates and fixes errors or discrepancies in the data. From duplicates and outliers to missing numbers, it fixes them all. Methods like transformation, removal, and imputation help ML professionals perform data cleaning seamlessly. 

Data Integration

Data integration is among the major responsibilities of data preprocessing in machine learning. This process integrates (merges) information extracted from multiple sources to outline and create a single dataset. The fact that you need to handle data in multiple forms, formats, and semantics makes data integration a challenging task for many ML developers. 

Data Transformation 

ML programmers must pay close attention to data transformation when it comes to data preprocessing steps. This process entails putting the data in a format that will allow for analysis. Normalization, standardization, and discretisation are common data transformation procedures. While standardization transforms data to have a zero mean and unit variance, normalization scales data to a common range. Continuous data is discretized into discrete categories using this technique. 

Data Reduction 

Data reduction is the process of lowering the dataset’s size while maintaining crucial information. Through the use of feature selection and feature extraction algorithms, data reduction can be accomplished. While feature extraction entails translating the data into a lower-dimensional space while keeping the crucial information, feature selection requires choosing a subset of pertinent characteristics from the dataset. 

Why Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning?

When it comes to creating a Machine Learning model, data preprocessing is the first step marking the initiation of the process. Typically, real-world data is incomplete, inconsistent, inaccurate (contains errors or outliers), and often lacks specific attribute values/trends. This is where data preprocessing enters the scenario – it helps to clean, format, and organize the raw data, thereby making it ready-to-go for Machine Learning models. Let’s explore various steps of data preprocessing in machine learning. 

Join Artificial Intelligence Course online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career.

Steps in Data Preprocessing in Machine Learning

 There are seven significant steps in data preprocessing in Machine Learning:

 1. Acquire the dataset

Acquiring the dataset is the first step in data preprocessing in machine learning. To build and develop Machine Learning models, you must first acquire the relevant dataset. This dataset will be comprised of data gathered from multiple and disparate sources which are then combined in a proper format to form a dataset. Dataset formats differ according to use cases. For instance, a business dataset will be entirely different from a medical dataset. While a business dataset will contain relevant industry and business data, a medical dataset will include healthcare-related data.

There are several online sources from where you can download datasets like and You can also create a dataset by collecting data via different Python APIs. Once the dataset is ready, you must put it in CSV, or HTML, or XLSX file formats.

2. Import all the crucial libraries

Since Python is the most extensively used and also the most preferred library by Data Scientists around the world, we’ll show you how to import Python libraries for data preprocessing in Machine Learning. Read more about Python libraries for Data Science here. The predefined Python libraries can perform specific data preprocessing jobs. Importing all the crucial libraries is the second step in data preprocessing in machine learning. The three core Python libraries used for this data preprocessing in Machine Learning are:

  • NumPy – NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific calculation in Python. Hence, it is used for inserting any type of mathematical operation in the code. Using NumPy, you can also add large multidimensional arrays and matrices in your code. 
  • Pandas – Pandas is an excellent open-source Python library for data manipulation and analysis. It is extensively used for importing and managing the datasets. It packs in high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for Python.
  • Matplotlib – Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library that is used to plot any type of charts in Python. It can deliver publication-quality figures in numerous hard copy formats and interactive environments across platforms (IPython shells, Jupyter notebook, web application servers, etc.). 

Read: Machine Learning Project Ideas for Beginners

3. Import the dataset

In this step, you need to import the dataset/s that you have gathered for the ML project at hand. Importing the dataset is one of the important steps in data preprocessing in machine learning. However, before you can import the dataset/s, you must set the current directory as the working directory. You can set the working directory in Spyder IDE in three simple steps:

  1. Save your Python file in the directory containing the dataset.
  2. Go to File Explorer option in Spyder IDE and choose the required directory.
  3. Now, click on the F5 button or Run option to execute the file.

data preprocessing in machine learning


This is how the working directory should look. 

Once you’ve set the working directory containing the relevant dataset, you can import the dataset using the “read_csv()” function of the Pandas library. This function can read a CSV file (either locally or through a URL) and also perform various operations on it. The read_csv() is written as:

data_set= pd.read_csv(‘Dataset.csv’)

In this line of code, “data_set” denotes the name of the variable wherein you stored the dataset. The function contains the name of the dataset as well. Once you execute this code, the dataset will be successfully imported. 

During the dataset importing process, there’s another essential thing you must do – extracting dependent and independent variables. For every Machine Learning model, it is necessary to separate the independent variables (matrix of features) and dependent variables in a dataset. 

Consider this dataset:

data preprocessing in ml - steps


This dataset contains three independent variables – country, age, and salary, and one dependent variable – purchased. 

 Check out upGrad’s free courses on AI.

How to extract the independent variables?

To extract the independent variables, you can use “iloc[ ]” function of the Pandas library. This function can extract selected rows and columns from the dataset.

x= data_set.iloc[:,:-1].values  

In the line of code above, the first colon(:) considers all the rows and the second colon(:) considers all the columns. The code contains “:-1” since you have to leave out the last column containing the dependent variable. By executing this code, you will obtain the matrix of features, like this – 

[[‘India’ 38.0 68000.0]  

 [‘France’ 43.0 45000.0]  

 [‘Germany’ 30.0 54000.0]  

 [‘France’ 48.0 65000.0]  

 [‘Germany’ 40.0 nan]  

 [‘India’ 35.0 58000.0]  

 [‘Germany’ nan 53000.0]  

 [‘France’ 49.0 79000.0]  

 [‘India’ 50.0 88000.0]  

 [‘France’ 37.0 77000.0]] 

Must Read: Free deep learning course!

How to extract the dependent variable?

You can use the “iloc[ ]” function to extract the dependent variable as well. Here’s how you write it:

y= data_set.iloc[:,3].values  

This line of code considers all the rows with the last column only. By executing the above code, you will get the array of dependent variables, like so – 

array([‘No’, ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘No’, ‘Yes’, ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Yes’],


Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online

4. Identifying and handling the missing values

In data preprocessing, it is pivotal to identify and correctly handle the missing values, failing to do this, you might draw inaccurate and faulty conclusions and inferences from the data. Needless to say, this will hamper your ML project. 

Basically, there are two ways to handle missing data:

  • Deleting a particular row – In this method, you remove a specific row that has a null value for a feature or a particular column where more than 75% of the values are missing. However, this method is not 100% efficient, and it is recommended that you use it only when the dataset has adequate samples. You must ensure that after deleting the data, there remains no addition of bias. 
  • Calculating the mean – This method is useful for features having numeric data like age, salary, year, etc. Here, you can calculate the mean, median, or mode of a particular feature or column or row that contains a missing value and replace the result for the missing value. This method can add variance to the dataset, and any loss of data can be efficiently negated. Hence, it yields better results compared to the first method (omission of rows/columns). Another way of approximation is through the deviation of neighbouring values. However, this works best for linear data.

Read: Applications of Machine Learning Applications Using Cloud

5. Encoding the categorical data

Categorical data refers to the information that has specific categories within the dataset. In the dataset cited above, there are two categorical variables – country and purchased.

Machine Learning models are primarily based on mathematical equations. Thus, you can intuitively understand that keeping the categorical data in the equation will cause certain issues since you would only need numbers in the equations.

How to encode the country variable?

As seen in our dataset example, the country column will cause problems, so you must convert it into numerical values. To do so, you can use the LabelEncoder() class from the sci-kit learn library. The code will be as follows –

#Catgorical data  

#for Country Variable  

from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder  

label_encoder_x= LabelEncoder()  

x[:, 0]= label_encoder_x.fit_transform(x[:, 0]) 

 And the output will be – 


  array([[2, 38.0, 68000.0],

            [0, 43.0, 45000.0],

         [1, 30.0, 54000.0],

         [0, 48.0, 65000.0],

         [1, 40.0, 65222.22222222222],

         [2, 35.0, 58000.0],

         [1, 41.111111111111114, 53000.0],

         [0, 49.0, 79000.0],

         [2, 50.0, 88000.0],

        [0, 37.0, 77000.0]], dtype=object)

 Here we can see that the LabelEncoder class has successfully encoded the variables into digits. However, there are country variables that are encoded as 0, 1, and 2 in the output shown above. So, the ML model may assume that there is come some correlation between the three variables, thereby producing faulty output. To eliminate this issue, we will now use Dummy Encoding.

Dummy variables are those that take the values 0 or 1 to indicate the absence or presence of a specific categorical effect that can shift the outcome. In this case, the value 1 indicates the presence of that variable in a particular column while the other variables become of value 0. In dummy encoding, the number of columns equals the number of categories.

Since our dataset has three categories, it will produce three columns having the values 0 and 1. For Dummy Encoding, we will use OneHotEncoder class of the scikit-learn library. The input code will be as follows – 

#for Country Variable  

from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder, OneHotEncoder  

label_encoder_x= LabelEncoder()  

x[:, 0]= label_encoder_x.fit_transform(x[:, 0])  

#Encoding for dummy variables  

onehot_encoder= OneHotEncoder(categorical_features= [0])    

x= onehot_encoder.fit_transform(x).toarray()

 On execution of this code, you will get the following output –

 array([[0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 3.80000000e+01,


       [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.30000000e+01,


       [0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 3.00000000e+01,


       [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.80000000e+01,


       [0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.00000000e+01,


       [0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 3.50000000e+01,


       [0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.11111111e+01,


       [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 4.90000000e+01,


       [0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00, 5.00000000e+01,


       [1.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 3.70000000e+01,


 In the output shown above, all the variables are divided into three columns and encoded into the values 0 and 1.

How to encode the purchased variable?

For the second categorical variable, that is, purchased, you can use the “labelencoder” object of the LableEncoder class. We are not using the OneHotEncoder class since the purchased variable only has two categories yes or no, both of which are encoded into 0 and 1.

The input code for this variable will be – 

labelencoder_y= LabelEncoder()  

y= labelencoder_y.fit_transform(y) 

The output will be – 

Out[17]: array([0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1])

In-demand Machine Learning Skills

6. Handling Outliers in Data Preprocessing

Outliers are data points that significantly deviate from the rest of the dataset. These anomalies can skew the results of machine learning models, leading to inaccurate predictions. In the context of data preprocessing, identifying and handling outliers is crucial. Outliers can arise due to measurement errors, data corruption, or genuinely unusual observations.

Detecting outliers often involves using statistical methods such as the Z-score, which measures how many standard deviations a data point is away from the mean. Another method is the Interquartile Range (IQR), which identifies data points outside a certain range around the median.

Once outliers are detected, there are several ways to handle them:

  • Removal

Outliers can be removed from the dataset if erroneous or irrelevant. However, this should be done cautiously, as removing outliers can impact the representativeness of the data.

  • Transformation

Transforming the data using techniques like log transformation or winsorization can reduce the impact of outliers without completely discarding them.

  • Imputation

Outliers can be replaced with more typical values through mean, median, or regression-based imputation methods.

  • Binning or Discretization

Binning involves dividing the range of values into a set of intervals or bins and then assigning the outlier values to the nearest bin. This technique can help mitigate the effect of extreme values by grouping them with nearby values.

7. Splitting the dataset

Splitting the dataset is the next step in data preprocessing in machine learning. Every dataset for Machine Learning model must be split into two separate sets – training set and test set. 

data preprocessing


Training set denotes the subset of a dataset that is used for training the machine learning model. Here, you are already aware of the output. A test set, on the other hand, is the subset of the dataset that is used for testing the machine learning model. The ML model uses the test set to predict outcomes. 

Usually, the dataset is split into 70:30 ratio or 80:20 ratio. This means that you either take 70% or 80% of the data for training the model while leaving out the rest 30% or 20%. The splitting process varies according to the shape and size of the dataset in question. 

 To split the dataset, you have to write the following line of code – 

 from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split  

x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test= train_test_split(x, y, test_size= 0.2, random_state=0)  

Here, the first line splits the arrays of the dataset into random train and test subsets. The second line of code includes four variables:

  • x_train – features for the training data
  • x_test – features for the test data
  • y_train – dependent variables for training data
  • y_test – independent variable for testing data

Thus, the train_test_split() function includes four parameters, the first two of which are for arrays of data. The test_size function specifies the size of the test set. The test_size maybe .5, .3, or .2 – this specifies the dividing ratio between the training and test sets. The last parameter, “random_state” sets seed for a random generator so that the output is always the same. 

8. Dealing with Imbalanced Datasets in Machine Learning

In many real-world scenarios, datasets are imbalanced, meaning that one class has significantly fewer examples than another. Imbalanced datasets can lead to biased models that perform well on the majority class but struggle with the minority class.

Dealing with imbalanced datasets involves various strategies:

  • Resampling

Oversampling the minority class (creating duplicates) or undersampling the majority class (removing instances) can balance the class distribution. However, these methods come with potential risks like overfitting (oversampling) or loss of information (undersampling).

  • Synthetic Data Generation

Some of the ways like Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique generate synthetic samples by interpolating between existing instances of the outvoted class.

  • Cost-Sensitive Learning

It is all about allocating varied misclassification costs to various classes during model training that can uplift the complete model to center on correctly classifying the minority class.

  • Ensemble Methods

Ensemble techniques like Random Forest or Gradient Boosting can handle imbalanced data by combining multiple models to perform better on both classes.

9. Feature scaling

Feature scaling marks the end of the data preprocessing in Machine Learning. It is a method to standardize the independent variables of a dataset within a specific range. In other words, feature scaling limits the range of variables so that you can compare them on common grounds.

Consider this dataset for example – 


In the dataset, you can notice that the age and salary columns do not have the same scale. In such a scenario, if you compute any two values from the age and salary columns, the salary values will dominate the age values and deliver incorrect results. Thus, you must remove this issue by performing feature scaling for Machine Learning.

Most ML models are based on Euclidean Distance, which is represented as:


You can perform feature scaling in Machine Learning in two ways:






For our dataset, we will use the standardization method. To do so, we will import StandardScaler class of the sci-kit-learn library using the following line of code:

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler  

The next step will be to create the object of StandardScaler class for independent variables. After this, you can fit and transform the training dataset using the following code:

st_x= StandardScaler()  

x_train= st_x.fit_transform(x_train) 

For the test dataset, you can directly apply transform() function (you need not use the fit_transform() function because it is already done in training set). The code will be as follows – 

x_test= st_x.transform(x_test) 

The output for the test dataset will show the scaled values for x_train and x_test as:

data preprocessing in machine learning : steps



All the variables in the output are scaled between the values -1 and 1.

Now, to combine all the steps we’ve performed so far, you get: 


# importing libraries  

import numpy as nm  

import matplotlib.pyplot as mtp  

import pandas as pd  


#importing datasets  

data_set= pd.read_csv(‘Dataset.csv’)  


#Extracting Independent Variable  

x= data_set.iloc[:, :-1].values  


#Extracting Dependent variable  

y= data_set.iloc[:, 3].values  


#handling missing data(Replacing missing data with the mean value)  

from sklearn.preprocessing import Imputer  

imputer= Imputer(missing_values =’NaN’, strategy=’mean’, axis = 0)  


#Fitting imputer object to the independent varibles x.   

imputerimputer=[:, 1:3])  


#Replacing missing data with the calculated mean value  

x[:, 1:3]= imputer.transform(x[:, 1:3])  


#for Country Variable  

from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder, OneHotEncoder  

label_encoder_x= LabelEncoder()  

x[:, 0]= label_encoder_x.fit_transform(x[:, 0])  


#Encoding for dummy variables  

onehot_encoder= OneHotEncoder(categorical_features= [0])    

x= onehot_encoder.fit_transform(x).toarray()  


#encoding for purchased variable  

labelencoder_y= LabelEncoder()  

y= labelencoder_y.fit_transform(y)  


# Splitting the dataset into training and test set.  

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split  

x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test= train_test_split(x, y, test_size= 0.2, random_state=0)  


#Feature Scaling of datasets  

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler  

st_x= StandardScaler()  

x_train= st_x.fit_transform(x_train)  

x_test= st_x.transform(x_test)  

10. Feature Engineering for Improved Model Performance

Feature engineering involves creating new features from existing ones to improve the performance of machine learning models. It aims to enhance the predictive power of models by providing them with more relevant and informative input variables.

Common techniques in feature engineering include:

  • Feature Scaling: Scaling features to a similar range can improve the convergence and performance of algorithms sensitive to input variables’ scale.
  • Feature Extraction: Techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can reduce the dimensionality of datasets while retaining most of the original information.
  • One-Hot Encoding: Converting categorical variables into binary indicators (0s and 1s) to ensure compatibility with algorithms that require numerical input.
  • Polynomial Features: Generating higher-degree polynomial features can capture non-linear relationships between variables.
  • Domain-Specific Features: Incorporating domain knowledge to create more relevant features to the problem at hand.

Effective feature engineering requires a deep understanding of the dataset and the problem domain and iterative experimentation to identify which engineered features lead to improved model performance.

How is data preprocessing used?

  • Foundation of AI and ML Development

Steps involved in data preprocessing in machine learning is a cornerstone in the early stages of AI and machine learning (ML) application development, laying the foundation for accuracy. It involves refining, transforming, and structuring data to enhance the performance of new models. This critical data pre processing steps not only improves model accuracy but also optimizes computational efficiency, reducing the overall computational burden.

  • Reusable Components for Innovation

A robust data pre processing steps pipeline establishes reusable components, facilitating the exploration of innovative ideas. This flexibility proves invaluable in testing various concepts aimed at streamlining business processes or enhancing customer satisfaction. For instance, preprocessing can refine how data is organized in a recommendation engine, enhancing age ranges for customer categorization.

  • Simplifying BI Insights

Steps of data preprocessing simplifies the creation and modification of data, contributing to more accurate and targeted business intelligence (BI) insights. It enables BI teams to seamlessly weave together insights derived from customers of different sizes, categories, or regions. For instance, data preprocessing python can align data into appropriate forms, enabling BI dashboards to effectively capture diverse customer behaviors across regions.

  • Enhancing CRM with Web Mining

In a customer relationship management context, steps of data preprocessing is integral to web mining. Web usage logs undergo preprocessing to extract meaningful sets of data known as user transactions. These transactions, composed of groups of URL references, hold crucial information about user interactions with websites. By extracting and data preprocessing in machine learning, valuable insights are generated and applicable to consumer research, marketing, and personalization efforts.

  • Tailored Insights through Session Tracking

Session tracking, an outcome of data preprocessing python, unveils valuable patterns in user behavior within CRM systems. This involves identifying users and tracking requested websites, their orders, and the duration spent on each. These tailored insights derived from processed data empower businesses with actionable information, aiding in strategic decision-making, marketing strategies, and personalized customer interactions.

  • Fueling Precision in Consumer Research

Processed web usage data, a result of data preprocessing in machine learning, becomes a powerful tool in consumer research. It allows businesses to dissect user interactions, preferences, and trends with precision. By extracting meaningful information from the raw data, businesses gain a nuanced understanding of consumer behavior, influencing market strategies and fostering a more personalized approach to customer engagement.

Data preprocessing techniques is not merely a preparatory step; it is a transformative process with far-reaching implications. From shaping the accuracy of AI and ML models to simplifying BI insights and fueling precision in consumer research, its impact on diverse domains plays an essential role in shaping the future of data-driven decision-making.

Who are the professionals that preprocess data?

  • Data Scientists

They meticulously machine learning preprocessing data to extract meaningful patterns, clean inconsistencies, and ready the data for modeling. Moreover, they are equipped with statistical expertise and programming prowess. Apart from that, the data scientists navigate the intricacies of raw data, ensuring it transforms into a goldmine of actionable insights.

  • Data Engineers

Data engineers play a crucial role in constructing the foundations of python data preprocessing pipelines. They design and implement the infrastructure needed to collect, store, and transport data. Moreover, these professionals architect the flow of data, ensuring a seamless journey from raw input to refined output, laying the groundwork for efficient data processing.

  • Machine Learning Engineers

Machine learning engineers step into the python data preprocessing arena to prepare data for the algorithms they design. For that, they first understand the specific needs of machine learning models and tailor the data accordingly. This involves handling missing values, normalizing scales, and ensuring the data aligns with the model’s requirements, setting the stage for intelligent model training.

  • Business Analysts

Business analysts wield data preprocessing in machine learning as a tool to shape raw information into strategic insights. They engage in cleaning and organizing data to generate reports and dashboards. By preparing data for analysis, business analysts ensure that decision-makers receive accurate and relevant information, empowering them to make informed choices for organizational success.

  • Data Analysts

Data analysts dive into the machine learning preprocessing or data cleaning and preprocessing realm to navigate raw data toward actionable insights. They clean, filter, and transform data to reveal patterns and trends. This transformation ensures that the data tells a coherent and meaningful story, guiding stakeholders toward effective decision-making and strategic actions.

  • Data Preprocessing Specialists

In some cases, organizations enlist specialists dedicated exclusively to data cleaning and preprocessing. These specialists possess a deep understanding of preprocessing techniques, ensuring a laser-focused approach to refining raw data. Their expertise lies in unraveling the complexities of datasets, paving the way for a cleaner, more accurate, and analysis-ready information.

  • Data Managers

A data manager plays a pivotal role in overseeing diverse data systems. Their primary responsibilities include vigilant monitoring for any anomalies and aiding employees in data retrieval tasks. Beyond day-to-day operations, they actively contribute to policy development, emphasizing the safeguarding of crucial data.

This involves setting up secure password parameters, sanctioning IT access to specific files and devices, and regularly communicating insightful reports to top-tier leadership. Through a balance of hands-on supervision and strategic decision-making, data managers ensure the integrity and security of organizational data, fostering a seamless and protected digital landscape.

Best Practices For Data Preprocessing In Machine Learning

An overview of the best data preprocessing practices are outlined here: 

  • Knowing your data is among the initial steps in data preprocessing
  • You can get a sense of what needs to be your main emphasis by simply glancing through your dataset. 
  • Run a data quality assessment to determine the number of duplicates, the proportion of missing values, and outliers in the data. 
  • Utilise statistical techniques or ready-made tools to assist you in visualising the dataset and provide a clear representation of how your data appears with reference to class distribution. 
  • Eliminate any fields you believe will not be used in the modelling or closely related to other attributes. 
  • Dimensionality reduction is a crucial component of data preprocessing. Remove the fields that don’t make intuitive sense. Reduce the dimension by using dimension reduction and feature selection techniques. 
  • Do some feature engineering to determine which characteristics affect model training most.

So, that’s data processing in Machine Learning in a nutshell!

Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses

Ads of upGrad blog

You can check IIT Delhi’s Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI in association with upGrad. IIT Delhi is one of the most prestigious institutions in India. With more the 500+ In-house faculty members which are the best in the subject matters.

Refer to your Network!

If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to 70,000/-

You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.


Kechit Goyal

Blog Author
Experienced Developer, Team Player and a Leader with a demonstrated history of working in startups. Strong engineering professional with a Bachelor of Technology (BTech) focused in Computer Science from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.
Get Free Consultation

Selectcaret down icon
Select Area of interestcaret down icon
Select Work Experiencecaret down icon
By clicking 'Submit' you Agree to  
UpGrad's Terms & Conditions

Our Popular Machine Learning Course

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What is the importance of data preprocessing?

Because errors, redundancies, missing values, and inconsistencies all jeopardize the dataset's integrity, you must address all of them for a more accurate result. Assume you're using a defective dataset to train a Machine Learning system to deal with your clients' purchases. The system is likely to generate biases and deviations, resulting in a bad user experience. As a result, before you use that data for your intended purpose, it must be as organized and 'clean' as feasible. Depending on the type of difficulty you're dealing with, there are numerous options.

2What is data cleaning?

There will almost certainly be missing and noisy data in your data sets. Because the data collection procedure isn't ideal, you'll have a lot of useless and missing information. Data cleaning is the way you should employ to deal with this problem. This can be divided into two categories. The first one discusses how to deal with missing data. You can choose to ignore the missing values in this section of the data collection (called a tuple). The second data cleaning method is for data that is noisy. It's critical to get rid of useless data that can't be read by the systems if you want the entire process to run smoothly.

3What do you mean by data transformation and reduction?

Data preprocessing moves on to the transformation stage after dealing with the concerns. You use it to convert data into relevant conformations for analysis. Normalization, attribute selection, discretization, and Concept Hierarchy Generation are some of the approaches that can be used to accomplish this. Even for automated methods, sifting through large datasets can take a long time. That is why the data reduction stage is so crucial: it reduces the size of data sets by limiting them to the most important information, increasing storage efficiency while lowering the financial and time expenses of working with them.

Explore Free Courses

Suggested Blogs

15 Interesting MATLAB Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners [2024]
Diving into the world of engineering and data science, I’ve discovered the potential of MATLAB as an indispensable tool. It has accelerated my c
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

09 Jul 2024

5 Types of Research Design: Elements and Characteristics
The reliability and quality of your research depend upon several factors such as determination of target audience, the survey of a sample population,
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

07 Jul 2024

Biological Neural Network: Importance, Components & Comparison
Humans have made several attempts to mimic the biological systems, and one of them is artificial neural networks inspired by the biological neural net
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

04 Jul 2024

Production System in Artificial Intelligence and its Characteristics
The AI market has witnessed rapid growth on the international level, and it is predicted to show a CAGR of 37.3% from 2023 to 2030. The production sys
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

03 Jul 2024

AI vs Human Intelligence: Difference Between AI & Human Intelligence
In this article, you will learn about AI vs Human Intelligence, Difference Between AI & Human Intelligence. Definition of AI & Human Intelli
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

01 Jul 2024

Career Opportunities in Artificial Intelligence: List of Various Job Roles
Artificial Intelligence or AI career opportunities have escalated recently due to its surging demands in industries. The hype that AI will create tons
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

26 Jun 2024

Gini Index for Decision Trees: Mechanism, Perfect & Imperfect Split With Examples
As you start learning about supervised learning, it’s important to get acquainted with the concept of decision trees. Decision trees are akin to
Read More

by MK Gurucharan

24 Jun 2024

Random Forest Vs Decision Tree: Difference Between Random Forest and Decision Tree
Recent advancements have paved the growth of multiple algorithms. These new and blazing algorithms have set the data on fire. They help in handling da
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

24 Jun 2024

Basic CNN Architecture: Explaining 5 Layers of Convolutional Neural Network
Introduction In the last few years of the IT industry, there has been a huge demand for once particular skill set known as Deep Learning. Deep Learni
Read More

by MK Gurucharan

21 Jun 2024

Schedule 1:1 free counsellingTalk to Career Expert
footer sticky close icon