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Linear Regression Model: What is & How it Works?

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16th Dec, 2020
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Linear Regression Model: What is & How it Works?


Regression analysis is an important tool for modelling and analysing data; it is essential to find the relationship between two or more variables. Regression helps to place the data points within a curve that helps in modelling and analysing the data. Regression allows to measure and characterise the variables on different scales for evaluation of predictive models and data sets.

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Regression Model

The model involves the values of the coefficient that are used in the representation of the data. It includes the statistical properties that are used to estimate those coefficients; it is an amalgamation of all the standard deviations, covariance and correlations. All of the data must be available.

Must Read: Linear Regression Project Ideas

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The regression model is a linear condition that consolidates a particular arrangement of informatory values (x) the answer for which is the anticipated output for that set of information values (y). Both the information values (x) and the output are numeric.

The linear equation allots one scale factor to each informational value or segment, called a coefficient and denoted by the capital Greek letter Beta (B). One extra coefficient is likewise added, giving the line an extra level of opportunity (for example going all over on a two-dimensional plot) and this is frequently called the capture or the inclination coefficient. 

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For instance, in a basic regression (a simple x and a simple y), the type of the model would be: 

 y = B0 + B1*x 

 In higher measurements when we have more than one info (x), the line is known as a plane or a hyper-plane. The portrayal along these lines is the type of the condition and the particular qualities utilised for the coefficients (for example B0 and B1 in the above model). 

It isn’t unexpected to discuss the multifaceted nature of a relapse model like regression. This alludes to the number of coefficients utilised in the model. 

At the point when a coefficient gets zero, it adequately eliminates the impact of the information variable on the model and subsequently from the forecast produced using the model (0 * x = 0). This is pertinent in the event that you take a look at regularisation techniques that change the learning calculation to decrease the multifaceted nature of relapse models by squeezing the supreme size of the coefficients, driving some to zero.

Regression is best represented with a straight line where one or more variables are used to establish a relationship.

The logic behind the model:

As the regression model uses the equation y=mx+c

Where y= independent variable

              m= slope

              c= intercept for a given line

To calculate multiple independent variables, multiple regression models would be put under implementation. Here’s the process towards creating a perfect functioning model

  1. Import Libraries- There are essential parameters that revolve around the implementation of machine learning models. The first library should include sklearn as it is the official machine learning library in python. Numpy is used to convert data into arrays, and to access the files for the dataset, Pandas are implemented.
  2. Load the relative dataset- It is accomplished with the help of a Panda variable previously imported.
  3. Split the variables- Specify and define the number of independent variables or dependent variables that are required for the array elements.
  4. Splitting of testing and training data- The entire dataset is broken down into training and testing domains to allow and facilitate the random values taken from the dataset.
  5. Choose the right model- The appropriate choice would require a trial-and-error process where the same dataset would be implied with other models.
  6. Output prediction- The model would run on the dependent variable backed by the test values from the independent variable, the inbuilt methods for these models do the qualitative math for each value presented.

This initiates the implementation of the linear regression model. The linear predictor functions are implemented for relationship modelling, as mentioned earlier. The conditional mean of the response gives the model the required predictors to move the conditional mean of the response.

The goal for such prediction and forecasting is to accommodate additional variables without adding an accompanying response value; the fitted model would be implemented to make the necessary prediction for that response.

Linear regression models are most preferably used with the least-squares approach, where the implementation might require other ways by minimising the deviations and the cost functions, for instance. The general linear models include a response variable that is a vector in nature and not directly scalar. The conditional linearity is still presumed positive over the modelling process. They vary over a large scale, but they are better described as the skewed distribution, which is related to the log-normal distribution.

Read: Types of Regression Models in Machine Learning


Given that the two variables are related, this does not rule out the feature that one causes the another.

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If a linear regression equation for a dataset is attempted and it works, it does not necessarily mean that the equation is a perfect fit, there might be other iterations with a similar outlook. To make sure that the technique is genuine, try to plot a line with the data points to find the linearity of the equation.

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To Summarise

It is proven that the linear regression method provides a much better, powerful and statistical method that allows to increase the chances and find the predictability of events and relationships between two or more variables of interest in the matter.

If you’re interested to learn more about machine learning, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s PG Diploma in Machine Learning & AI which is designed for working professionals and offers 450+ hours of rigorous training, 30+ case studies & assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, 5+ practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.


Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1Mention some problems that one can face while using a linear regression model.

Linear regression helps in predicting the relationship between the dependent variable's mean and the independent factors. This becomes problematic because sometimes the only way to solve a problem is to look at the dependent variable's extreme value. Quantile regression, on the other hand, can be used to solve this problem. Furthermore, linear regression assumes that the presented data are independent, which is incorrect in the event of clustering issues.

2What is a linear correlation coefficient in regression?

The correlation coefficient is merely one aspect of analyzing the relationship between variables in simple linear regression. In fact, it is one of the most powerful and widely used statistical methods of analysis. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, which is basically a statistic that informs us how closely two variables are connected, is the most frequently used correlation coefficient. The linear correlation coefficient evaluates the strength of the linear association between two variables. A perfect linear connection is one in which a change in one variable causes an identical unit change in the other variable.

3How is regression analysis helpful in any business?

Regression analysis helps an organization understand what its data points represent and apply business analytical approaches to them in order to make better decisions. This sophisticated statistical tool is used by business analysts and data professionals to eliminate unnecessary variables and choose the most relevant ones. Organizations are using data-driven decision making, which removes old-school techniques such as guessing or assuming a hypothesis and, as a result, increases work performance.

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