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Types of Artificial Intelligence Algorithms You Should Know [A Complete Guide]

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13th Sep, 2022
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Types of Artificial Intelligence Algorithms You Should Know [A Complete Guide]

Artificial Intelligence has grown to have a significant impact on the world. With large amounts of data being generated by different applications and sources, machine learning systems can learn from the test data and perform intelligent tasks. 

Artificial Intelligence is the field of computer science that deals with imparting decisive ability and thinking ability to machines. Artificial Intelligence is thus a blend of computer science, data analytics, and pure mathematics.

Machine learning has become an integral part of Artificial Intelligence, and it only deals with the first part, the process of learning from input data. Artificial Intelligence and its benefits have never ceased to amaze us.

The artificial intelligence market is expected to grow by leaps and bounds. The market is expected to grow at the rate of 39.4% by 2022-2028. The artificial intelligence allows the organisations to make better decisions and put better measures to increase the growth.

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The artificial intelligence increases the accuracy and decision-making process of the company. It also helps in automation of tasks. Some of the examples of artificial intelligence would be self driving cars, visual assistants, face unlock, etc.

There are various types of artificial intelligence, such as reactive, limited memory, theory of mind, and self aware. The machine performs various AI  algorithms in order to carry out the tasks. Algorithms are subsets of machine learning that automates the process of machine learning. It is these algorithms that tell the machine how to learn on its own.

There are algorithms artificial intelligence grouped into broadly three categories such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning.

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What is an AI algorithm?

Before understanding what, an AI Algorithm is, it is necessary to understand what Artificial Intelligence is. It is concerned with not just understanding but also building intelligent entities, i.e., machines that can compute how to act effectively and safely in a wide variety of novel situations. Typically, the Turing test approach is used to build and evaluate these systems. Alan Turing, the great computer scientist, formulated a thought experiment in which a computer passes the test if a human interrogator, after posing some questions, cannot tell whether the responses came from a person or from a computer. 

Accordingly, AI algorithms need the following capabilities to pass the Turing test: 

  • Natural Language Processing 
  • Knowledge Representation 
  • Automated Reasoning 
  • Machine Learning 
  • Computer Vision 
  • Robotics 

In computer science, an algorithm is a finite set of instructions to solve a problem or perform a computation. AI algorithm(s) is the set of algorithms that realize intelligent machines that can perform the aforementioned tasks. 

How Do AI Algorithms Work?

To understand how AI algorithms work, it is important to understand the concept of an agent An agent can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators.   

A software agent takes keystrokes, file contents, and network packets as sensory inputs and acts on the environment by displaying on the screen, writing files, and sending network packets.  

AI algorithms are specialized software agents called rational agents. A rational agent is a computer program that acts in the best possible way to achieve its goals based on what it knows and what it sees. To understand how a rational agent works, we need to consider four factors: 

  • The performance measure that defines the criterion of success. This is how the agent evaluates how well it is doing and what it wants to achieve. 
  • The agent’s prior knowledge of the environment. This is what the agent knows about the world before it starts acting, such as the rules of the game, business domain knowledge, or the laws of physics. 
  • The actions that the agent can perform. This is what the agent can do to change the state of the world, such as moving, speaking, or buying. 
  • The agent’s percept sequence to date. The agent has observed this so far, such as the images, sounds, or data it receives from its sensors. 

Based on these four factors, we can define a rational agent as follows: 

A rational agent is a computer program that, for each possible percept sequence, selects an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given the evidence provided by the percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has. 

This means that a rational agent always chooses the best action according to its current situation and its goal. It does not act randomly or irrationally. It learns from its experience and adapts to changing circumstances.  

Machine learning as a rational agent 

Nevertheless, let’s see how this applies to Machine Learning, which is one of the types of Artificial Intelligence algorithms. A machine learning model or a learning agent can be defined as follows: It learns from experience E about some class of tasks T, and performance measures P if its performance in tasks in T, as measured by P, gets better with experience E. For example, a Supervised Learning Agent has these features: 

  • Task T: Predicting, Classifying, Forecasting, etc. 
  • Performance Measure P: Predictive Error, Accuracy, etc. 
  • Experience E: Historical, Labeled Data in a Database. 

Types of Artificial Intelligence Algorithms 

  • Classification Algorithms 
  • Regression Algorithms 
  • Clustering Algorithms 

Types of Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

Artificial intelligence algorithms can be broadly classified as :

1. Classification Algorithms

Classification algorithms are part of supervised learning. These algorithms are used to divide the subjected variable into different classes and then predict the class for a given input. For example, classification algorithms can be used to classify emails as spam or not.  In the classification algorithms artificial intelligence classifies a new category  of observations based on the existing data which we can call as training data as well.  The program learns from the dataset that is already given. Let’s discuss some of the commonly used classification algorithms.

    a) Naive Bayes

Naive Bayes algorithm works on Bayes theorem and takes a probabilistic approach, unlike other classification algorithms. The algorithm has a set of prior probabilities for each class. Once data is fed, the algorithm updates these probabilities to form something known as posterior probability. This comes useful when you need to predict whether the input belongs to a given list of classes or not.

This probabilistic classifier predicts on the basis of probability. The Naive Bayes algorithm that is a probabilistic classifier is used in sentiment analysis, recommendation, spam filtering, etc. It is called as Naive Bayes because it assumes class conditional independence. The attribute value of a given class is independent of the values of other existing attributes.

    b) Decision Tree

The decision tree algorithm is more of a flowchart like an algorithm where nodes represent the test on an input attribute and branches represent the outcome of the test.

It is a very simple kind of a probabilistic tree that enables to make decisions about some kind of process. This tool assumes a tree like model and its possible consequences.

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    c) Random Forest

Random forest works like a group of trees. The input data set is subdivided and fed into different decision trees. The average of outputs from all decision trees is considered. Random forests offer a more accurate classifier as compared to Decision tree algorithm.

Existence of many decision trees is random forest algorithm in classification. In order to build uncorrelated forest trees it uses the features of bagging randomness  while building individual trees. This allows the prediction to bemore accurate as compared to the individual tree.

Random forests is used in many industries such as healthcare, manufacturing, banking, retail, etc. One of the real-life applications of random forest would be to decide if an email is spam or not spam.

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   d) Support Vector Machines

SVM is an algorithm that classifies data using a hyperplane, making sure that the distance between the hyperplane and support vectors is maximum.

It is a supervised learning algorithm that can be used for either classification and regression problems. One of the example of SVM is Face detection, classification of images, hand writing detection, text and hypertext categorization, etc.

    e) K Nearest Neighbors

KNN algorithm uses a bunch of data points segregated into classes to predict the class of a new sample data point. It is called “lazy learning algorithm” as it is relatively short as compared to other algorithms.

Some of the applications of KNN  is finance, medicine, such as bank customer profiling, credit rating, etc. There are various advantages to using KNN such as easy to implement and understand, also it is very simple and intuitive.

2. Regression Algorithms

Regression algorithm is another popular type of AI algorithm under supervised machine learning algorithms. Regression algorithms can predict the output values based on input data points fed in the learning system. The main application of regression algorithms includes predicting stock market price, predicting weather, etc. The regression algorithms also aids in predicting the output values based on the input features that are fed from the data. There are various types  of regression such as linear regression, polynomial regression, etc. The most common algorithms under this section are 

    a) Linear regression

It is used to measure genuine qualities by considering the consistent variables. It is the simplest of all regression algorithms but can be implemented only in cases of linear relationship or a linearly separable problem. The algorithm draws a straight line between data points called the best-fit line or regression line and is used to predict new values.

One of the common examples of linear regression would be medical practice wherein the practioners understand the relationship between the sugar intake and high blood sugar levels.

Read: Linear Regression – ML Interview Questions & Answers

    b) Lasso Regression

Lasso regression algorithm works by obtaining the subset of predictors that minimizes prediction error for a response variable. This is achieved by imposing a constraint on data points and allowing some of them to shrink to zero value.

The lasso regression is used to obtain the subset of predictors that helps in minimisng the error in prediction. Lasso puts a constraint on the model parameters  that make the regression coefficients shrink to zero.

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    c) Logistic Regression

Logistic regression is mainly used for binary classification. This method allows you to analyze a set of variables and predict a categorical outcome. Its primary applications include predicting customer lifetime value, house values, etc.

There are multiple real-life applications of logistic regression such as banking. A credit card company can know if the transaction amount and credit score will lead to fraudulent transaction or not.

    d) Multivariate Regression

This algorithm has to be used when there is more than one predictor variable. This algorithm is extensively used in retail sector product recommendation engines, where customers preferred products will depend on multiple factors like brand, quality, price, review etc.

The multivariate regression helps in finding the relationship between multiple variables. Also in finding the correlation between dependent and independent variables.

    e) Multiple Regression Algorithm

Multiple Regression Algorithm uses a combination of linear regression and non-linear regression algorithms taking multiple explanatory variables as inputs. The main applications include social science research, insurance claim genuineness, behavioural analysis, etc. 

3. Clustering Algorithms

Clustering is the process of segregating and organizing the data points into groups based on similarities within members of the group. This is part of unsupervised learning. The main aim is to group similar items. For example, it can arrange all transactions of fraudulent nature together based on some properties in the transaction. There are various advantages to using clustering algorithms. As they are simpler to implement, adaptable to new examples, scale to large data sets and more. Some of the example of clustering algorithms would be identifying fake news, marketing,  spam filter, etc. Below are the most common clustering algorithms.

    a) K-Means Clustering

It is the simplest unsupervised learning algorithm. The algorithm gathers similar data points together and then binds them together into a cluster. The clustering is done by calculating the centroid of the group of data points and then evaluating the distance of each data point from the centroid of the cluster. Based on the distance, the analyzed data point is then assigned to the closest cluster. ‘K’ in K-means stands for the number of clusters the data points are being grouped into. 

There are various applications to K- means clustering from banking to cybersecurity, search engines, etc. It is an unsupervised learning because the points have no external classification to them. 

K-means has various real-life applications such as sentiment analysis, spam detection, etc. It is used where the user has the unlabeled data. Unlabeled data is that type of data which does not have a category or groups.  

    b) Fuzzy C-means Algorithm

FCM algorithm works on probability. Each data point is considered to have a probability of belonging to another cluster. Data points don’t have an absolute membership over a particular cluster, and this is why the algorithm is called fuzzy. 

Fuzzy C- Means is a clustering technique wherein the data set gets grouped into N clusters where each data point in the dataset belongs to every cluster in one way or the other.

    c) Expectation-Maximisation (EM) Algorithm

It is based on Gaussian distribution we learned in statistics. Data is pictured into a Gaussian distribution model to solve the problem. After assigning a probability, a point sample is calculated based on expectation and maximization equations. 

The Expectation-Maximisation (EM) algorithm is used in those places where there is a need to find a local maximum likelihood parameters of a statistical model. It is also used in the places wherein the equations cannot be solved directly.

    d) Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm

These algorithms sort clusters hierarchical order after learning the data points and making similarity observations. It can be of two types

  • Divisive clustering, for a top-down approach
  • Agglomerative clustering, for a bottom-up approach

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Use Cases of AI Algorithms

AI algorithms can be categorized into discriminative AI and generative AI. 

  • Discriminative AI algorithms give accurate answers for decision-making. They use ML algorithms like Logistic regression, Support Vector machines, Neural networks, etc. Some examples are: 
    • Predictive maintenance: AI algorithms can detect machine failures before they happen and help organizations take preventive measures. This saves money and time. 
    • Spam Filtering: AI algorithms can sort emails into spam or non-spam and protect users from harmful messages. 
  • Generative AI algorithms create new content instead of giving exact answers. They use models like Generative Adversarial Networks, Variational Autoencoders, and Transformers like the GPT-n series. Some examples are: 
    • Content Generation: This is creating new text in different formats based on specific topics, rules, or limits. For instance, writing a script for a space adventure movie is a content-generation task. 
    • Content Editing: This is the improvement of existing text by checking and correcting its quality, meaning, and structure. It can involve fixing grammar, ensuring coherence, and rearranging for better flow. For instance, editing a rough draft of the Space Adventure script is a content editing task. 
    • Content Synthesis: This is the combination of information from various sources and contexts to create a clear and concise output. It requires both content generation and editing skills. It also aims to present the data in a new or original way. For instance, combining scripts from Ramayana and Mahabharata to create a new story for the millennial generation is a content synthesis task. 
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Let’s wind up and conclude 

Let’s wind up and conclude

AI has startled the world multiple times and has a lot of applications in the real world to solve its complex problems. We hope this article has shed some light on the various types of artificial intelligence algorithms and their broad classifications. Algorithms are chosen based on the need and the nature of the data points we have.

Algorithms have their advantages and disadvantages in terms of accuracy, performance and processing time. These are just a few algorithms. If you are keen on learning more, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Programme in Machine Learning & AI.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What is naïve bayes?

The Bayes theorem is used in the Naive Bayes algorithm, which, unlike the other algorithms on this list, takes a probabilistic approach. This simply means that the method has a set of prior probabilities established for each of the classifications for your target, rather than leaping right into the data. The algorithm changes these prior probabilities to generate the posterior probability when you feed in the data. As a result, this can be incredibly beneficial in situations when you need to anticipate whether your input corresponds to one of n classes or none of them. This is doable using a probabilistic technique because the probabilities tossed for all n classes will be quite low.

2What is a decision tree?

The Decision Tree is simply a flowchart-like tree structure in which each exterior node represents a trial on an attribute and each branch indicates the test's result. The expected labels are stored in the leaf nodes. We begin at the root of the tree and work our way to the leaf node by comparing attribute values. When dealing with high-dimensional data and with little time spent on data preparation, we employ this classifier. A word of caution, however: they are prone to overfitting and can vary dramatically even with little changes in the training data.

3

4Which AI algorithm is best?

Some of the most commonly used AI algorithms are- Linear Regression Logistic Regression K-means Decision Tree KNN Algorithm

5What is A* algorithm in AI?

It is a set of instructions to solve logical and mathematical problems. It is a searching algorithm that aids in finding the shortest path between an intital and final point. It is easy to understand and easy to debug.

6How do you train an AI algorithm?

The following can be used to train the machine learning model- Name the model Choose the data type (Images, CSV, Text) Data upload Category/ Labeling Begin training

7How many AI are there?

There are four types of AI such as- Reactive Limited Memory Theory of Mind Self- Aware

8What are AI techniques?

Techniques or procedures that allows the computers to work like a human and show human like intellectual capabilities are AI techniques. These techniques can be visual perception, speech recognition.

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