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Introduction to Random Forest Algorithm: Functions, Applications & Benefits

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17th Dec, 2020
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Introduction to Random Forest Algorithm: Functions, Applications & Benefits

Random Forest is a mainstream AI algorithm that has a place with the regulated learning strategy. It might be used for both Classification and Regression issues in ML. It depends on the idea of ensemble learning, which is a cycle of joining numerous classifiers to tackle an intricate issue and to improve the presentation of the model. 

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As the name proposes, “Random Forest is a classifier that contains different decision trees on various subsets of the given dataset and takes the typical to improve the perceptive precision of that dataset.”

Instead of relying upon one decision tree, the random forest takes the figure from each tree and subject it to the larger part votes of desires, and it predicts the last yield. The more noticeable number of trees in the forest prompts higher exactness and forestalls the issue of overfitting.

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Presumptions for Random Forest 

Since the random forest consolidates various trees to anticipate the class of the dataset, it is conceivable that some choice trees may foresee the right yield, while others may not. Yet, together, all the trees anticipate the right yield. In this way, beneath are two presumptions for a superior random forest classifier: 

  • There should be some real qualities in the component variable of a dataset with a goal that the classifier can foresee precise outcomes as opposed to a speculated result. 
  • The forecasts from each tree must have low connections. 

Read: Decision Tree Interview Questions

Why Utilize Random Forest? 

The following are a few focuses that clarify why we should use the random forest algorithm

  • It requires some investment when contrasted with different algorithms. 
  • It predicts yield with high precision, in any event, for the huge dataset it runs productively. 
  • It can likewise keep up exactness when a huge extent of information is absent. 

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Classifier Vs. Regressor 

A random forest classifier works with information having discrete marks or also called class. 

Example: A patient is experiencing malignant growth or not, an individual is qualified for credit or not, and so forth. 

A random forest regressor works with information having a numeric or ceaseless yield, and classes can’t characterise them. 

Example: The cost of houses, milk creation of bovines, the gross pay of organisations, and so forth.

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How Does the Random Forest Algorithm Work? 

Random forest works in two stages; initially, the aim is to make the random forest by joining N choice trees, and second is to make expectations for each tree made in the main stage. 

The working cycle can be clarified in the underneath steps and chart: 

Step-1: Select random K information focuses on the preparation set. 

Step-2: Build the choice trees related to the chosen information focuses (Subsets). 

Step-3: Choose the number N for choice trees that you need to fabricate. 

Step-4: Repeat Step 1 and 2. 

Step-5: For new information focuses, discover the forecasts of every choice tree, and allocate the new information focuses on the class that succeeds the larger part casts a ballot. 

Example: Suppose there is a dataset that contains numerous organic product pictures. Along these lines, this dataset is given to the random forest classifier. The dataset is partitioned into subsets and given to every choice tree.

During the preparation stage, every choice tree creates a forecast result. When another information point happens, at that point, dependent on most of the results, the random forest classifier predicts an official conclusion. Consider the following picture: 

Also Read: Types of Classification Algorithm

Utilisations of Random Forest 

There are chiefly four areas where random forest is generally utilised: 

  • Banking: Banking area generally utilises this algorithm for the distinguishing proof of credit hazard. 
  • Medication: With the assistance of this algorithm, sickness patterns and dangers of the illness can be recognised. 
  • Land Use: We can recognise the regions of comparative land use by this algorithm. 
  • Promoting: Marketing patterns can be recognised by utilising this algorithm. 

Benefits of Random Forest 

  • It beats the issue of overfitting by averaging or joining the consequences of various choice trees. 
  • Random forests function admirably for an enormous scope of information than a solitary choice tree does. 
  • The random forest has less change at that point than a single choice tree. 
  • Random forests are truly adaptable and have high precision. 
  • Scaling of information doesn’t need a random forest algorithm. It keeps up great precision even after giving information without scaling. 
  • Random forest algorithms keep up incredible precision, even a colossal degree of the data is missing.

Disadvantages Points of Random Forest 

  • Random forest is equipped for performing both Classification and Regression undertakings. 
  • It is equipped for taking care of enormous datasets with high dimensionality. 
  • It upgrades the exactness of the model and forestalls the overfitting issue. 
  • Multifaceted nature is the primary disservice of random forest algorithms
  • Development of random forests is a lot harder and tedious than choice trees. 
  • More computational assets are needed to actualise the random forest algorithm
  • It is less instinctive in the event that when we have an enormous assortment of choice trees. 
  • The expectation cycle utilising random forests is very tedious in examination with different algorithms.

Weakness of Random Forest 

Albeit random forest can be utilised for both characterization and relapse assignments, it isn’t more appropriate for Regression errands.


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Random forest functions admirably when we are attempting to evade overfitting from building a choice tree. Likewise, it works fine when the information contains clear cut factors. Different algorithms like strategic relapse can beat with regards to numeric factors, yet when it comes to settling on a choice dependent on conditions, the random forest is the ideal decision.

It relies upon the investigator to mess with the boundaries to improve precision. There is frequently less possibility of overfitting as it utilises a standard based methodology. Yet, once more, it relies upon the information and the examiner to pick the best algorithm.

If you’re interested to learn more about the decision tree, Machine Learning, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s PG Diploma in Machine Learning & AI which is designed for working professionals and offers 450+ hours of rigorous training, 30+ case studies & assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, 5+ practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.


Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.
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