Computer programming languages are meant to work on certain predefined, high-level structures. These structures are widely known as ‘Programming Paradigm’. The programming paradigm is the way the structure and the elements of a computer program are arranged. OOP and POP are two paradigms in which programming structures are classified.
Both these programming processes are applied in many applications. They both have different work approaches. On the one hand, the OOP style of programming divides a program into objects, whereas POP divides it into functions. As there’s no direct approach for a particular problem, a programmer uses programming languages.
This blog post entails the key difference between OOP and POP and explains how one is superior to the other as per various parameters. These programming paradigms are applied while developing software, websites, applications, games, etc. Depending on the program length, one of these structures is chosen to attain the accuracy of the result of a program.
Object-Oriented Programming is one of the high-level programming languages in which a program is divided into objects. Using objects, the programmer can model real-world scenarios. An object is an instance of a class and has state and behavior. The state is the attributes, or data, whereas Behavior is called a method.
Objects and classes are the two fundamental concepts of OOP.
1. Objects: An object is an instance of a class that collects data and procedures for manipulating data.
2. Classes: A class defines the properties of objects linked to it.
There are four pillars in OOP as briefed below
1. Abstraction: Abstract classes and interfaces are used to hide the internal details and show the functionality.
2. Inheritance: An object using the methods and properties of an existing object, is called inheritance. It enhances code reusability.
3. Encapsulation: Data is secured with encapsulation, and binds the attributes and methods together.
4. Polymorphism: With polymorphism, an object can function in multiple ways. Examples: Method overloading and method overriding.
Procedural Oriented Programming is one of the programming methods where the main focus is on functions or procedures required for computation, instead of data.
The program is divided into functions, and the task is done sequentially. These functions share the global data or variables, and there is an exchange of data among those functions.
Languages: C, Pascal, FORTRAN
All the computer programs are initially procedural. A programmer has to feed the computer with a set of instructions by which the code will move from one to another. As the functions share global data, they move singly around the system from one function to another, making the program vulnerable to data breaches. To overcome this limitation, the object-oriented programming concept comes in, which guarantees data security.
With POP, modeling real-world scenarios are difficult. With the addition of new data, all the functions have to be modified.
Functions transform data from one form to another. POP follows a top-down programming approach while designing a program. Read about OOPs concepts in PHP.
OOP Vs POP: Comparison Table
The key difference between OOP and POP is that an OOP divides a program into smaller objects, whereas POP divides a program into smaller procedures or functions to arrive at the results of the problem.
OOP and POP Difference
Let’s dive deep into the comparison points between the two programming paradigms in terms of certain parameters.
|Basic Definition||OOP is object-oriented.||POP is structure or procedure-oriented.|
|Program Division||The program is divided into objects.||The program is divided into functions.|
|Approach||Bottom-Up approach||Top-down approach|
|Data Control||Data in each object is controlled on its own.||Every function has different data, so there’s no control over it.|
|Entity Linkage||Object functions are linked through message passing.||Parts of a program are linked through parameter passing.|
|Expansion||Adding new data and functions is easy.||Expanding data and function is not easy.|
|Inheritance||Inheritance is supported in three modes: public, private & protected.||Inheritance is not supported.|
|Access control||Access control is done with access modifiers.||No access modifiers supported.|
|Data Hiding||Data can be hidden using Encapsulation.||No data hiding. Data is accessible globally.|
|Overloading or Polymorphism||Overloading functions, constructors, and operators are done.||Overloading is not possible.|
|Friend function||Classes or functions can be linked using the keyword “friend, only in C++.||No friend function.|
|Virtual classes or functions||The virtual function appears during inheritance.||No virtual classes or functions.|
|Code Reusability||The existing code can be reused.||No code reusability.|
|Problem Solving||Used for solving big problems.||Not suitable for solving big problems.|
|Example||C++, JAVA, VB.NET, C#.NET.||C, VB, FORTRAN, Pascal|
The two major programming paradigms, viz., OOP and POP discussed in this article are the most used languages. While POP is a conventional method of programming, OOP is a step ahead of it and overcomes the limitations POP poses. We have tried to clear both concepts with ample instances of differences between OOP and POP.
Learn Programming with Upgrad
We hope we could evoke interest among the readers regarding OOP and POP concepts. upGrad has made learning programming easier by offering a Bachelor of computer applications program. It is a 3-year program that primarily covers the concepts of OOP and POP.
- Accredited BCA degree from Chandigarh University
- 6 months Internship
- Add-on certifications on business analytics
- Job placement assistance
- Live business projects