These days, the minute you indulge in any technology-oriented discussion, interview questions on cloud computing come up in some form or the other. This brings us to the question: what is cloud computing?
In the older days, people would merely speculate that the world population is separated from each other through a six degrees of separation. With the advent of information technology and advanced communications, that has become a lived reality. Today you can jump into a video conference with anyone from any nook and corner of the world. Compare this to the days of those cumbersome telegrams and trunk calls.
Remember eagerly waiting for MTV or Channel V to play your favourite music and then waiting again for hours to hear it one more time? Cut to 2020, every other house has this otherwise unimpressive gadget on their tabletops. Looks are deceptive because any nondescript or tiny these gadgets may be, they have single-handedly transformed the lives of their owners.
Yes, you guessed it right. These are the contemporary virtual assistants which will play your favourite song at any point of time without requiring you to even press a button. All you need to do is simply voice out your instructions and let the likes of Siri, Alexa or Google Home do the needful. The wonders don’t simply stop there.
From dimming the lights to turning on your TV, these virtual assistants will follow your command instantly as soon as you spell your commands aloud. What would seem like a distant dream a few years back is indeed an everyday phenomenon now. And, we have cloud computing to thank for transforming our lives for the better.
The internet of things has a lot many applications and is regarded as one of the fastest-growing industries in today’s times. One of the applications of the IoT is the smart wearables, like smartwatches, they do more than just tell the time, from tracking the fitness ratio to the music, texts, emails, etc. It is the technology that helps there. Another application of IoT would be a smart city, smart home, etc.
Cloud computing is having various application which has enabled regular devices to expand their functionality and bandwidth and perform intuitive tasks without any human intervention. At the crux of this cloud computing lies the IoT software. IoT stands for the Internet of Things which is essentially an advanced form of technology that extends connectivity from devices like computers and mobile phones to other appliances like television, air conditions and even a toaster.
With the help of IoT, internet bandwidth can be extended to a wide array of gadgets and facilitate interaction between these devices. The end result is usually a time, energy and performance efficient technology which runs with minimal human intervention. The predominance of the IoT technology in every aspect of our lives has brewed an intense demand for professionals who are adept at devising and handling IoT devices.
There are various benefits of using Internet of Things devices in today’s times, first of all, they have made the living smart, trackable, measurable, and data-centric. The activities can be tracked effectively from smart watches to traffic tracking. Another benefit of using IoT devices is that it has optimised the security level, these devices tend to keep the data of the users secure to bring more adaptability. Another most important benefit is better customer experience and the production of customer-centric devices that are created. This also answers the internet questions of why IoT is seeing more adaptability in today’s times.
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So if you’re preparing for a software development role, it will help to familiarise yourself with some of the key IoT concepts and get on the top of the commonly asked interview questions on IoT.
Top IoT Interview Questions and Answers
Let’s learn all about internet of things interview questions or IoT interview questions for freshers:
1. What is IoT interview questions(Internet of Things)?
The Internet of Things is a complete network of hooked physical devices, mechanism, structure, and various other objects embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies to collect and exchange data over the Internet. These devices can communicate with each other and centralized systems, often without direct human interaction.
The main idea behind IoT is to create a seamless environment where objects or “things” can be monitored, controlled, and optimized remotely, leading to improved efficiency, convenience, and even new opportunities for innovation. IoT devices starts from simple devices like smart thermostats and fitness trackers to more complex systems in the form of industrial machinery and smart city infrastructure.
2. What are the different layers of the IoT protocol stack?
The IoT protocol stack consists of multiple layers, each responsible for specific functionalities and communication aspects of IoT devices and systems. These layers help ensure interoperability and smooth communication between various components in the IoT ecosystem. The commonly recognized layers of the IoT protocol stack are as follows:
This is the lowest layer of the stack and deals with the actual transmission of data over the physical medium. It includes hardware components like sensors, actuators, transceivers, and the methods by which data is modulated and transmitted (e.g., radio frequencies, wired connections).
Also known as the Data Link Layer, this layer manages the communication link between two directly connected devices. It includes protocols that ensure reliable and error-free data transmission over the physical medium. Examples include Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Zigbee, and Bluetooth.
The Network Layer is responsible for routing data packets between devices on different networks. It handles addressing, routing, and packet forwarding. Internet Protocol (IP) is a crucial protocol at this layer, allowing devices to communicate across different networks.
This layer manages end-to-end communication and ensures data reliability and integrity. It handles data segmentation, reassembly, flow control, and error detection. Protocols like Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are commonly used in this layer.
The Session Layer establishes, maintains, and terminates communication sessions between devices. It manages session synchronization, checkpointing, and recovery.
This layer deals with data formatting, encryption, and compression to ensure that data exchanged between devices is in a format both parties can understand. It’s responsible for translating between different data formats and ensuring data security.
The top layer of the stack, the Application Layer, directly interacts with end-user applications. It defines the protocols and formats applications use to exchange data. Common IoT protocols like MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport), CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol), and HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) operate at this layer.
3. What do you mean by the smart city in IoT?
In the context of IoT, a smart city refers to an urban area that utilizes advanced technologies and data-driven solutions to enhance efficiency, sustainability, and the overall quality of life for its residents. Integrating various IoT-enabled devices, sensors, and data analytics creates a more connected and intelligent urban environment. Here’s a concise explanation in points:
Smart cities leverage the Internet of Things (IoT) to connect and manage diverse elements, including infrastructure, transportation, utilities, and public services.
Sensors and devices collect real-time data on traffic patterns, energy consumption, waste management, and more. This data is analyzed to optimize city operations and resource allocation.
IoT-enabled solutions enhance public services such as smart traffic management, waste management, and energy distribution, reducing congestion and improving efficiency.
Smart cities prioritize sustainable practices by monitoring environmental factors, optimizing energy consumption, and promoting eco-friendly transport options.
Improved Quality of Life
IoT applications improve citizen experiences by offering convenient services like smart parking, responsive street lighting, and enhanced public safety measures.
Data-driven insights aid city planners in making informed decisions about infrastructure development, zoning, and resource allocation.
IoT allows city officials to monitor critical systems and respond quickly to emergencies like natural disasters or accidents.
Smart city initiatives involve citizens in decision-making through digital platforms, enabling them to provide feedback and actively participate in urban governance.
4. How does the Internet of Things (IoT) affect our everyday lives?
What we know as “smart devices” in our everyday lives, are actually devices embedded in IoT technology which are able to manifest greater quantum of automation than those available before. IoT creates a greater network that enables different devices to interact freely with each other.
Consequently, their bandwidth to perform tasks are expanded and are able to create a collaborative environment to automate different aspects of human lives. From sensor driven home appliances like refrigerators that automatically turn off when not in use to virtual assistants which can regulate most of your devices from your lights to your television, from your air conditioning to playing your favourite music, IoT’s utility in our everyday lives is all-pervasive.
IoT is simply not limited to our gadgets. Even our wearables have evolved to keep pace with IoT. Be it smartwatches or sunglasses which double up as earphones, you name it and you’ll have the mark of IoT. Even on a large-scale application, the transportation industry, the government infrastructure or educational initiatives are other domains where there is a huge scope of involving IoT technology. According to a report by Garter, by 2020, approximately 20.6 billion devices will have IoT elements that connect them to each other.
Internet of Things is very well impacting our day-to-day lives, not only the leisure lifestyle but the healthcare aspect of our lives as well. Some examples of how the IoT has made an entry into the healthcare lifestyle such as hearing aid, heart rate calculator, blood pressure sensors, etc. Another reason how the IoT is making an entry is through the connected car, transportation, etc. Also, making smart homes effective is another way of how IoT is applicable and impacts lives daily.
The IoT is reducing the cost and labour of everyday lives. The devices which are IoT driven are cheaper and save energy. It not only is cost-effective but also environmentally friendly. From the remote door locks, remote AC navigation, smart lights, and smart homes the IoT is driving the lifestyles as well and providing a quality of life.
5. How does IOT work?
IoT devices are built on the concept of artificial intelligence. Since the mainstay of the IoT technology is enhanced communication, paired with intuitive performance, it incorporates sensor devices and unique data processing mechanisms. In many ways, IoT devices are an amalgamation of several advanced technologies. IoT benefits of artificial intelligence
When it comes to classifying different components of IoT, we can divide them into the sensors, cloud components, data processing software and finally cutting-edge user interface.
So as the sensors collect data, the cloud facilitates the network connection between the devices, the software processes and stores the data collected and finally the user interface programs the device to respond to its environmental stimuli. The end result is a highly reactive and intuitive device which greatly increments the existing levels of automation.
Internet of Things (IoT) is guided by sensors, and software, and is driven by technology. The devices are connected and exchanged the data and systems. The IoT devices give result on a real-time basis, that is effective, accurate and data-driven. It is not constricted to a few things but is also applicable to various things, such as manufacturing, agriculture, medical and healthcare, transportation, navigation, armed forces, etc.
6. Describe the different components of IOT
An IoT device typically comprises four major components.
- Sensors – Much of IoT involves environment adaptability and the major factor contributing to it are the sensors in the IoT devices. Sensors are devices which enable the IoT devices to gather data from its surroundings. Effectively, they may be perceived as instruments which sense the environment and perform multiple tasks. Senors make the IoT devices capable of real world integration. It can be of varied types. From a simple GPS in your phones to the live video feature on a social media platform.
The question of “What is IoT?” can be very well answered with reference to the sensors. There are various kinds of sensors that work in the IoT devices. Such as temperature sensors, humidity sensors, proximity sensors, etc. These sensors respond to the changes happening in the environment and they react and adapt accordingly. These sensors gain insights, track and alert of the potential problems that may be caused. There is no one specific shape assigned to the sensors as they come in various shapes and sizes.
- Connectivity- With the advent of cloud computing, devices can be launched on a cloud platform and in the due course, devices can interact freely with each other at a cheaper and more transparent scale. For IoT devices, cloud computing facilitates freedom from exclusive network providers. Instead, small network connection mediums like mobile satellite networks, WAN, Bluetooth etc. are used. The data that is collected by the IoT sensors are connected to each other through the IoT gateway. The sent information is analysed and carried forward to the cloud by these devices from one place to another.
- Data Processing – As as soon as the environmental stimuli are gathered by the sensors and transmuted to the cloud, it is the job of the data processors to process the information collected and perform the required tasks. From adjusting the temperatures of the AC to facial recognition on mobile phones or biometric devices, data processing software are largely responsible for enhancing the automation in IoT devices.Edge computing is the technology behind the data processing. The data is transferred through the devices to the local edge computing system that stores and processes the data. Edge computing is nothing but the range of devices that are connected near the user. Edge computing is present all around us from the smart watches, to the smart lights.
- User Interface – The IoT introduced a new paradigm among the available devices for active interaction and engagement. This has transformed the user interface widely. Instead of one-way communication mechanisms of traditional devices, IoT enables cascading effects on end-user commands. This is precisely why IoT devices are all the more communicative and active. The user interface is the feature that the user interacts with. The user interface is the screen, buttons, pages, etc. The user interfaces that the users interact with shows the data that the IoT captures.
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7. What is the scale of use of IoT devices in contemporary times?
Going by the figures deduced by a Cisco report, IoT devices are not only omnipresent but also are major contributors to the global capital. The report predicts that in the next decade, IoTs are likely to create value to the tune of 14.4 trillion USD across different industries.
If we look at IOT’s influence in our everyday lives, it doesn’t seem surprising at all. You name an aspect of life, you’ll find IOT’s footprints, carbon footprints, albeit there. From watches that supplement time telling features with body parameters count and monitor your fitness routines to refrigerators which automatically switch off when not in use, IoTs have permeated every aspect of our everyday lives.
Compare today’s trends of Alexa and Siri steered music listening patterns to the era of walkmans and CDROMs. You’d know what a boon IOTs really have been. Even at the macrocosmic level, governments, transportation and education sectors are implementing IOT technology to revolutionise their services. This has set the stage for the birth of smart cities.
IoT has also transformed the healthcare industry. The devices has brought automation in the healthcare management. From measuring the hospital resources, optimising patient care, and managemet of the hospital assets such as tools, labs, pharmacy, bed count, patient count, etc. The Internet of devices has touched each and every aspect of the industry on a major scale.
8. How does IoT influence the development of smart cities?
A smart city is a concept to create more developed cities in the country. These cities are technologically driven and manage the resources and communicate using electronic devices. The collected data through these devices use to better understand the gap areas and solve those using scientifically methods that help to operate the cities smoothly. The IoT can resourcefully use IoT devices and can optimise the data effectively in order to better the quality of life in the cities.
The intuitive facets of IoT devices paired with enhanced network engagement enable IoT to promote versatility, transparency and efficiency in infrastructure planning. IOT also embeds energy-efficient projects to take off. Overall, with the whole array of advantages that IoT brings in, it is possible for the government to work towards building smart cities all across the globe.
With the help of IoT, clever energy grids, automated waste management systems, smart homes, better security systems, improved traffic management mechanisms, advanced security features, water conservation mechanisms and so much more is possible. The two pronged blessings of artificial intelligence and innovation, IoT has allowed public utilities and urban planning to be highly intuitive. These have triggered the birth of smart homes and smart cities.
9. How does the community assist in the development of IoT?
Internet of Things relies greatly on the network engagement for the appropriate functioning of the end-user goals. The cloud platforms enable active network interactions between several “smart devices” which in turn scale up the functionalities of numerous active gadgets with IoT properties.
Net of entirety is often the term used to refer to the electromagnetic spectrum that cloud platforms provide for IoT to be deployed. IoTs require both certified and unlicensed platforms to operate. To know more about IoT one must be aware of the IoT Real world application in 2020.
Extra effort is also required to utilise the benefits of IoT in socially neglected areas in order to uplift them. Proper device installation and maintenance becomes of paramount importance here, where the IoT can be utilised in order to better the quality of education, healthcare and transportation facilities. This allows the state to save costs and bring society to par.
10. What is the difference between business IOT and IIOT?
While the Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the consumer-oriented gadgets which perform tasks that provide consumer utilities like smartphones, thermostats etc., business IoT or IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) are large-scale structures or systems that are usually used at the industrial levels. For instance, fire alarms etc. Since the major difference lies in the scale of impact, a failure in IIOT is likely to affect a wider range of populations.
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11. In what ways is IoT energy efficient?
One of the major advantages of IoT is that it makes gadgets environment-friendly and substantially reduces carbon emissions. By engaging in context-conscious automation, IoT gadgets are able to save energy. For instance, refrigerators which switch off when not in use or road light fixtures are able to save almost 40% of electricity.
The IoT measures the utlised energy by the devices and quantify the energy that is used. This allows the devices to eliminate the energy wastage that reduces the carbon footprint. This allows the device makers to understand the energy consumption and take control of the same in order for it to help the environment. Smart grids is another feature of the IoT that allows the manual switching between the renewable and traditional energy sources so to facilitate the saving of energy.
12. What are the economic impacts of the increased application of IoT?
IoT is known to positively impact the economic standards of different industries. From facilitating better resource management to reducing response time and human interventions, IoTs can vastly reduce labour costs and energy costs. This in turn can boost supply chains of major industries, thus enabling product distribution at cheaper costs. This not only helps industries to earn greater profits but also is a great way to improve the available production infrastructure. Overall, scalability is great in IoT and hence, in the long run IoT applications prove to be cost-saving as well.
Along with that, the time taken to do work is also reduced with the aid of IoT. It is calculated that IoT has increased productivity by 0.2 % and is positively impacting businesses from manufacturing to transport, e-commerce, healthcare, etc. All of these benefit the production of the goods and bring less scope of manual error and more effective ways of doing a function.
13. What are the major impacts of IoT in the Healthcare Industry?
IoT has transformed healthcare services and diagnostic practises to a large extent. From attaining more precision in testing to making surgeries and implants prompt and efficient, IoT devices in the healthcare industries have largely contributed towards making medical practices more efficient, transparent and affordable. Besides, fitness parameters can be easily tracked these days with fitness bands and smartwatches. This has enhanced the scope of fitness monitoring and we have IoT to thank for it.
Some of the other impacts of the IoT in the healthcare sector would be the cost reduction, disease diagnosis, remote monitoring, better accuracy of the results, resoure management and automation of the tasks. All of these are the recent improvements in the healthcare industry which are allowing the benefit of better healthcare management. These resources are not restricted to the Tier 1 cities but with proper government interventions and contribution from the citizens are reaching and helping the remote areas as well.
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14. What are the types of data that can be communicated between IoT devices?
At present, it would not be far-fetched to state that when it comes to IoT, the sky’s the limit for the type of data, the IoT objects can process and store. Since the crux of IOT’s functionality is intercommunication between network devices, pretty much any data that can be launched on the cloud can be communicated from one IoT device to the other.
The type of information that an IoT object can gather and respond to depends on its environment and its sensor settings. For example, a thermometer can communicate the weather statistics intuitively but it will take a clinical sensor to be able to provide information about health parameters like body temperature, pulse, pressure etc.
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15. What are the challenges to the widespread use of IoT?
While the boons of IoT are manifold and the economy seems to be rapidly moving towards an IoT oriented environment, there are a few disadvantages to the use of IoT.
Firstly, security remains a predominant threat of the use of IoT. This is because by forging connection between multiple devices within a cloud network, control over system authentication gets diluted. Anyone can access any information from a wide network of connected devices now.
Secondly, related to security, the privacy of data is another major challenge. Within the network, a substantial amount of user data gets released and the users often lose control over their own data.
Moreover, while the overall usage of IoT is resource efficient, the deployment process entails layers of complexities and can be potentially expensive.
Finally, due to the complex connectivity features, compliance to regulations are often offset. IoT can go against the norm of usage on several occasions.
Another disadvantages of the IoT is to keep pace with the customer’s demands. With the fast evolving society, the demand of the users are also changing and the IoT has to cater to the changed demands that is keeping the original and primary feature along with the new additions. And sometimes less matured technologies fail to impress the users.
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