With digitization gaining increasing traction in the modern-day industry, companies and brands are eager to invest in fast, dynamic, and efficient websites and applications. However, the widespread availability and accessibility to development technologies make it challenging to choose the right technology for web app development. While full-stack, front-end, and backend development have been running the forefront of web development, there’s a new star in the making – MEAN stack.
Since the demand for MEAN Stack Developers is growing steadily, in this post, we’re going to talk about the most commonly asked MEAN stack interview questions.
So, without further ado, let’s get straight into it!
Top MEAN Stack Developer Interview Questions & Answers
1. What is the purpose of MongoDB?
MongoDB is a document-oriented database manager designed for storing high volumes of data. It saves data in binary JSON format and implements the concept of collection and documentation. MongoDB is a cross-platform, NoSQL database equipped with high performance, high scalability, and flexibility that allow for seamless querying and indexing.
2. What is the purpose of ExpressJS?
ExpressJS is a web application framework designed to support and host Node.js projects. It is an open-source framework available under MIT license. ExpressJS manages the workflow between the front-end and the database and facilitates a smooth and secure transfer of data. It boasts of excellent error handling and web design functionality to optimize the web development process.
3. What purpose does AngularJS serve?
AngularJS is an open-source front-end web application development framework that is maintained by Google. It allows Web Developers to use HTML as their template language and extend HTML syntax to represent the components of a web app clearly and precisely.
4. What is the function of Node.js?
5. Name the IDEs that are commonly used for Node.JS development?
The most popular IDE’s that can be used for Node.JS development include:
- Komodo IDE
- JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA
6. What is Mongoose?
Mongoose is an Object Document Mapper (ODM), which means that by using Mongoose, you can define objects with a strongly-typed schema that can be further mapped to a MongoDB document. It offers a schema-based solution for modeling application data. Mongoose comes with built-in typecasting, validation, query building, business logic hooks, and many more out-of-the-box features.
7. Define DATA modeling?
Data modeling is a term used in the context of Mongoose and MongoDB. As the name suggests, data modeling refers to the process of creating a data model for the data at hand so it can be stored in a database. A data model is a conceptual representation of data objects, the relation among different data objects, and the rules that define those relations.
Data modeling helps to represent the data visually while also enforcing business rules, regulatory compliances, and government policies on the data. It is implemented to ensure consistency in naming conventions, default values, semantics, security, and quality of the data.
8. What is REPL In Node.Js?
REPL or “Read Eval Print Loop” is a simple program that can accept commands, evaluate them, and prints the results. What REPL does is to create an environment that is similar to a Unix/Linux shell or a Window console, wherein you can enter command and system, and it will respond with the output. Here are the functions that REPL performs:
- EVAL – This executes the data structure.
- PRINT – This prints the outcome generated after evaluating the command.
- LOOP – This loops the above command until the user presses Ctrl+C twice.
10. State the difference between linear search and binary search.
A linear search considers a list’s item’s one by one without jumping sequence. So, in terms of complexity, it classifies as an O(n) search wherein the time taken to search the list increases proportionally to the increase in the list. Contrary to this, a binary search starts in the middle of a list. This search aims to see whether the item value is greater than or less than the desired value.
This further determines the position of the value in the list – whether it will be in the first part or second part of the list. In terms of complexity, it classifies as an O(log n) search where the number of search operations grows relatively slowly than the list. This is mainly because the search space is broken into half in each operation.
While binary search requires you to sort the input data first, a linear list doesn’t have any such prerequisites.
11. Highlight the difference between Node.js, AJAX, and jQuery.
12. Define Dependency Injection.
Dependency Injection is a software design concept that allows you to use or inject a service in ways that are independent of any client consumption. By doing so, you essentially prevent the client from modifying dependencies when the underlying service changes.
The primary purpose of dependency injection is to separate the creation of clients’ dependencies from their behavior, thereby letting you design loosely coupled programs. In a loosely coupled program, the components usually consume functionality defined by interfaces without having any prior knowledge of which implementation classes are being used.
Dependency injection allows you to modify or tweak the behavior of an application by altering the components that implement the interfaces defining an application’s features.
13. Define Containerization.
Containerisation is an alternative to traditional hypervisor-based machine virtualization involving the encapsulation of an application in a container within its own operating environment. In containerization, instead of cloning an operating system for individual virtual machines, it is shared by the different containers. By loading an application in a virtual machine, you can run the app on any suitable physical machine without having to worry about dependencies.
14. Define a Test Pyramid. How can you actualize a Test Pyramid when discussing HTTP APIs?
Usually, full-stack web apps are large and complex. They are designed to expand their functionalities to serve hundreds of different requirements of millions of users. Consequently, as the size of a full-stack codebase and the number of users grow, the cost of dealing with bugs also escalates. This, however, can be successfully mitigated by applying the concept of the test pyramid to your codebase.
The test pyramid approach implies a radical way of thinking as to how different kinds of automated tests can and should be used to create a balanced portfolio. It emphasizes that the number of low-level UnitTests should be much more than high-level BroadStackTests running through a GUI.
When discussing HTTP APIs, you can actualize a test pyramid by following the steps mentioned below:
- Incorporate plenty of low-level unit tests for your model.
- Include fewer joining tests used for determining how your models collaborate with each other.
- Include fewer acknowledgment tests used for testing genuine HTTP endpoints.
15. What purpose do Indexes serve in MongoDB?
In MongoDB, indexes are used to support and facilitate the efficient execution of queries. Without indexes, MongoDB has to perform a collection scan wherein it has to scan every document in a collection and select the appropriate documents that match the query statement. However, if each query has an appropriate index assigned to it, MongoDB can use the index to limit the number of documents it has to inspect.
16. What is the difference between Classes and Interfaces in TypeScript?
Classes and interfaces are structures that promote both object-oriented programming and also type-checking in TypeScript. While a class is a blueprint from which you can create a group of objects sharing the same configuration (properties and methods), an interface is a group of related properties and methods that describe an object. However, an interface does not provide implementation or initialization for the objects.
Typically, a class defines what an object should look like and act like, and accordingly, it creates and implements a blueprint by initializing the class properties and defining methods. Classes are present throughout all the phases of a code. An interface, on the other hand, is a virtual structure that exists only within the context of TypeScript. The TypeScript compiler uses interfaces exclusively for type-checking.
17. Define “Decorators” in TypeScript.
In TypeScript, a Decorator refers to a special kind of declaration that is usually attached to a class declaration, method, accessor, property, or parameter. Decorators are functions that take their target as an argument. They allow you to run arbitrary code around the target execution or even replace the target with a new definition altogether.
18. What is meant by “Callback” in Node.js?
In Node.js, a callback is an asynchronous equivalent for a function. Node.js heavily relies on callbacks that are called at the culmination or completion of a given task. For instance, let’s assume a function that is designed for reading files may start reading files and immediately return the control to the execution environment to facilitate the execution of the next instruction.
Once the file I/O is complete, the callback function is set in motion and pass the content of the file as a parameter. This makes sure that there’s no blocking or waiting for the file I/O. It is this feature that makes Node.js highly scalable since it can process a high number of requests without waiting for the results of any function.
All Node APIs are written in ways that they can support callbacks.
19. Define Cross-site Scripting (XSS).
Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a client-side code injection attack wherein the malicious scripts are executed in a web browser by including malicious code in a legitimate web page or web application. It can also occur when an individual clicks on untrusted links that can pass cookies and other sensitive information to attackers.
The attack happens when you visit a webpage or a web app that executes malicious code. Hence, the webpage or web app becomes a vehicle to deliver malicious scripts to the browser of a user.
The most commonly used vehicles for cross-site scripting attacks are forums, message boards, and even web pages that encourage users to comment.
20. Define AOT and mention its benefits.
Angular applications contain HTML templates alongside the standard components. Since the browser cannot directly understand these components and HTML templates, Angular apps must be compiled first before you can run them in a browser.
The benefits of using AOT compiler are:
- By using AOT, the browser can download a pre-compiled version of the application. The browser downloads executable code so that it can render the Angular application immediately, without waiting for the app to compile first.
- During the build stage itself, the AOT compiler detects and reports any template binding errors.
21. What is a Grid System in CSS?
In CSS, a grid system is a structure that is used for stacking content both vertically and horizontally in a consistent and manageable manner. Grid systems have two core components – rows and columns. Some of the most used grid systems include Simple, Pure, Flexbox, Bootstrap, and Foundation.
This is the list of our top MEAN stack developer interview questions and answers. We hope this helps you crack your next MEAN stack interview!
Mastering full-stack languages and tools are important to become a mean stack developer. The journey of being a full-stack developer is a challenging but rewarding one as well. The creative and financial opportunities truly make this one of the best careers out there is one has the passion to pursue it. If you have the passion to create intelligent chatbots, fintech wallets, and more, check out the full-stack software development PG course from upGrad.
Why is Crystal gaining popularity as a programming language?
Crystal is a programming language that emphasises brevity and clarity. It has a garbage collector and is statically typed and built. Its main implementation is developed in Crystal, and its syntax is influenced by Ruby and Perl. It is intended to be a useful language for programmers to use on a regular basis. Because it is statically typed, interpreted, and compiled to native code, Crystal is gaining appeal as a programming language. It also includes a trash collector, which aids with memory management. Crystal also has a burgeoning community as well as a number of libraries and frameworks to choose from.
hy do people prefer Python over Elixir?
Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language with a readability-focused design philosophy. It is named after the British comedy troupe Monty Python. Web development, scientific computing, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and system administration are just a few of the domains where it's been used. It's also great for scripting and developing quick applications. Elixir is a programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM). It has a syntax that is close to Ruby and an Erlang-compatible runtime. This is a difficult question to answer because it is dependent on the preferences and experiences of the individual. Python is preferred by some because it is more extensively used and has a larger user base. Others may favour Elixir because it is more scalable and includes concurrency support.
What are some frequently encountered errors in programming?
The most prevalent sort of programming fault is syntax error. When a programmer produces code that does not follow the syntax of the language, this error occurs. When code is executed but does not achieve the anticipated outcome, runtime errors occur. Inaccurate code, incorrect data, or flaws in the environment in which the code is running can all create these mistakes. Logic mistakes are flaws in the code's logic. The code may generate inaccurate results or crash as a result of these problems. When code is compiled but the compiler does not understand it, compilation errors occur. Inaccurate code, incorrect data, or flaws in the environment in which the code is running can all create these mistakes.