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Top 44 Python Interview Questions & Answers: Ultimate Guide 2024

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10th Feb, 2024
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Top 44 Python Interview Questions & Answers: Ultimate Guide 2024

Attending a Python interview and wondering what are all the questions and discussions you will go through? Before attending a python interview, it’s better to have an idea about the types of python interview questions that will be asked so that you can prepare answers for them.

Undisputed one of the most popular programming languages these days, Python is a hot choice for both established and beginner programmers. And, ease of the language helps develop some interesting Python Projects that are applicable in the real world. Its simplicity and ease of use lend to its popularity. Not to mention, it is the language of choice for the data science and data visualization fields, along with R.

data analyst interview questions and answers

That being said, Python is a very important language for anyone’s toolkit. To help you out, I have created the top python interview question and answers guide to understand the depth and real-intend of python interview questions. 

To help you out, I have created the top Python interview question and answers guide to understand the depth and real-intend of Python interview questions. Let’s get started.

Apart from these questions, you will also be given code snippets where you have to deduce the resulting value or statement (or the lack of it). These cannot be predicted and will be dependent on your programming practice. Learning data science from a recognized institution will help you clear python interviews easily and get the dream job you always wanted. Surely, these upGrad python exam questions would help you to crack that job!

Let’s get started with top python interview questions and answers. 

Python Interview Questions & Answers 2024


Q 1) What is the difference between a module and a package in Python?

A 1) Each Python program file is a module that imports other modules like objects. Thus, a module is a way to structure the program. The folder of a Python program is called a package of modules.

Refer to the below-mentioned table for differences-

A module is responsible to hold for user-oriented code.Does not apply to any module in runtime for any user-specific code.
Modifies the user-interpreted code.A file containing python code.

This can be asked during python interview questions; make sure to categories your answer and give your response that is structural in manner.

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Q 2) What are the built-in types available in Python?

A 2) One of the most common python interview question, There are mutable and immutable built-in types.

The mutable ones include:

  • List
  • Sets
  • Dictionaries

The immutable types include:

  • Strings
  • Tuples
  • Numbers

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Q 3) What is lambda function in Python?

A 3) It is often used as an inline function and is a single expression anonymous function. It is used to make a new function object and return them at runtime.

Lambda is an anonymous function in Python that can accept any number of arguments and can have any number of parameters. However, the lambda function can have only a single expression or statement. Usually, it is used in situations that require an anonymous function for a short time period. Lambda functions can be used in either of the two ways:

Here’s an example of the lambda function:

a = lambda x,y : x+y 

print(a(5, 6))

Output: 11

Properties of lambda function in python-

  1. It is required when a nameless function is required for a short period of time.
  2. Used as an argument to a higher-function.
  3. No need of using return statement.
  4. Requires only two lines to add three numbers.
  5. Execution time is fast.

Python beginner questions and answers like these must be elaborated by mentioning the properties of the function. It adds to the answer you are giving and helps in establishing a good position in front of employers. 

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Read our popular Data Science Articles

Q 4) What is meant by namespace?

A namespace refers to a naming system that is used to ensure that all object names in a Python program are unique, to avoid any conflicts. In Python, these namespaces are implemented as dictionaries with ‘name as key’ mapped to a corresponding ‘object as value.’ As a result, multiple namespaces can use the same name and map it to a different object. 

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Below are the three types of namespaces in Python: 

  • Local namespace – It includes local names inside a function. A local namespace is temporarily created for a function call and is cleared when the function returns.
  • Global namespace – It consists of the names from various imported packages/ modules that are currently being used in a project. A global namespace is created when a package is imported in the script, and it lasts until the script is executed.
  • Built-in namespace – It includes built-in functions of core Python and built-in names for the different types of exceptions.

Properties of namespace-

    • Organise into logical groups
    • Prevent name collisions
    • All identifiers are visible to one another

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Q 5 ) Explain the difference between a list and a tuple?

A 5) Any Python Interview Question and Answers guide won’t complete without this question. The list is mutable while the tuple is not. Tuples can be hashed as in the case of making keys for dictionaries.

Python interview problems and answers like this if explained category-wise adds to the answer you are trying to convey.

Refer to the below-mentioned table to understand the difference-

Iteration is slowerIteration is faster
Consumes more memoryConsumes less memory
Error prone operationsSafe operations
Provides in-built methodsLess in-built methods
Useful for insertion and deletion of operationsUseful for read-only operations like accessing elements.

Python interview problems and answers like this if explained category-wise adds to the answer you are trying to convey.

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Q 6) Difference between pickling and unpickling?

Any Python Interview Question and Answers guide won’t be complete without this question. In Python, the pickle module accepts any Python object, transforms it into a string representation, and dumps it into a file by using the dump function. This process is known as pickling. The function used for this process is pickle.dump().

On the other hand, the process of retrieving the original Python object from the stored string representation is called unpickling. The function used for this process is pickle.load().

Q 7) What are decorators in Python?

A 7) A Python decorator is a specific change made in the Python syntax for the easy alteration of functions.

Properties of decorators in Python-

  • A decorator in Python adds new functionality to an existing object without modifying the structure.
  • Functionalities can be easily added or removed in defined blocks of code.
  • It can be easily applied to all callables.
  • It adds function, some functionality and then returns it. 

Make sure to mention properties of decorators in Python along with mentioning definition. Python interview questions and answers like such are asked to assess your depth of knowledge.

Q 8) Difference between generators and iterators?

A 8) In Python, iterators are used to iterate over a group of elements (in a list, for example). The way of implementing these iterators is known as generators. It yields an expression in the function, but otherwise behaves like a normal function.

Python iterator implements the next()and__itr__ method to iterate the stored elements. Python generator mentions how to implement the iterators. It yields expression in the function. It doesn’t implement the next(), and __itr__ method and decreases other overheads. If there is a minimum of one yield statement in a function, it is known as a generator.

Q 9) How to convert a number into a string?

A 9) One of the most common python interview questions. We can use the inbuilt str() function. For an octal or hexadecimal representation, we can use the other inbuilt functions like oct() or hex().

Q 10) What is the use of the // operator in Python?

A 10) Using the // operator between 2 numbers gives the quotient when the numerator is divided from the denominator. It is called the Floor Division operator. It is one of the general questions from the Python interview questions and answers guide.

Q 11) Does Python have a Switch or Case statement like in C?

A 11) No, it does not. However, we can make our own Switch function and use it. 

Q 12) What is the range() function and what are its parameters?

A 12) The range() function is used to generate a list of numbers. Only integer numbers are allowed, and hence, parameters can be both negative and positive. The following parameters are acceptable:


Where ‘stop’ is the no. of integers to generate, starting from 0. Example: range(5) == [0,1,2,3,4]

range([start], stop[, step])

Start: gives the starting no. of the sequence

Stop: specifies the upper limit for the sequence

Step: is the incrementing factor in the sequence

Q 13) What is the use of %s?

A 13) %s is a format specifier which transmutes any value into a string.

  • It is useful to format a value in a string.
  • It is put where the string is to be specified.
  • Automatically provides type conversion from value to string.

Q 14) Is it mandatory for a Python function to return a value?

A 14) No There is no concept of procedure or routine in Python. If the programmer would not explicitly use the return value then Python will implicitly return a default value.

Q 15) Does Python have a main() function?

A 15) Yes, it does. It is executed automatically whenever we run a Python script. To override this natural flow of things, we can also use the if statement. 

Q 16) What is GIL?

A 16) GIL or the Global Interpreter Lock is a mutex, used to limit access to Python objects. It synchronizes threads and prevents them from running at the same time.

Properties of GIL include-

  • Ensures that only thread is running at a time.
  • Impossible to take advantage of multiple processors with threads.
  • Synchronise the execution of threads.

It is considered one of the top python interview questions for experienced professionals.

Q 17) Before the use of the ‘in’ operator, which method was used to check the presence of a key in a dictionary?

A 17) The has_key() method

Q 18) How do you change the data type of a list?

A 18) To change a list into a tuple, we use the tuple() function

To change it into a set, we use the set() function

To change it into a dictionary, we use the dict() function

To change it into a string, we use the .join() method

Q 19) What are the key features of Python?

A 19) It is one of the common python interview questions. Python is an open-source, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Since it is a general-purpose programming language and it comes with an assortment of libraries, you can use Python for developing almost any type of application.

Some of its key features are:

  • Interpreted
  • Dynamically-typed
  • Object-oriented
  • English-like syntax
  • Easy to write
  • Free and open source
  • Easy to understand
  • Extensible
  • Database and GUI Programming
  • Scalable
  • Integrated
  • Supports programming paradigms
  • Portable
  • Standard Libraries

Q 20) Explain memory management in Python.

A 20) In Python, the Python Memory Manager takes care of memory management. It allocates the memory in the form of a private heap space that stores all Python objects and data structures, there are 4 built in data structure in python. This private space is inaccessible to the programmer. However, the core API allows the programmer to access some tools for coding purposes. Plus, Python is equipped with an in-built garbage collector that recycles the unused memory for the private heap space.

Properties of memory management-

  • Ensures the proper management of memory space.
  • Ensures the allocation of memory space.
  • Allocation and deallocation of the heap memory through API functions.
  • All python objects and data structures are stored in a private heap.
  • The private heap is exclusive to the Python process. 

Q 21) What is PYTHONPATH?

A 21) PYTHONPATH is an environment variable that is used to incorporate additional directories when a module/package is imported. Whenever a module/package is imported, PYTHONPATH is used to check if the imported modules are present in the existing directories. Usually, the interpreter uses PYTHONPATH to determine which module to load.

Properties of PYTHONPATH-

  • Set path for user-defined modules.
  • Handle default search path for Python modules.
  • Allows importing modules that are yet to be made installable.
  • Holds a string with directories required to be added in the sys.path directory list by Python.

This type of question comes under best python interview questions and answers. Make sure not to restrict yourselves till the definition; instead, extend your solutions to properties.

Q 22) Is Python case-sensitive?

A 22) A programming language is deemed to be case-sensitive if it distinguishes between identifiers like “myname” and “Myname.” In simple words, it cares about the case – lowercase or uppercase. 

Let’s see an example:

  1. >>> myname=’John’
  2. >>> Myname

Traceback (most recent call last):

File “<pyshell#3>”, line 1, in <module>


NameError: name ‘Myname’ is not defined

Since it raises a NameError, it means that Python is a case-sensitive language.

Check out the trending Python Tutorial concepts in 2024

Q 23) Explain the use of “help()” and “dir()” functions.

A 23) One of the most common question in any Python interview question and answers guide. In Python, the help() function is used for showing the documentation of modules, classes, functions, keywords, and so on. If the help() function receives no parameter, it launches an interactive help utility on the console.

The dir() function is used to return a valid list of attributes and methods of the object it is called upon. Since the function aims to produce the most relevant data (instead of showing the complete information), it behaves differently with different objects:

  • For modules/library objects, the dir() function returns a list of all attributes contained in that module.
  • For class objects, the dir() function returns a list of all valid attributes and base attributes.
  • When no parameters are passed to it, the dir() function returns a list of attributes in the current scope.

Properties of dir() function-

  • Can work on large projects.
  • Helpful while working with various class functions differently.
  • Lists all the available attributes, such as modules, lists, and dictionaries.

Properties of hep() function-

  • Easy-to-use function
  • Reduces the complexity of code
  • Helps solve complex problems

Python interview questions for freshers like such are asked to understand the depth of knowledge. Make sure not to suffice yourself with one-word answers. Add some additional pointers that are relevant to the question. 

Q 24) What are python modules? Name some commonly used built-in modules in Python?

A 24) Python modules are files containing Python code that can be either function classes or variables. These modules are Python files having a .py extension. Modules can include a set of functions, classes, or variables that are both defined and implemented. You can import and initialize a module using the import statement, learning python tutorial will let us know more about python modules. The python modules contain python definitions and statements. It can constitute a runnable code. The codes that are grouping related makes the code easier to understand and use and logically organized.

Here are some of the commonly used built-in modules in Python:

  • os
  • sys
  • math
  • random
  • data time
  • JSON

Q 25) Explain “self” in Python.

A 25) In Python, “self” is a keyword used to define an instance or object of a class. Unlike in Java, where the self is optimal, in Python, it is primarily used as the first parameter. Self helps to distinguish between the methods and attributes of a class from its local variables.

The self variable in the __init__ method refers to the newly created object or instance, while in other methods, it pertains to the object or instance whose method was called.

Properties of ‘self in Python-

  • Refer to the current class instance.
  • Helps to access variables belonging to a class.
  • Attributes and Methods of a class can be accessed using self in Python.
  • Bind attributes with the arguments. 
  • Always point to the current object.
  • Self must be provided as the first parameter to the instance method and constructor.
  • It is a convention but not a Python keyword.

 Q 26) What is PEP 8?

A 26) PEP or Python Enhancement Proposal is a set of rules that specify how to format Python code for maximum readability. It is an official design document that provides relevant information to the Python Community, such as describing a new Python feature or a Python process. PEP 8 is an important document that includes the style guidelines for Python Code. Anyone who wishes to contribute to the Python open-source community must strictly abide by these style guidelines.

Properties of PEP 8 include-

  • Enhances readability 
  • Improves consistency
  • Describes the new features 
  • Provides the guidelines to write a Python code.

Q 27) Is indentation mandatory in Python?

A 27) Yes, indentation is necessary for Python. Indentation helps specify a block of code. Thus, in a Python code, everything within loops, classes, functions, etc., is specified within an indented block. If your Python code isn’t indented correctly, there’ll be problems during the execution, and it will raise errors. 

Importance of indentation in Python-

  • Spaces at the beginning of the code line.
  • Python uses indentation to indicate a block of code.
  • Indentation of a code is for readability.
  • Indentation is of high importance in Python.

Indentation benefits-

  • Increases code readability. 
  • Errors can be avoided.
  • Number of code lines can be reduced
  • Structure the code.
  • Make the code beautiful.

Q 28) Explain the difference between Python arrays and lists.

A 29) One of the most common Python interview question. In Python, both arrays and lists are used to store data. However,

  • Arrays can only contain elements of the same data types, meaning the data types of an array should be homogeneous.
  • Lists can contain elements of different data types, which means that the data types of lists can be heterogeneous. Lists consume much more memory than arrays. 

Here’s an example:

import array as arr





Refer to the below-mentioned table for difference-

A thin wrapper on C arrays,Flexible and can hold arbitrary data.
It should be first imported and then declared from other libraries.Part of Python’s syntax, no need for specific declaration.
Store homogenous data.Store heterogeneous data.
It cannot be resized. It can be resized.
Compact in size.Consumes more memory, lists are extendible.

Q 29) What is __init__?

A 29) In Python,__init__ is a method or constructor. It is automatically called to allocate memory when a new object or instance of a class is created. All classes have the __init__ method.

Here’s how to use the __init__ method in Python:

# class definition

class Student:

    def __init__(self, fname, lname, age, section):

        self.firstname = fname

        self.lastname = lname

        self.age = age

        self.section = section

# creating a new object

stu1 = Student(“Sara”, “Ansh”, 22, “A2”)

Properties of _init_ method include;

  • It is known as the constructor.
  • It can be called when the object is created in the class.
  • Required to initialise the attributes of the class.
  • Required to make Python treat directories containing the file as packages. 

Q 30) Explain the functionality of “break,” “continue,” and “pass.”

A 30) It is one of the common questions in python interview questions and answers guide. Let’s see break, continue and pass in detail.

The break statement is used for terminating a loop when a specific condition is met, and the control is transferred to the following statement.

  • The continue statement helps to terminate the current iteration of the statement when a particular condition is met, skips the rest of the code in the current iteration, and passes the control to the next iteration of the loop.
  • The pass statement is essentially a null operation that is used to fill up empty blocks of code that may execute during runtime but are yet to be written. It is represented by a semi-colon.

Refer to the below-mentioned table to understand the functionality of break, continue and pass.

Use of the ‘break’ keyword inside the loop structure.The ‘continue’ keyword can be used inside the loop structure.Can use the ‘pass’ keyword anywhere in Python,
Terminates the loop structure it is embedded in.It skips only the current iteration of the loop structure. It is used to write empty code blocks to meet Python syntax.

Properties of ‘break’ in python include-

  • It is a loop control statement.
  • It is helpful to escape once the external condition is triggered. 
  • Helps in gaining better control of the loop.
  • Controls the sequence of the loop.

Properties of ‘continue’ in python include-

  • Passes the control to the next iteration. 

Properties of ‘pass’ in python include-

  • It is used as a placeholder for future records. 
  • Useful for scaffolding while developing a code. 
  • It is useful when the function’s implementation is not written; the implementation is needed in the future.

Q 31) How to write comments in Python?

A 31) In Python, comments start with a # character. However, sometimes, you can also write comments using docstrings(strings enclosed within triple quotes). Unlike C++, Python does not support multiline comments.

Here’s how a comment is written in Python:

>>> #line 1 of comment

>>> #line 2 of comment

Q 32) What are the generators in Python?

A 32) Generators are most important python functions that return an iterable collection of items, one at a time, in an organized manner. Generally, generators are used to create iterators with a different approach – they use of yield keyword rather than return to return a generator object.

Properties of generators in Python-

  • It is used to create the iterator function. 
  • Yield statement is used instead of the return statement. 
  • It is also an interator.
  • Simplifies the creation of iterators.
  • Do not need to worry about the iterator protocol.

Q 33) How can you capitalize the first letter of a string in Python?

A 33) In Python, you can use the capitalize() method to capitalize the first letter of a string. However, if a string already consists of a capital letter at the beginning, it will return the original string.

Q 34) What are “docstrings” in Python?

A 34) Docstrings or documentation strings are multiline strings used to document a specific code segment. Docstrings usually come within triple quotes and should ideally describe what a function or method does. Although they are not comments, docstrings sometimes serve the purpose of comments since they are not assigned to any variable.

Properties of ‘docstrings’ in Python-

  • Convenient for associating documentation with Python. 
  • Specified in the source code.
  • Helps in understanding the capabilities of a module or function. 
  • Describes the actual job of the function.
  • They are put under triple quotation marks.

Q 35) Explain the functions of “is,” “not,” and “in” operators?

A 35) Again, one of the popular python interview questions. Operators are special functions in Python that can take one or more values to produce a corresponding result. 

  • The “is” operator returns true when two operands are true.
  • The “not” operator returns the inverse of the boolean value.
  • The “in” operator checks if some element is present in some sequence.

Properties of ‘is’, ‘not’ and ‘in’ operators include-

isCheck if two values are located on the same part of the memory.
notInvert the truth value of boolean expressions and objects.
in Determines if the given value is a constituent element of a sequence.

Q 36) How to copy an object in Python?

A 36) In Python, the assignment statement (= operator) does not copy objects, but instead, it creates a binding between the existing object and the target variable name. Thus, if you wish to create copies of an object in Python, you need to use the copy module. There are two ways to create copies for a particular object using the copy module:

  • Shallow copy – It is a bit-wise copy of an object. The copied object will have an exact replica of the values contained in the original object. If any of the values are references to other objects, only the reference addresses for the same will be copied.
  • Deep copy — It copies all values recursively from source to target object, meaning, it will duplicate even the objects that are referenced by the source object.

Properties of deep copy in Python-

  • Constructs a new compound object.
  • Creates a new object that stores the reference to the original elements. 
  • Original and repetitive copies are stored. 
  • Slower than shallow copy. 
  • Stores the copy of object values. 

Properties of shallow copy in Python-

  • Copy of the original object is stored, only the reference address is finally copied. 
  • Faster than deep copy.
  • Changes made in the copied object also reflect in the original object.
  • Stores the reference of the object in the main memory. 

Q 37) What is an Expression?

A37) An expression Can be defined as a combination of variables, values operators a call to functions. It is a sequence of operands or operators like a + B – 5 is called an expression. Python supports many such operators for combining data object into an express.

Properties of expressions include-

  • Consists the combination of operator and operands.
  • Indicates that some sort of operation must be performed. 
  • Supports many operators for combining data objects into expressions. 

Q 38)What is a statement in Python?

A38)It is an instruction that Python can interpret and execute when you type the statement in the command line Python execute and displays the result if there is one.

Q 39)What is ==  in Python?

A39)It is an operator which is used to check or compare the values  of two objects

Q 40)What are the escape sequences in Python?

A40) Python strings, the backslash “\” could be a special character, also called the “escape” character. it’s utilized in representing certain whitespace characters: “\t” may be a tab, “\n” could be a newline, and “\r” could be a printing operation. Conversely, prefixing a special character with “\” turns it into a standard character.

Q 41)what is encapsulation?
A41) Encapsulation is the binding of data and functions that manipulate the data.
It is a process of wrapping up data and variables together.

class playercharacter():
def __init__(self,name,age): = name
self.age = age

player1 = playercharacter(‘leo’,25)

Q42) How do you do data abstraction in Python?
A42) An abstraction means hiding away information or showing only information that’s necessary.
#in this example we dont want to learn how len was introduced in python

Q43) What is a dictionary in pthon?
A43) Dictionary is a data structure as well as a data type in python.It is enclosed in curly brackets{}.
Dictionary contains 2 elements – key and value
key is a string for us to grab a value.

dictionary = {
‘a’: 1,
‘b’: 2


Q44) What are functions?
A44) Functions are a set of code used when we want to run the same method for more than 1 time.It reduces the length of program.Functions are defined into 2 categories –
1)function defination
2)function calling

def dog():
print(“my name is tommy”)


Q45) What are the best python project ideas for the beginner level?

  1. Create a code generator –It takes text as input, substitutes each letter with another, and provides the “encoded” message as output.
  2. Create a web browser –One of the simplest python projects for beginners is building a simple UI that accepts URLs and loads the webpages. PyWt is useful for this project.

iii. Create a countdown calculator –If you are looking for those python projects for beginners that can improve your coding skills, this project is useful. It involves writing code that can accept two dates as input and calculate the f time between them.

  1. Write a sorting method –For a given list, you can write code that sorts it numerically or alphabetically.

 Q46) What are the best python project ideas for the intermediate level?

  1. Build a clock website –One of the interesting python project ideas for the intermediate level is building a clock website in real-time. It allows you to implement various time zone selectors, and implement the “countdown calculator” functionality to compute the duration.
  2. Make the Tic-Tac-Toe game clickable –It is one of the challenging python project ideas. It is a Tic-Tac-Toe version that has a UI you would use by clicking the open squares.

iii. Scrape some data for analysis -The web is composed of interesting data. If you learn even a little about web-scraping, you can collect some unique datasets for use in your Python project.

Q47) What are local variables and global variables in Python?

When working on Python programming, many python project topics will involve local and global variables. The global variables are declared outside a function or in the global space. They can be accessed by any function within the program. The local variables are declared within a function. They exist in the local space.

Local variableGlobal variable
Declared inside a function Declared outside a function
Accessible within the function.Accessible by all the functions.
Created when the function starts executing.Remains in existence for the entire program.
Value cannot be changed.Value can be changed. 

 Q48) Which sorting technique is used by sort() and sorted() functions of python?

The sorting technique is used in many python project topics. Tim Sort algorithm is used for sorting. It is a stable sorting, and its worst case is O(N log N). Moreover, it is a hybrid sorting algorithm created from insertion sort and merge sort. It is designed to efficiently perform on several types of real-world data.

 Q49) Is Python a compiled language or an interpreted language?

Python is a partially interpreted language and partially compiled language. Firstly, the compilation is done when the code executes and generates bytecode. This byte code gets internally converted by the python virtual machine(p.v.m) based on the underlying platform(machine+operating system).

 Q50) What is the difference between xrange and range function?

In Python, range() and xrange()functions are used to iterate a specific number of times in ‘for loops’. The range() function returns a list of numbers. The xrange() function returns the generator object that can display only numbers by looping. It displays only a particular range on demand and thus, it is known as lazy evaluation. The xrange() function is not found in Python 3. The range function works like xrange() in Python 2.

 Q51) What is the zip function?

In Python,  zip() function returns a zip object that maps multiple containers’ identical indexes. It accepts an iterable, transforms it into an iterator, and aggregates the elements depending on iterables passed. Furthermore, it returns an iterator of tuples.

 Q52) How is Exceptional handling done in Python?

Exceptional handling is extensively used in several python mini projects. Three blocks – try, except, and finally are used to catch the exceptions and accordingly manage the recovering mechanism. The try block contains codes that monitor errors. Except block executes when there is an error.  The final block executes the code after trying for the error. It is executed regardless of whether an error happened or not. All these blocks work together for exceptional handling in Python.

 Q53) What are the limitations of Python?

Before working on python mini projects, you must know its limitations. Here are its limitations. (i) It comes with design restrictions. (ii) It is ineffective for mobile computing. (iii) It is slower compared to C and C++ or Java. (iv) It includes an immature and primitive database access layer. (v) It is not suitable for memory-intensive tasks. (vi) The data types’ flexibility leads to high memory consumption. (vii) It depends on third-party libraries and frameworks. (viii) There are no pre-built Tests and Statistical Models.

Q54) Do runtime errors exist in Python? Explain with an example.

Yes, runtime errors are found in Python. For example, when you are duck typing and things appear like a duck, it is regarded as a duck, although it is merely a stamp or flag. In this case, the code has a run-time error. Another example is the Print “Hackr io” that shows the runtime error due to the missing parentheses in print ( ).

 Q55) What is multithreading in Python?

In Python, multithreading is the execution of two or more threads simultaneously. The program can be divided into multiple parts, and those parts execute concurrently to boost the performance, program speed, and memory space’s efficiency.  It is useful when threads don’t have a mutual dependency. Each thread is responsible for performing various tasks at once. Multithreading takes place so quickly that a user feels that threads are executing parallel.

Properties of multithreading in Python-

  • Ensures effective utilisation of computer science resources.
  • Multithreaded applications are more responsive. 
  • Enables efficient utilisation.
  • Causes reduction in time consumption. 
  • Increase performance. 

 Q56) What is inheritance in Python?

Inheritance allows a class to get all members of another class. The members can be methods, attributes, or both. With reusability, inheritance streamlines an application’s development and maintenance. Four types of inheritance in Python are Single inheritance, Multi-Level inheritance, Hierarchical inheritance, and Multiple inheritance.

Importance of inheritance in Python-

  • Defines class that inherits all the methods and properties from another class. 
  • Generates more dominant objects.
  • Avoids duplicity and data redundancy. 
  • Avoid space complexity and time complexity. 

Q57) What is the Django Architechture? 

One of the important Python viva questions, Django is a high-level web framework built in Python that allows rapid development of maintainable and secure websites. Its architecture consists of: 

  • Model: the back end where the data is managed and stored. 
  • Template: the front end of the webpage. 
  • View: function which accepts the web requests and delivers the web responses. 

Q58) What is the advantage of using a Numpy array over Nested lists? 

This is one of the Python interview questions for experienced. There are several advantages of using numpy arrays over nested lists. Numpy arrays are faster and more compact than nested lists. Arrays consume less memory and are more convenient to use; since arrays can directly handle mathematical operations, unlike nested lists which cannot do that. Arrays also offer a mechanism for specifying the data types which allows the code to be optimized even further. 

Q59) How to generate random numbers in Python? 

Random numbers in Python can be generated in several ways such as: 

  • Pseudorandom number generators: Pseudorandomness can be defined as a sample of numbers that seem close to random but are generated with a deterministic process. This generator is a mathematical function that generates a sequence of nearly random numbers. This program generates random numbers whenever called on. 
  • Python standard library: This library offers a module called random which offers a suite of functions for generating random numbers. 
  • Random integer values: Random integer values can be generated using the randint() function. It takes two arguments: the beginning and the end of the range. 

This is the knowledge that experienced coders must have. This is one of the Python interview questions for 5 years experience.

Q60) What is the pass statement in Python used for? 

If you are looking for Python beginner questions and answers, this is one of the most asked ones. The pass statement in Python is used as a placeholder for future code. When the pass statement is added and executed, nothing happens. However, it will allow you to avoid the error when an empty code is not allowed.

Q61) How to check if all the characters in a string are alphanumeric? 

A character is called alphanumeric if either it is a number or an alphabet. The isalnum() method always returns True if all the characters are alphanumeric. And it will return false if it is not alphanumeric for example #!%*() etc. 

For example: 

Case 1: 

s = ‘Hello2024’

print (s.isalnum())

Output: True 

Case 2: 

s = ‘Hello 2024’

print (s.isalnum())

Output: False; since is not an alphanumeric character. 

This is one of the most important Python interview questions and answers. You might be tested on your coding skills during your interview. 

Q62) How to merge elements in a sequence? 

There are three kinds of sequences in Python: 

  • Lists
  • Tuples 
  • Strings 

Merging lists: 

l1 = [5, 4, 3]

l2 = [6, 7, 8] 

merge_lists = l1 + l2 

print (merged_lists)

Output: [5, 4, 3, 6, 7, 8]

Merging tuples: 

t1 = (5, 4, 3)

t2 = (6, 7, 8)

merged_tuples = t1 + t2

print (merged_tuples) 

Output: (5, 4, 3, 6, 7, 8)

Merging strings: 

s1 = up

s2 = Grad 

merged_strings = s1 + s2 

print (merged_strings) 

Output: upGrad

Q63) How to remove all leading whitespaces in a string? 

This is one of the most commonly asked Python interview questions. In Python, the strip() function is used for removing all whitespaces. Let us see an example to understand this better. 

string = “HelloWorld@123”

print (string.strip())



Q64) What is the difference between Del and Remove() on lists in Python? 

This is one of the important Python interview questions for experienced. The difference between Del and Remove() in Python is as follows:


Del Remove() 
It is a keyword in Python.It is a built-in method in Python.
It works on an index.It works on the value.
indexError is shown as the output if the index does not exist in the Python list.valueError is shown as the output if the value does not exist in the Python list.
It is a simple deletion.It searches the list to find the item.
It is used for deleting an element at a specific index number.It removes the first value matching from the Python list.


Let us see some examples to understand the difference:

Case 1: deleting multiple elements from the Python list with the del keyword. 

myList = [“Monday”, “Tuesday”, “Wednesday”, “Thursday”, “Friday”]

print (“List = “,myList)

del myList [2:5]

print (“Updated List = \n”,myList)


List = [‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’]

Updated List = [‘Monday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’]

Case 2: removing an element from a Python list with the remove() method. 

myList = [“Monday”, “Tuesday”, “Wednesday”, “Thursday”, “Friday”]

print (“List = “,myList)


print (“Updated List = \n”,myList)


List = [‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’]

Updated List = [‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’]

Q65) Are append() and extend() the same in Python? 

Both of these are Python list methods for adding elements to a list. However, they do have some differences between them. Using append() we can add only a single element at the end of a list. Whereas, using the extend() method, we add multiple elements to a list.

Let us see some examples to understand their applications.

Case 1: using append() to add an element to the existing list. 

myList = [‘how’, ‘are’]

myList.append (‘you’)

print (myList)

Output: [‘how’, ‘are’, ‘you’]

Case 2: using append() to add another list to the existing list. 

myList = [‘how’, ‘are’, ‘you’]

anotherList = [1, 2, 3, 4]

myList.append (‘anotherList’)

print (myList)

Output: [‘how’, ‘are’, ‘you’, [1, 2, 3, 4]]

Case 3: using extend() to extend a list into an existing list. 

myList = [‘how’, ‘are’, ‘you’]

anotherList = [1, 2, 3, 4]

myList.append (‘anotherList’)

print (myList)

Output: [‘how’, ‘are’, ‘you’, 1, 2, 3, 4]

This is one of the most asked top Python interview questions for experienced.

Q66) How to use print() without the newline? 

The print statement in Python outputs the text passed to it followed by a new line character. The new line character is represented using the ‘n’ string which moves the cursor to the next line after printing the text.

If you want to keep the print on the same line, using two extra arguments can help you do the job. This is one of the crucial Python coding interview questions.

Case 1: using the “end” argument 

print (“Hello there!”, end=””)

print (“How are you?”)

Output: Hello there! How are you?

Case 2: using the “sep” argument 

print (“m”, “n”, “o’, sep=””)

Output: mno

Q67) Is Python a functional programming language or object-oriented?

This is one of the favorite Python questions for interview. Both OOPs and FP paradigms are present in Python.

Python follows the FP paradigm such as:

  • Lamba functions which are features of the functional paradigm are supported by Python.
  • Functions can be used as first-class objects.

Python follows the object-oriented paradigm such as:

  • With Python, objects can be created and manipulated with specific methods.
  • Python supports most features of OOPs such as polymorphism and inheritance.

Q68) Define *args and **kwargs in Python

In Python, *args allows a function to accept n number of positional arguments also known as non-keyword arguments, and variable-length argument lists. Whereas, **kwargs serves as a special syntax that allows us to pass a variable length of keyword arguments to the function.

Q69) Differentiate between matrices and arrays in Python. 

If you are searching for Python programming interview questions, this is one of them. A matrix is a special case of two-dimensional arrays where every element is strictly of the same size. Matrix objects are a subclass of ndarray, hence they inherit all the attributes and methods of ndarrays.

Arrays, on the other hand, are containers that can hold a fixed number of items. However, these items must be of the same kind. To work with arrays in Python, the NumPy library has to be imported.

Q70) What is the difference between libraries and modules in Python? 

If you are preparing Python questions for interview, you must know the difference between modules and libraries. Modules in Python are like standalone files that house specific components of codes such as variables and functions. On the other hand, libraries are vast collections of modules that have pre-built functions and tools tailored for specific tasks and domains. These libraries simplify the development process and also enhance the capability of Python with readily available solutions for different programming challenges. This is one of the basic Python interview questions for freshers.


We hope our Python Interview Questions and Answers guide is helpful. We will be updating the guide regularly to keep you updated.

The above list of questions, paired with your own practice on the PC, will help you to crack any and every Python interview ever. Apart from the basics, the only thing left is to practice so that while the interviewer is asking you questions, your mind is already writing and executing the code with it. 

If you are curious to learn more about data science, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s Executive PG Program in Data Science which is created for working professionals and offers 10+ case studies & projects, practical hands-on workshops, mentorship with industry experts, 1-on-1 with industry mentors, 400+ hours of learning and job assistance with top firms.



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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1How should I prepare for a Python interview?

There are certain points that you need to keep in mind before going for your Python interview round:
1. You must be theoretically clear with the basic as well as advanced Python concepts, especially data structures and algorithms in Python.
2. You could be asked to write the code, so you must know the correct Python syntax.
3. Practice the most asked Python interview questions and be fluent with the famous coding problems that could be asked.
4. Most of the interviewers ask for real-time projects that you have worked upon, so read out your projects before going to the interview.
5. Last but not the least, you should be confident in yourself because the first thing interviewers notice is how confident you are.

2What are some tips for freshers preparing for their first Python interview?

The following tips are for freshers preparing for their first interview you to crack any interview.
Build a good resume and get it reviewed by someone professional or you can also visit websites to have an expert opinion on your resume.
Have at least 2 good live projects to showcase in your portfolio. You should have a good command of your projects
Attempt mock interviews online to boost up your confidence and rectify your mistakes before appearing for the actual interview.
Practice coding questions while explaining them out loud. This will improve your verbal skills.

3 What is the difficulty level of a Python interview?

The following are some of the points that can directly affect the difficulty level of a Python interview:
Job Post: The difficulty of any interview largely depends on what post you have applied for. For example, the interview for an SDE3 post will be more difficult than that of an SDE1.
Company: The needs and requirements may vary from company to company. Some companies would expect more complex work from their engineers so they would have a tough interview respectively.
Experience Level: If a job application has asked for an experience level of 0-2 years, then the difficulty of the interview for the same job post could be different for 2 candidates having 0 and 2 years of experience respectively.

4What are the four variables in Python?

The four variables in Python include- 1) Integer 2) Long integer 3) Float 4) String

5What is tuple in Python?

They are used to store multiple items in a single variable. It is ordered and unchangeable. It is a finite ordered list of element. An n-tuple consists of n- elements. It is a collection of objects separated by commas.

6What is source code in Python?

It is a human - readable computer instructions written by programmers. It is written without special-formatting, such as bold, italics or different font types.

7What are data types in Python?

Some of the data types in Python include- 1) Numeric 2) String 3) Sequence 4) Mapping 5) Boolean 6) Binary 7) Set data types

8What are the three types of loops in Python?

The three types of loops in python include- 1) While loop 2) For loop 3) Nested loop

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