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Arjun Mathur

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Business Lead - Senior Executive Programs at Eruditus & Emeritus

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Bachelor’s Degree, Computer Engineering - IIT Delhi

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Arjun is Program marketing manager at UpGrad for the Software development program. Prior to UpGrad, he was a part of the French ride-sharing unicorn "BlaBlaCar" in India. He is a B.Tech in Computers Science from IIT Delhi and loves writing about technology.

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Types of Inheritance in Java: Single, Multiple, Multilevel & Hybrid
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Types of Inheritance in Java: Single, Multiple, Multilevel & Hybrid

Summary: In this Article, you will learn about the types of Inheritance in Java. Single-level inheritance Multi-level Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance Read more to know each in detail. Introduction Inheritance is a critical feature in which one object acquires the properties of the parent class. It is a crucial aspect of  OOPs (Object Oriented programming systems). Before understanding inheritance, let’s briefly understand Java. Inheritance in Java is the core feature of object-oriented programming. It facilitates a derived class to inherit the features from the parent class, through this hierarchical process the classes share various features, attributes, methods, etc. What is Java? Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based and object-oriented. Java helps the code developers to quickly write and run the code anywhere without worrying about the computer architecture. It is also known as “Write Once, Run Anywhere(WORA). Once compiled,  the code can run on all platforms without recompilation. The WORA attribute of Java is what makes the Java platform independent, as Java is one of the most highly demanded languages. Check Out upGrad’s Java Bootcamp Why Java? Easy to learn. Object-Oriented Programming Language (OOPs) Support Multithreading Multiple platforms friendly Secure  The programming language “Java” is widely used in the development of applications for mobile, web, desktop, etc. It is a robust, high-level, and object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995. Despite being a programming language, Java has an API and a runtime environment (JRE) and therefore, is also called a platform. Check Out upGrad’s Python Bootcamp Several concepts are there in Java, with four main concepts to get hold of the language. They are abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.  In this article, we will be focusing on the concept of inheritance in Java and the types of inheritance in java. Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   What is Inheritance? As the name suggests, inheritance means inheriting properties.  The mechanism by which a class is allowed to derive the properties of a different class is termed inheritance.  With the concept of inheritance, the information in a program can be organized hierarchically. Inheritance is one of the critical features of OOPs (Object Oriented Programming System), where a new class is created from an existing class (parent or base class). In simple terms, the inheritance would mean passing down the characteristics of parents(habits, looks, height) to their child. The most useful contribution of types of inheritance in java would be the reusability of a code. As discussed earlier that the derived class would inherit the feature, methods, etc from the parent class so the codes present in the parent class would also be inherited into the derived class, this is how reusability would work. Different types of inheritance in java are also mentioned in the article. In Java, the concept of inheritance allows the users to create classes and use the properties of existing classes.  Learn Java Bootcamp from upGrad A few important terminologies associated with the concept are: Class: It is defined as a group of objects sharing common properties. Sub Class: Also known as a derived or extended class, this class inherits the features from another class. Also along with the inherited fields and methods, the class generated from the class can add fields and methods of its own. Super Class: The superclass represents the class whose features are inherited by a sub-class. Reusability: The technique of reusability allows the user to create a class (a new one) having the fields or methods of an already existing class. It allows reusing the code. Learn Software Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Read: Learn java online for free! What are the 4 types of inheritance? In object-oriented programming, there are four main types of inheritance: single, multiple, multilevel, and hierarchical. Single inheritance allows a class to inherit features from one superclass, facilitating straightforward and clean inheritance structures. Multiple inheritance enables a class to derive attributes and behaviors from more than one superclass, offering versatility but also complexity. Multilevel inheritance involves a class inheriting from a derived class, creating a “grandparent-parent-child” relationship. Lastly, hierarchical inheritance permits multiple classes to inherit from a single superclass, useful for creating a family of related classes with shared characteristics. Types of Java Inheritance with Examples The different types of inheritance are observed in Java: Figure: 1 1. Single level inheritance in Java As the name suggests, this type of inheritance occurs for only a single class. Only one class is derived from the parent class. In this type of inheritance, the properties are derived from a single parent class and not more than that. As the properties are derived from only a single base class the reusability of a code is facilitated along with the addition of new features. The flow diagram of a single inheritance is shown below: Figure 2: Graphical illustration of single-level inheritance Source Two classes Class A and Class B are shown in Figure 2, where Class B inherits the properties of Class A. Example: An example of a code applying single-level inheritance Source Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 2. Multi-level Inheritance in Java The multi-level inheritance includes the involvement of at least two or more than two classes. One class inherits the features from a parent class and the newly created sub-class becomes the base class for another new class. As the name suggests, in the multi-level inheritance the involvement of multiple base classes is there. In the multilevel inheritance in java,  the inherited features are also from the multiple base classes as the newly derived class from the parent class becomes the base class for another newly derived class. Figure 3: A flow diagram of multi-level inheritance Source From the flow diagram in Figure 3, we can observe that Class B is a derived class from Class A, and Class C is further derived from Class B. Therefore the concept of grandparent class comes into existence in multi-level inheritance.  However, the members of a grandparent’s class cannot be directly accessed in Java. Therefore, Figure 3 shows that Class C is inheriting the methods and properties of both Class A and Class B. An example of multi-level inheritance is shown below with three classes X, Y, and Z. The class Y is derived from class X which further creates class Z.  Example: An example of multi-level inheritance Source Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 3. Hierarchical Inheritance in Java The type of inheritance where many subclasses inherit from one single class is known as Hierarchical Inheritance.  Hierarchical Inheritance a  combination of more than one type of inheritance. It is different from the multilevel inheritance, as the multiple classes are being derived from one superclass. These newly derived classes inherit the features, methods, etc, from this one superclass. This process facilitates the reusability of a code and dynamic polymorphism (method overriding). Figure 4: Graphical representation of a hierarchical inheritance. In Figure 4, we can observe that the three classes Class B, Class C, and Class D are inherited from the single Class A. All the child classes have the same parent class in hierarchical inheritance. Example: An example of code showing the concept of hierarchical inheritance Source The above code produces the output meowing… eating… Other than these types of inheritance in Java, there are other types known as multiple inheritances and hybrid inheritance. Both types are not supported through classes and can be achieved only through the use of interfaces.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 4. Multiple Inheritance in Java Multiple inheritances is a type of inheritance where a subclass can inherit features from more than one parent class. Multiple inheritances should not be confused with multi-level inheritance, in multiple inheritances the newly derived class can have more than one superclass. And this newly derived class can inherit the features from these superclasses it has inherited from, so there are no restrictions.  In java, multiple inheritances can be achieved through interfaces. Figure 5: Representation of multiple inheritances Source Figure 4 shows that Class C is derived from the two classes Class A and Class B. In other words it can be described that subclass C inherits properties from both Class A and B. Learn Java Tutorials Java Tutorials Java Classes and Objects Java 8 features Operators in Java Static Keyword In Java Switch Case In Java Packages in Java For Loop in Java Thread Lifecycle In Java OOP vs Functional vs Procedural Instance variables in Java Loops in Java Identifiers in Java Java Frameworks String Comparison in Java charAt() in Java View All Java Tutorials 5. Hybrid Inheritance in Java Hybrid inheritance is a combination of more than two types of inheritances single and multiple. It can be achieved through interfaces only as multiple inheritance is not supported by Java. It is basically the combination of simple, multiple, hierarchical inheritances. Figure 6: Representation of a hybrid inheritance Source Figure 7 With the different types of inheritance in Java, the ultimate aim is to create sub-classes having properties inherited from the superclasses. The created sub-classes have various properties which are: Fields and methods inherited in a subclass can be directly used. New fields and methods can also be declared in the subclass which is not present in the superclass. A new instance method can be created in the subclass having the same signature as the method in the superclass. The process is referred to as overriding. A new static method can be created in the subclass having the same signature as the method in the superclass. The process is referred to as hiding. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Importance of Java inheritance Implementation of inheritance in Java provides the following benefits: Inheritance minimizes the complexity of a code by minimizing duplicate code. If the same code has to be used by another class, it can simply be inherited from that class to its sub-class. Hence, the code is better organized. The efficiency of execution of a code increases as the code is organized in a simpler form. The concept of polymorphism can be used along with inheritance.  Syntax The basic syntax is Class superclass { —————-  } class subclass extends superclass   {   ————– —————–  }   The keyword “extends” is used while inheriting a class. It defines that the functionality of the superclass is being extended to the subclass. The new class created is called a sub-class while the inherited class is termed a parent class. Two classes Calculation and My_Calculation are created in the above example. The methods addition() and Subtraction() are inherited from the class calculation into the My_Calculation. Keyword extends has been used for inheriting the methods. The compilation and execution of the above code give the following output. The creation of the My_Calculation class copies the contents of the superclass into the sub-class. With the objects of the subclass, the users can access the subclass member. In certain cases when we have to differentiate between the members of the sub-class to that of the superclass having the same names, the keyword “super” is used. If supposedly we have two classes Sub_class and Super_class having the same method i.e. display(). The implementation of the method is different but has the same name. In such a case, to differentiate between the method superclass from that of the sub-class, the super keyword has to be used. Conclusion Java is a significant programming language, which makes it suitable for other programming tasks. It is easy to write, and compile than other programming languages. It has multiple applications such as finance, e-commerce, and applications development. Ranked as third-most sought-after programming language for hiring managers globally (PDF, 2.4 MB). It has held #5 spot on Stack Overflow’s list of the most commonly used languages for two years.  Its versatility has contributed to its appeal and demand. Its versatility has contributed to its appeal and demand. The article discussed the important concept of inheritance in Java and the types of inheritance in Java. Inheritance is therefore the mechanism where we can reuse the codes in order to acquire the properties of a class into another class. This can be achieved through the different types of inheritance patterns as shown in the article. However, there is much more to the concept of inheritance. To excel in the field of development, mastering in the complex programming of Java is required. If you have a dream of innovating intelligent devices, then Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development offered by upGrad’s would be the best choice. Certified from the Liverpool John Moores University, the course in association with IIIT Bangalore offers 500+ learning hours and is designed for early professionals. The skill learned from the upGrad’s course will help in opening up opportunities towards the field of software development, web development, javascript developer, etc. Open to any gender within the age group of 21-45, the interactive program might be the best choice for all the coders.

by Arjun Mathur

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20 May 2024

44 Must Know Agile Methodology Interview Questions & Answers: Ultimate Guide 2024
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44 Must Know Agile Methodology Interview Questions & Answers: Ultimate Guide 2024

Attending an agile interview and wondering what are all the questions and discussions you will go through? Before attending an agile testing interview, it’s better to have an idea of the type of agile interview questions so that you can mentally prepare answers for them. Let’s accept, we all get a bit nervous about interviews. No matter how capable you are or how much experience and knowledge you possess, at the end of the day, interviews are about how do you present yourself, how well you manage to put your knowledge into answering the questions in the most suitable way. Hence, it is always preferable to do a bit of research before an interview. Revise answers, brush up our skills. ‘doing’ and ‘explaining how to do’ are two different things. Agile interview questions and answers can include all aspects of the Agile methodology. The list below will help you become a pro! Agile methodology is an iterative project management technique that prioritizes cross-functional collaboration and continuous improvement. It segregates the project into different phases and directs the team through planning, evaluation, and execution. Scrum and Agile team members play an integral role in any organization.  Whether you are an expert or a novice in the world of Agile technology, these Agile interview questions can help you immensely in your technical rounds. We have briefly brushed upon all levels of difficulty in this article on Agile methodology interview questions for freshers & experienced. Check out our free courses related to software development. One-Of-Its-Kind Program That Creates Skilled Software Developers. Apply Now! Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Recently, the Agile Methodology has gained traction in the industry, with an increasing number of companies incorporating the concept into their organizational infrastructure. As a result, job postings in this domain is increasing rapidly. If you, too, wish to land a promising job in the IT sector, you must be well-versed in the Agile Methodology. Check out our Advanced Certification in Blockchain In this article, we will be looking at some most important agile interview questions and answers. There are certain agile methodology questions that are generally asked in an interview. We’ve created this agile interview questions and answers guide to understand the depth and real-intend behind the questions. These Agile questions and answers will address all your queries about the subject and give you a better understanding of the methodology.  Top Agile Interview Questions & Answers 1. What is Agile Testing? The first question of agile interview question tests your knowledge about the basic of agile testing. Agile testing is a practice based on the principles of agile software development. It includes all members of an agile team with specific skills and a certain expertise to ensure the timely delivery of a product with the release of additional features at frequent intervals. Check out our Advanced Certification in Cloud Computing 2. How is Agile Methodology different than Traditional Waterfall process? Characteristic Agile Methodology Traditional Waterfall Process Development Approach Iterative and incremental, allows for flexibility and adaptation Sequential and linear, follows a fixed plan Requirements Flexible, can change throughout the project Fixed at the beginning, difficult to change mid-project Delivery Schedule Regular and frequent releases, prioritizing working software Single delivery at the end of the project Feedback Constant feedback and collaboration with stakeholders Limited feedback until project completion Risk Management Risks are identified and addressed continuously Risk assessment occurs at the beginning of the project Quality Assurance Testing is integrated throughout the development process Testing occurs after development is complete Customer Involvement Customers are involved throughout the development process Customer involvement is limited to the requirements phase Documentation Minimal documentation, emphasis on working software Comprehensive documentation at each phase of development Project Control Adaptive and responsive to change, with regular reviews Less adaptable to change, requires strict adherence to plan Team Structure Cross-functional teams collaborate closely on tasks Distinct roles and responsibilities for different teams This is the most commonly asked agile interview question. In agile methodology, features of the software are delivered frequently, so that the testing activity is done simultaneously with the development activity. Testing time is shortened as only small features are need be tasted at once. Source While, in the waterfall model, testing activities take place at the end of the entire development process. Testing time, in this case, is as long as the entire product is to be tested in one go. Waterfall methodology is a closed process where all stakeholders are not involved in the development process whereas agile methodology requires the involvement of various stakeholders including customers. Learn more about agile vs waterfall. A Beginner’s Guide to MVC Architecture in Java 3. What are the pros and cons of Agile Methodology? This is one of the most frequently asked agile interview questions. Pros of the agile methodology: Speedy and continuous delivery of the software ensures customer satisfaction. All the stakeholders (customers, developers, and testers) are involved in the process which leads to technical excellence and good design. It facilitates close interaction between business people and developers. Its flexibility ensures the adaptation to changing circumstances. Changes added at the last moment or at a later stage of development can be incorporated without any problem. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   However, it does have some disadvantages too: Sometimes when software deliverables are large ones, it is tough to determine the effort level required at the beginning of the software development lifecycle. In agile methodology, documentation and designing take a back seat. The decision-making crucial for the development process comes with seniority and experience. Hence, freshers can hardly manage to find a place in the agile software development process. Get Software Engineering degrees from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. 4. What kind of projects is suitable for the Agile Methodology? The traditional methodology is suited for projects with predefined, clearly stated requirements while agile development methodology is suitable for projects with dynamic requirements where frequent changes in the product come up on a regular basis. 15 Must-Know Spring MVC Interview Questions 5. What are the different types of Agile Methodologies? An agile interview question and answers guide will not be complete without this question. There are several types of agile development methodology. Scrum is one of the most popular and widely used agile methods. Other types of agile development methodology are; development like Crystal Methodology, DSDM(Dynamic Software Development Method), Feature-driven development(FDD), Lean software development and Extreme Programming(XP). Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 6. Difference between extreme programming and scrum? Characteristic Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Primary Focus Software engineering practices and coding Project management and collaboration Iterations Continuous, short iterations with frequent releases Fixed-length iterations (sprints) with regular reviews Roles No fixed roles, emphasis on teamwork and collaboration Defined roles: Product Owner, Scrum Master, Team Requirements Flexible and adaptable, can change frequently Fixed for the duration of the sprint Feedback Constant feedback from customers and team members Regular feedback during sprint reviews and retrospectives Documentation Emphasis on working software over comprehensive documents Minimal documentation, focus on communication Testing Test-driven development (TDD) is a core practice Testing integrated throughout the development process Meetings Regular meetings include daily stand-ups and planning Structured meetings: sprint planning, review, retro Scaling Suitable for small to medium-sized teams and projects Scalable for larger teams and complex projects Culture Emphasizes technical excellence, teamwork, and simplicity Emphasizes transparency, collaboration, and adaptation Scrum teams usually have to work in iterations which are known as sprints which generally last up to two weeks to one month long while XP team works in the iteration that lasts for one or two weeks. XP teams are more flexible as they can change their iterations while Scrum teams do not allow any change in their iterations. The product owner prioritizes the product backlog but the team decides the sequence in which they will develop the backlog items in scrum methodology. Whereas XP team works in strict priority order, features developed are prioritized by the customers. Our learners also read: Java free online courses! 7. Can you explain the lean methodology in detail? Lean software development method follows the principle of “Just in time production”. It aims at increasing the speed of software development and decreasing cost. The basic idea of lean is to reduce non-value-added activities (known as “wastes”) in order to increase customer value. The agile process itself is a lean method for software development lifecycle. However, activities like backlog grooming (when team review items on the backlog to ensure the appropriate items are in the backlog, that they are prioritized well, and that the items at the top of the backlog are ready for delivery) code refactoring (process of restructuring existing computer code – changing the factoring — without changing its external behavior) fits agile methodology more in tune with lean principles. What is Test-driven Development: A Newbie’s Guide 8. What is Kanban? It is one of the common agile interview questions. Kanban is a tool which helps the team to keep a close eye the work i.e., to measure its progress. Apart from the progress, the status of a development story can be seamlessly described with the help of ‘kanban board’. Kanban board aids in writing the whole scenario of a project at a single place to give a perfect picture of the bottleneck, a task done, workflow progress. It helps in the continuous delivery of the product without overburdening the team. 9. Is there any difference between incremental and iterative development? Characteristic Incremental Development Iterative Development Definition Builds and delivers the project in small, usable increments Builds and enhances the project through repeated cycles Focus Each increment adds new features or functionality Each iteration refines and improves existing features Delivery Partial solutions are delivered incrementally Full solutions are delivered in each iteration Feedback Feedback is gathered after each increment Feedback is gathered and applied in each iteration Risk Management Risks are addressed incrementally as new features are added Risks are managed through continuous refinement Flexibility Provides flexibility to adapt to changing requirements Allows for flexibility and refinement throughout the process Timeline Each increment has its own timeline and delivery schedule Iterations have fixed time frames, typically 1-4 weeks Customer Involvement Customers can provide feedback early and often Customer feedback shapes each iteration of development Testing Testing occurs incrementally as features are added Testing is integrated into each iteration of development Scope Scope may evolve with each increment Scope remains constant within each iteration Yes, the iterative methodology is a process of software development without any interruption. In this method, software development cycles consisting of sprint and release are repeated until the final product is obtained. Whereas, the incremental model is a process of software development where the product is designed, implemented and tested incrementally until the product is finished. It involves both development and maintenance. 10. What are burndown and burn-up charts in agile methodology? To track the progress of an ongoing project, these charts are used. Burn-up charts indicate the work that has been completed while Burn-down chart shows the amount of remaining work in a project. Why Companies are Looking to Hire Full Stack Developers 11. Can you explain pair programming and its benefits? It is one of the general agile interview questions and answers guide. The combined effort in the team where one programmer writes the code and the other one reviews it is called pair programming. There are several benefits of pair programming, it not only improves the quality of code but also facilitates the knowledge transfer. It reduces the chance of mistakes as two people are simultaneously working on a code. 12. Do you know what is the scrum of scrums? This is one of the most important Agile interview questions. The term “Scrum of Scrums” is used when there are multiple teams involved in a project. It refers to the scaling of the daily Scrum meeting. In this scenario, each team is responsible for conducting and leading its separate scrum meeting. However, to maintain coordination and communication among all the different teams, a separate meeting must be conducted wherein all the teams participate. This is known as the “Scrum of Scrums.” In this meeting, one team leader from every team (known as the “ambassador”), will represent their team. The main idea behind this is to encourage Agile teams to collaborate and coordinate their work with each other.  13. What is the velocity of a sprint and how it is measured? This question is categorized under agile project management interview questions and is among the most frequently asked ones.  Velocity is one of the planning tool used to estimate the speed of the work and time of completion of the project. The calculation of velocity is done by reviewing the work team has successfully completed during earlier sprints; for example, if the team completed 5 stories during a two-week sprint and each story was worth 3 story points, then the team’s velocity is 15 story points per sprint. How to Become a Full Stack Developer 14. According to you what are some qualities that a good agile tester must have? A competent agile tester must possess the following qualities: They should be capable of understanding the requirements quickly. An agile tester should be aware of all the agile principles and concepts and values as listed down in an agile manifesto. They should be able to prioritize the work based on the requirements. They should have excellent communication skills as continuous communication between business associates, developers and tester is a backbone of the agile development process. 15. Can you list some responsibilities that a scrum team have to undertake? This is one of the important agile interview questions. Major responsibilities that a scrum team has to include: Breaking down the requirements, creating tasks, estimating and distributing the created tasks. To put simply they are in charge of creating sprint backlogs. They have to arrange daily sprint meeting. It is a responsibility of the team to ensure that every functional feature is delivered on time. They have to create a sprint burndown diagram to know to get the exact estimate of work done and the work that needs to be done. 16. Mention the principles of Agile testing. Not many people are aware of the importance of such Agile questions. The principles of Agile testing are: Continuous testing – This ensures the continuous progress of the product. An interesting aspect of the Agile testing process is that unlike the traditional methodologies where only the testing team is focused on product testing, it requires the entire team to participate equally in the testing process.  Continuous feedback – With every test, the client feedback is encouraged to ensure that the product meets the business requirements of the client.  Simple and clean code – Whatever errors and defects arise during the testing phase are fixed within the same iteration by the Agile team. This allows for simple, concise, and clean code.  Less documentation – Agile teams use a reusable checklist. Here, they are more focused on the testing process rather than the incidental details. 17. Differentiate between Agile and Scrum. A critical agile interview question you need to be aware of. Agile and Scrum have their fair share of similarities and differences. Since Scrum is a part of the Agile Methodology, both of them promote the completion of projects incrementally in small fragments. Also, both methodologies are iterative in nature. However, the main difference between Agile and Scrum is that the former has a broader spectrum. While Agile Methodology is used for project management, Scrum is ideal for projects where the requirements change rapidly. In the Agile Methodology, leadership holds the most pivotal position, whereas Scrum encourages the creation of a self-organizing and cross-functional team. 18. What are the crucial Agile Matrices?  Some of the essential Agile Matrices are: Velocity – It is essential to keep track of the project’s velocity so that the Agile team can have a clear about your progress, capacity, and other metrics.  Work category allocation – Allocating separate work categories provides a clear idea about where different team members are investing their time and what is the order of priority of the various tasks in a project.  Defect removal awareness – When team members work proactively and correct the errors simultaneously as they develop and test a product, the quality of the end product improves significantly. Cumulative flow diagram – It represents a workflow in which the x-axis represents time, and the y-axis depicts the effort of members.  Sprint burn-down matric – This allows the Agile team to track and monitor the completion of the work along with the sprint. Deliver business value – It is primarily concerned with the overall work efficiency of the Agile team. Only when all the team members are productive that the Agile team can deliver business value to their clients.  Time coverage – The time required to develop and test each iteration is measured using the ratio between the number of lines in a code (test suite) and the number of relative lines of codes. Defect resolution time – As the name suggests, it pertains to the time required to detect and fix bugs and issues. This is an elaborate process that requires the Agile team to collaborate and deliver improved results in the most productive manner possible. 19. Explain “Zero Sprint” in Agile. One of the important agile interview questions. In Agile Methodology, Zero Sprint refers to the first step that comes before the first sprint. So, it is more like a pre-step to the first sprint. Thus, Zero Sprint would include a host of activities that are to be completed before starting a project, including setting up the development environment, preparing backlog, and other such tasks that are usually done before beginning the actual development process.  20. What is the ideal duration of a Scrum Sprint? The duration of a Scrum Sprint or the Scrum Cycle primarily depends on the project size and the team working on it. A Scrum team may consist of 3-9 members, and it takes about 3-4 weeks to draft and complete a Scrum script. Going by this calculation, the average duration of a Scrum Sprint is four weeks. 21. Explain the role of the Scrum Master. One of the popular agile interview questions. The Scrum Master is the leader and supervisor of the Scrum team. The main job of the Scrum Master is to ensure that the team abides by the Agile values and principles and follows the agreed-upon processes and practices. Some of the most crucial responsibilities of the Scrum Master are: To eliminate all the obstacles that could hamper the productivity of the Scrum team. To establish a productive and collaborative work environment for the Scrum team. To protect the team from the interruptions and distractions of the outside world. To maintain a good relationship between the team, clients, and all the other stakeholders involved in a project.  To supervise the operations of the Scrum team and motivating them as and when needed.  22. Differentiate between “Sprint Planning Meeting” and “Sprint Retrospective Meeting.” Although the two terms may sound similar, Sprint Planning Meeting and Sprint Retrospective Meeting are quite different from one another. A Sprint Planning Meeting involves all the Scrum roles – product owner, scrum team, and scrum master – coming together to discuss the project priorities and backlog items. Usually, the Sprint Planning Meeting is a weekly event that lasts for about an hour. A Sprint Retrospective Meeting, on the other hand, is one where all the Scrum roles (product owner, scrum team, and scrum master) come together to discuss the good and bad elements of the sprint and the sprint improvements. This meeting is generally an extension of the Sprint Planning Meeting and can last up to two to three hours. Apart from these agile methodology interview questions, questions based on your previous experience in case you are already acquainted with agile methodology can be asked by the interviewer. You might want to revisit your on-the-job learnings and prepare answers to questions like: How long were your sprints for the projects you have worked on? What is the maximum number of scrum you have handled at a time? What kind of project management tools were used for your project? Have you used automated test tools earlier? How was your experience? Did your iterations overlap? 23. Is agile development a framework? Agile signifies all-embracing values for software development. It emphasizes the value of iterating rapidly and frequently to meet customers’ expectations. So, an agile framework is defined as an explicit software-development approach depending on the Agile philosophy expressed in the Agile Manifesto. 24.What are Agile Methodology Frameworks? It is one of the common Agile capital services interview questions. The Agile framework works on the Agile approach that offers data on the particular Agile-development practices. The disparities in the software development processes lead to Agile frameworks. The Agile methodology frameworks are also known as processes or methodologies. They lay the basis of Agile transformation. Some of the prominent Agile methodology frameworks used are  Scrum, Disciplined Agile, The crystal method, Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe), Feature Driven Development (FDD), Lean Software Development (LSD), Rapid Application Development (RAD), Scrumban, and Kanban. 25.How to enhance the impact of Agile? You can include this question when preparing for the Agile capital services interview questions. Considering the increasing adaptation of Agile in many organizations, Agile’s impact renders the desired outcomes of effective agile transformation. The four metrics included in the Agile impact framework are customer satisfaction, operational performance, employee engagement, and financial performance. Organizations can assess the Agile impact by determining how Agile teams enhance the customer experience. Alternatively, you can do that by comparing the new values generated by Agile teams with the traditional waterfall output’s value. 26.How do you deal with distributed teams in Agile? Dealing with distributed teams is significant in many organizations. So, this one is one of the frequently asked Agile interview questions. The following tips help you to deal with distributed teams in Agile. (i) Uniformly distribute work and maintain apparent task allocation. (ii) Recruit self-reliant and dedicated individuals to fulfil the vision.  (iii) Create co-located teams and let them invent ways to share the work. (iv) Capitalize on collaboration technology to increase teamwork efficiency. (v) Arrange daily stand-up meetings to explore potential roadblocks and decrease dependencies. 27.How are Agile and DevOps different? Many leading organizations ask these types of Agile interview questions. Agile and DevOps both started their journeys to enhance the software development process. Agile prioritized working on software development rather than rigid processes. DevOps prioritized production and development. They both share a fundamental concept, but they target diverse stakeholders with unique business objectives. Each of them addresses dissimilar yet critical parts of software development. Agle sets the stage for DevOps and provides ways to develop software faster. On the other hand, DevOps focuses on quality and offers teams to deploy frequently. 28.How does Agile save you money? It is one of the popular Agile interview questions and answers from a business perspective. Agile processes are cost-effective. They are well-known for quality assurance, scope optimization, and cost saving. It only focuses on developing only the required aspects to save time and let businesses generate more revenue. The quality of deliverables is guaranteed when the iteration terminates. Agile reduces the completion time by motivating the compartmentalization of work. Agile delivery is faster because it focuses on high-priority tasks. Communication transparency guarantees faster product delivery. So, time saved ultimately saves money. 29.When should you use Agile project management? Companies have adopted an agile style of project management that stresses fostering collaboration and efficiency. This particular question is categorized as one of the popular agile project management questions and answers from a managerial perspective.  It is one of the common Agile interview questions and answers when it comes to enhancing organizational work efficiency. Agile characteristics like iteration, adaptability, short time frames, and continuous delivery make it suitable for project management. So, Agile is suitable for continuing projects and projects where some details are unknown at the outset. Agile project management is therefore useful when a project lacks clear timelines or resources. For example, designing a new product may create some challenges. Implementing an Agile methodology allows frequent product testing, quick iteration, and smooth communication with stakeholders. 30.Which is the best Agile method? This is one of the common agile questions when studying different Agile methods. Scrum is the best and most extensively used Agile methodology globally. The Scrum framework addresses two critical pain points of software development i.e. speed and altering client requirements. This approach executes the software development project in phases and each phase is called a Sprint. 31.How agile methodology is more advantageous compared to traditional methodologies? The key difference between Agile and traditional approaches is the order of project phases – gathering requirements, planning, designing, development, testing, and UAT. The sequence of the project development phase is linear in traditional development methodologies, whereas it is iterative in Agile. Testing is undertaken after the development phase completes in Agile methodology. Testing and development occur simultaneously in traditional methodologies. Client involvement is less in traditional development than in Agile development. Traditional methodologies are less secure. 32. How agile methodology works in testing? It is one of the advanced level Agile questions. Testing happens early and frequently in Agile development. Rather than waiting for development to be completed before testing starts, testing takes place constantly as features are added. The tests are prioritized similarly to user stories. Testers target to complete as many tests as possible. 33.What is included in the Agile Testing Lifecycle in Scrum? The Scrum Agile testing lifecycle includes the following points. (i) Contributing to user stories according to the system’s expected behaviour  (ii)Release planning as per test defects and effort. (iii)Sprint Planning according to user defects and stories. (iv)Sprint execution with continuous testing. (v)Regression testing after the Sprint planning completes. (vi)Reporting Test Results. (vii)Automation Testing 34.When to choose Agile methodology? It can be considered as expert-level Agile questions and answers. Agile methodology can be chosen in the following scenarios. (i) The developers are ready to lose work of a few days or hours when implementing a new feature. (ii) When limited planning is needed to begin the project. (iii) When there is more focus on what has to be done and less focus on scheduling and documentation. (iv) When requirements and priorities need to be easily adjusted all through the project to fulfil the stakeholders’ needs. 35.What are the risks of using agile methodology? Certain organizations may ask these types of Agile questions and answers in interviews. Here are the three key risks of using Agile methodology. (u) Budget risks –It denotes that occasionally, it’s difficult to accurately estimate the cost of a new product’s development during its early stages. (ii) Scope creep risk –It assumes scope changes during the development that leads to changing deliverables, shifting timelines, and budget increases. (iii) Less predictability -Agile adopts constant changes and it is occasionally challenging to provide long-term predictions. This risk deals with changing the deadlines for the vendor. 36. What is the Agile Manifesto and its core values? This is one of the agile interview questions that do not come under the technical repository of questions, but you must be familiar with the topic. The Agile Manifesto is a documentation that outlines four fundamental values and twelve principles that software developers should implement to guide their work. The developers who introduced the Agile Manifesto sought to find stability between existing ways of development and other possible alternatives.  The four core values documented in the Agile Manifesto are as follows: Individuals and interactions should be given priority over processes and tools. Demonstration of working software at regular time intervals over comprehensive documentation. Precedence to be given to customer collaboration over contract negotiation. Incorporating change over following a project plan.  37. What do you mean by Scrumban? This is one of the latest interview questions on agile methodology, as Scrumban is one of the core developments in agile procedure. Scrumban is a project management strategy that combines two Agile methods — Scrum and Kanban. It integrates Scrum’s structured framework of sprints, standups, and retrospectives with Kanban’s visual workflow. This allows teams to benefit from iterative development and continuous flow, enhancing adaptability and efficiency. Scrumban came into prominence to help software teams switch from Scrum to Kanban and vice versa. If the teams are competent in working with both methodologies, this layout can assist them in the smooth shift to other methodologies. 38. What are Scrum Ceremonies, and name the essential team members in them? Scrum Ceremonies, also termed events, are gatherings that occur before, during, and subsequent sprints embedded in the scrum framework. The framework partitions projects into regular intervals, for example, 30 days to complete the task. During a scrum sprint, they allow ease in communication.  The prominent team members include: Scrum Master – The Scrum Master ensures that everyone in the team has the equipment and guidance to be productive. The Scrum Master schedules meetings and conveys the team’s progress and problems.  Product Owner – The product owner takes essential decisions and prioritizes each item before a Scrum sprint. They constitute the interests of the clients and stakeholders. Development Team – The development team is a cross-functional group that develops the product. This group comprises developers, quality assurance analysts, and designers involved in transporting and developing products. 39. What are the quality strategies of agile? This is one of the basic agile methodology interview questions.  Initiation – During formation, it is often termed Sprint 0 in Scrum or Iteration 0 in agile technologies. The primary goal of the team leader is to define goals and guide the team in the right direction. From the point of view of testing, the main tasks have to be organized according to your approach to testing and commence setting up the test environment.  Development team strategies – Agile development teams adhere to a team strategy in which testers are inducted into the development team, and the team is held responsible for testing. This works in favor of many instances, but when your environment is composite, you will need an independent testing team to work in tandem with the development team.  Parallel independent testing – The team’s approach of inducting agile testers to the group is a significant start but doesn’t suffice in the long run. The idea is to constitute an independent test team that performs some advanced tests. This team does not require a detailed set of requirements but may require specifics such as architecture diagrams.  40. What do you understand by the term Daily Stand-Up? This is one of the frequently asked agile scrum interview questions. The Daily Stand-Up, or Daily Scrum, is a short, daily meeting in Scrum where team members discuss progress, plan for the day, and identify any obstacles. Participants stand to keep it brief, typically lasting 15 minutes or less, promoting quick updates and issue resolution. It is advisable to host these meetings in the presence of the project manager and with all employees in attendance.  41. What do you mean by impediments? State instances of impediments. Impediments are roadblocks or obstacles faced by the members of the Scrum team that affects the speed of their work. Impediments can assume various forms like – i) Missing resources or absence of a team member, ii) Business troubles, iii) Lack of essential skills or knowledge iv) organizational problems.  Certain organizations ask these agile testing interview questions to evaluate a candidate for a role where user stories will be used. These agile process interview questions test the candidate’s knowledge in understanding the customer’s perspective. If you are applying for a senior role, you must prepare these Agile methodology interview questions for experienced Agile testers. 42. What is a user story? A user story is a simple description of a feature delivered to the end users. User stories are used in agile technologies to understand the requirements of the customers or users. The purpose of a user story is to express how the company will add value to the customer’s requirements.  Also, Read Agile methodology Interview Questions for testers 43. What are the 3 Cs of user stories?  This is one of the scenario-based agile questions, The 3 Cs of user stories are: Cards – User stories are written on cards. They form the foundation for a conversation. It doesn’t matter what kind of card (digital, index, or post-in) is used. The written content on the card signifies the story’s priority and the cost involved. Conversation – A card portrays user requirements, but they have to be refined and presented to the developers. When a user story is documented on a card and written on a board, it reflects how committed the team is to discussing a user story. Confirmation – Confirmation is one of the criteria for acceptance prior to development. The team may preside over a meeting regarding a user story, but there lies an iota of suspicion if the user requirements are met or not. So, confirmation ensures that the user requirements have been delivered. Every individual who is a part of the scrum and agile team should uphold the company’s ethics and values. To explore the core components of Agile, have a look at this agile question and answer. 44. What do you mean by a Build-Breaker? A build-breaker is a team member responsible for impeding the team’s progress. The individual introduces probable changes to the applications that make them impossible to run.  The Steps of Agile Methodology Agile methodology aims to deliver more regular product launches and shorter project cycles than traditional project management. The Agile interview questions and answers mentioned above will help you understand the methodology in detail. Candidates can also create Agile interview questions and answers pdf for better access to questions for revision.  You may employ a variety of Agile models, including Kanban and Scrum, which are two among the most popular. However, any Agile approach will adhere to the same fundamental steps, which are as follows: 1. Planning the project  As with any other project, you should have a clear understanding of the final product, its value to the customer or company, and the way it will be accomplished before work starts. You may create a project goal here, but keep in mind that Agile project management’s goal is to make it simple to address modifications and modifications to the program. As a result, the scope of the project shouldn’t be viewed as impervious to change. 2. Developing a product roadmap An outline of the characteristics that make up the finished product is called a master plan. Due to the fact that you will develop each of these distinct features during each sprint, this is an essential part of the Agile planning phase. You will also create a product inventory at this time, which is a checklist of all the features that will go into the finished item. Later, while planning sessions, you can select items from this checklist. 3. Planning the release In traditional project management, there is one date that matters the most. The final date after all the planning and development is when you release the product. Agile, on the other hand, employs reduced development periods, also known as ‘sprints’, with features being delivered at the conclusion of each cycle. You will develop a comprehensive strategy for product releases before the project begins, and at the start of each sprint, you will review and reevaluate the plan. 4. Planning sprint The parties must have a sprint strategy meeting before the start of each sprint to decide what the role of each individual be and how it will be accomplished. To ensure that everyone on the team completes their allocated responsibilities throughout the sprint, it’s critical to distribute the workload fairly. A visual record of your workflow is also necessary for team transparency, shared knowledge, and the detection and elimination of bottlenecks. 5. Planning daily tasks Hold quick daily meetings to assist your team to complete their responsibilities throughout each sprint and determine if any adjustments are necessary. Each colleague will briefly discuss their upcoming daily tasks. These daily sessions should be brief.  How to Become a Full Stack Developer 6. Testing The testing stage checks whether the product meets the company guidelines and customer requirements. Testing is an indispensable part of the Agile life cycle and is performed while developing the product roadmap. As the developer teams continue to complete the unfinished tasks, the testing team will take over and continue executing test cases to identify bugs in the code. 7. Maintenance The maintenance stage establishes that the software meets user requirements over time. Your team needs to observe the software and resolve errors as and when they arise. You can collect feedback from users from different sources. The input gathered from the sources should be used to identify potential threats and arrive at a conclusive solution. To prepare for an upcoming interview where Agile questions and answers may be asked, it is necessary to understand all aspects of Agile methodology and go through the Agile interview questions and answers pdf thoroughly. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Tips to Help You Prepare For An Agile Interview as a Developer A simple way to prepare for agile methodologies interview questions is to use the repository of resources available in the public domain. Agile practices are used widely across a range of sectors from software development to healthcare and financial services. Digital.ai’s 16 State of Agile Report states the technology sector uses agile methodologies the most, almost 27%. It is crucial to understand global agile fundamentals to have clarity on the global impact of agile technology. This article covers all aspects of agile methodology interview questions and answers. Fundamental agile questions and answers are asked of candidates applying for entry positions and the level increases according to the role. Preparing for an Agile interview as a developer requires a combination of technical knowledge, practical experience, an understanding of Agile principles and methodologies, and many more things. So, keeping this in mind let’s learn some valuable tips to help you succeed in your Agile interview: Understand Agile Principles Before your interview, ensure you have a solid understanding of Agile principles and methodologies. Familiarize yourself with iterative development, collaboration, continuous feedback, and change adaptation. Know Scrum and Kanban Be well-versed in popular Agile frameworks like Scrum and Kanban. Understand the roles (Scrum Master, Product Owner, Development Team) and ceremonies (Sprint Planning, Daily Standup, Sprint Review, Sprint Retrospective) in Scrum, as well as Kanban principles such as visualizing work, limiting work in progress, and managing flow. Technical Skills Brush up on your technical skills, especially those related to the job you’re applying for. Be prepared to discuss programming languages, frameworks, version control systems, and other tools commonly used in Agile development environments. Practice Agile Tools Familiarize yourself with popular Agile tools like Jira, Trello, or Asana. Many Agile teams use these project management tools, so that hands-on experience can be a significant advantage. Collaboration and Communication Agile emphasizes collaboration and communication. Be prepared to discuss your experiences working in teams, how you handle conflicts, and how you communicate progress and challenges. Problem-Solving Scenarios Expect scenario-based questions where you might be asked how you would handle specific Agile-related challenges. Practice answering questions related to prioritizing tasks, handling scope changes, or resolving conflicts within a team. Continuous Improvement Agile focuses on continuous improvement. Be ready to discuss how you’ve contributed to process improvement in your previous projects. Discuss any initiatives you’ve taken to optimize workflows, increase efficiency, or enhance team collaboration. Cultural Fit Agile teams often have a unique collaboration, trust, and adaptability culture. Be prepared to demonstrate how your values align with Agile principles. Share examples of how you’ve worked in environments that value these principles. Be Adaptable Agile is all about adaptability. Show your willingness to learn and grow, emphasizing that you can easily adapt to new tools, methodologies, and project requirements. Ask Questions Finally, be prepared with thoughtful questions for the interviewer. Ask about their Agile processes, team structures, and how they handle challenges. This shows your interest and helps you assess if the company’s Agile practices align with your expectations. Conclusion With that, we come to the end of our list of agile interview questions and answers guide. Although these agile interview questions are selected from a vast pool of probable questions, these are the ones you are most likely to face. These were the must-know questions and answers revolving around the agile methodology. Most companies practice agile development in one form or another, thanks to the features it has to offer. If you wish to make a flourishing software development career, what are waiting for? Master agile methodology. Explore more about Agile software development, check out upGrad’s Executive PG Programme in Software Development – Specialisation in Full Stack Development.

by Arjun Mathur

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18 May 2024

21 Best Web Development Project Ideas For Beginners With 2024 [Latest]
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21 Best Web Development Project Ideas For Beginners With 2024 [Latest]

In this article, you will learn the 21 Interesting Web Development Ideas & Topics 2024. Take a glimpse below. Best Web Development Project & Topics For Final Year Students & Beginners One-page layout  Login authentication   Product landing page  Giphy with a unique API JavaScript quiz game To-do list SEO-friendly website JavaScript drawing Search engine result page Google home page lookalike Tribute page Survey form Exit the plugin Note log Social share buttons Toast notifications AJAX-style login Word Counter Countdown timer Modal pop-ups Address book Read the full article to know more about all the 21 Web Development project Ideas & Topics in detail. What is Web Development? Web development refers to creating websites and web applications for the Internet. It combines various skills, technologies, and disciplines to design, build, and maintain functional and visually appealing websites. Web development projects encompass everything from simple static web pages to complex dynamic web applications with interactive features. Key components of web development include: – Front-end Development This involves creating a website’s user interface and user experience. Front-end developers work with technologies like HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and JavaScript to design and implement the visual elements and interactivity users interact with. Back-end Development Back-end development involves building the server-side logic and databases that power a website or web application. Back-end developers use programming languages such as Python, Ruby, PHP, Java, or Node.js to handle data processing, authentication, server configuration, and other server-side tasks. Apart from working with server-side languages and databases, it also uses frameworks, APIs, and security measures to create the functional components of a website or application. It focuses on server management, security, and the core functionalities that power the user-facing elements developed in the front end. Full-Stack Development Full-stack developers have expertise in both back-end and front-end development. They can work on both the client-facing aspects and the server-side components of a web application. A full-stack developer possesses the skills and knowledge to handle various aspects of web development, from designing and building the user interface to managing databases and server-side logic. They are proficient in front-end technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. They can create responsive, visually appealing user interfaces and ensure a seamless user experience.  Web Development Project Ideas For College Students With digital presence becoming a necessity for brands to expand and gain exposure among potential customers, the web development industry is taking off rapidly, and so is the demand for Web Developers. In fact, web development has emerged as a promising field right now, attracting aspirants from all educational and professional backgrounds. As industries continue facing fierce competition among fellow brands and services, the ones keeping up with trends steal the limelight. The severe expansion of digitally engaged audiences has proved that web development is no more a choice but a necessity to reach a broader customer base, increase engagement and promote services.  You can also check out our free courses offered by upGrad under IT technology. Considering how web development is experiencing continuous growth with technological advancement, following web development trends is essential to sustain the audience’s volatile attention. Aspects like architecture, application, chatbots, motion UI, and IoT are popularly incorporated into service structures with API project ideas for beginners, demanding significant experience to master and create complying websites and applications.  Practicing web technology projects with code bridges the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical application, and the best way to grasp web development concepts is by working on real-world projects. Web development projects for final-year students or fresh graduates and API project ideas for beginners help them test their theoretical knowledge and enhance their practical skills.  If you are also interested in web development, working on web technology projects is the best way to upskill in this field. The more you practice and experiment with challenging web development projects, the better your real-world development skills will be. Enroll on the Job Guaranteed Full Stack Development Bootcamp program from upGrad. We’ve created this post to help you get an idea of the kinds of web development projects that you can work on. So, without further ado, let’s get started and get your hands on our web project ideas.  Top Web Development Projects Ideas This list of web development project ideas is suited for beginners & intermediate level learners. These web project ideas will get you going with all the practicalities you need to succeed in your career as a web developer. Further, if you’re looking for web development projects for final-year students, this list should get you going. So, without further ado, let’s jump straight into some web project ideas that will strengthen your base and allow you to climb the ladder. 1. One-page layout This website ideas for projects aims to recreate a pixel-perfect design and make a one-page responsive layout. This is also a beginner-level project that allows freshers to test their newly acquired knowledge and skill level. This is one of the most basic website development projects that allow beginner-level learners to practice their understanding of HTML, CSS, and possibly introductory JavaScript concepts by implementing the design, structuring the webpage’s content, styling elements, and making the layout responsive. Creating a pixel-perfect and responsive one-page layout encourages beginners to focus on fundamental concepts such as layout structuring, styling techniques, media queries for responsiveness, and overall design consistency. It provides hands-on experience in translating a static design into a functional web page while honing their understanding of essential web development principles. You can use the Conquer template to build this project. This template comes loaded with a host of unique layouts. Also, it brings before you a series of challenges that Web Developers often face in real-world scenarios. As a result, you are pushed to experiment with new technologies like Floats and Flexbox to hone the implementation of CSS layout techniques. Get Advanced Certification in Cloud Computing from IIITB 2. Login authentication  Login authentication is a vital process, widely followed by organizations to keep their servers safe by allowing access only to authenticated users. Every website or application demands users to complete the login authentication process to cement their credentials for security and to improve user experience. Working on login authentication web development projects for final-year students is an excellent way to improve one’s development skills. This is a beginner-level web projects, that is great for honing your JavaScript skills. In this project, you will design a website’s login authentication bar – where users enter their email ID/username and password to log in to the site. Since almost every website now comes with a login authentication feature, learning this skill will come in handy in your future web projects and applications. Working on these basic web development projects will give you hands-on experience dealing with authentication workflows, security protocols, and backend integration. This will help you understand the complexities and considerations of creating secure login systems. Moreover, these projects will enable you to hone your critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and precision, all crucial skills in web development and cybersecurity. Ultimately, undertaking login authentication website development projects provides an excellent platform for final-year students to apply theoretical knowledge, enhance practical skills, and gain a deeper understanding of security and user authentication in real-world web applications. Learn Software development Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. 3. Product landing page Being the face of any website, a product landing page has the ability to target customers more than any other aspect through its visuals and various other compelling features. Designing a product landing page is vital for web developers to test practical skills and how convincing they actually are. Aspirants exploring web app project ideas must take up this interesting web development project for final-year students to learn in-depth what customers demand and how visuals can grab their attention. Designing a compelling product landing page is one of the best project ideas for web development. It is essential for web developers as it allows them to test their practical skills in creating persuasive and visually appealing web content.  To develop a product landing page of a website, you must have sound knowledge of HTML and CSS. In this project, you will create columns and align the components of the landing page within the columns. You will have to perform basic editing tasks like cropping and resizing images, using design templates to make the layout more appealing, and so on.  Product landing page designing can be ideal for web projects for final-year students. It can help them gain practical insights into user psychology and the importance of meeting customer demands in the digital market landscape. It provides a holistic learning experience combining design aesthetics, user engagement strategies, and technical implementation, preparing students for real-world challenges in web development and digital marketing. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Read: Full Stack Project Ideas & Topics 4. Giphy with a unique API This web development projects for final-year involves developing a web application that uses search inputs and Giphy API for presenting GIFs on a webpage. This is an excellent beginner-level project wherein you use the Giphy API to recreate the Giphy website. We recommend you use the Giphy API since you need not request any API key to use it. Another advantage of using the Giphy API is that you don’t require to worry about configuration while requesting data.  If you want to hone your API skills, this should be one of your go-to ideas. As one of the highest sought-after web development project ideas for beginners, it introduces students to the concept of API integration, where they learn how to make requests to external APIs, retrieve data (in this case, GIFs) based on user input, and display it dynamically on a webpage. You can use the Giphy API to build a web application that has a search input where users can search for specific GIFs, can display trending GIFs in a column/grid format, and has a load more option at the bottom for searching more GIFs. Also, Check out online degree programs at upGrad. 5. JavaScript quiz game This web development projects ideas for final year students aims to create a JavaScript quiz game that can take multiple answers and show the correct result to users. While gaining JavaScript knowledge isn’t tricky, applying that knowledge in real-world scenarios is usually challenging. However, you can use a small JavaScript-based quiz game to experiment with your skills. While building this web projects, you will deal with complex logic and learn a lot about data management and DOM manipulation. Depending on your JavaScript skills and ability to handle complex logic, you can make the game as simple or complicated as you want it to be! upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4 This is undoubtedly the best project for web development directed to final-year students looking to enhance their JavaScript skills by practically applying them to create a dynamic and interactive quiz game. They’ll gain a deeper understanding of handling data, manipulating the DOM, managing user interactions, and implementing complex logic, all fundamental aspects of modern web development. Moreover, the flexibility of the project allows students to tailor the complexity of the game based on their skills, allowing for both beginner-friendly and more challenging implementations. 6. To-do list One of the most common web development projects ideas for final year is the one every web developer must practice through web app project ideas to create a web development project comprising various features essential for daily life. To-do lists contain user-interactive features with basic features like adding or removing tasks, highlighting dates, strikethrough features to indicate completion, and other text decoration components. This project offers a comprehensive learning experience for final-year students in web development. It requires them to apply their understanding of HTML for structure, CSS for design and layout, and JavaScript for creating interactive functionalities.  Deemed as one of the best website project ideas, it allows them to grasp essential concepts like event handling, DOM manipulation, and local data storage while building a practical tool that many users find beneficial in managing their daily tasks.  You can use JavaScript to build a web app that allows you to make to-do lists for routine tasks. For this project, you must be well-versed in HTML and CSS. JavaScript is the best choice for a to-do project since it allows users to design interactive coding lists where they can add, delete, and also group items.  Overall, the to-do list web application project serves as an excellent platform for you to showcase your skills in creating a functional and user-friendly web app. Also read: Full Stack Developer Salary in India 7. SEO-friendly website Today, SEO is an integral part of website building. Without SEO, your website will not have the visibility to drive traffic from organic searches in SERPs (search engine result pages). While Web Developers are primarily concerned about website functionality, they must have a basic idea of web design and SEO. In this project, you will take up the role of a Digital Marketer and gain in-depth knowledge of SEO. It will be helpful if you are aware of the technical SEO for this project. When you are well-versed in SEO, you can build a website having user-friendly URLs and featuring an integrated, responsive design. This will allow the site to load quickly on both desktop and mobile devices, thereby strengthening a brand’s social media presence. Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 8. JavaScript drawing Infinite Rainbow inspires this web project ideas on CodePen. This JavaScript-based project uses JavaScript as a drawing tool to bring to life HTML and CSS elements on a web browser. The best thing about this project is that you can use JavaScript’s supercool drawing libraries like GoCanvas, Canviz, Raphael, etc. By working on this web project ideas you can learn how to use and implement JavaScript’s drawing capabilities. This skill will come in handy for enhancing the appeal of static pages by adding graphical elements to them. 9. Search engine result page This projects on web development is super interesting and exciting! In this project, you must create a search engine result page resembling Google’s SERPs. While building this project, you must ensure that the webpage can display at least ten search results (just like Google). Also, you must include the navigation arrow at the bottom of the webpage so that users can switch to the next page. This is one of the best web development projects for beginners. This allows you to have an immersive practical experience and learn about data fetching, dynamic content display, pagination, responsive design, user interface design, and enhancing user interaction. Additionally, web technology projects like these will encourage you to explore APIs, understand the intricacies of mimicking existing interfaces, and gain insights into the complexities of search result presentation. Ultimately, successfully building a SERP-like webpage showcases proficiency in front-end development and demonstrates the ability to create functional and user-centric web applications. 10. Google home page lookalike Another interesting JavaScript project on our list, this project requires you to build a webpage that resembles Google’s home page. Keep in mind that you have to build a replica of Google home page along with the Google logo, search icons, text box, Gmail, and image buttons – basically, everything that you see on Google’s home page. This should be relatively easy, provided you are proficient in HTML and CSS. Since the aim here is to build a replica of Google’s home page, you need not worry too much about the functionality of the components of the page. 11. Tribute page Yes, tribute pages are a real thing. If you Google “tribute page,” you will find a comprehensive list of links showing you how to build tribute pages. Essentially a tribute page is a webpage dedicated in honor of someone you love, admire, or respect. It can be a person or a beloved pet.  A tribute page is a perfect project for sharpening your HTML and CSS skills and knowledge. In this projects on web development you will make a webpage to write and dedicate a tribute to someone and publish the same. Apart from the write-up for the tribute, you need to add relevant images, links, etc., on the page. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 12. Survey form Building a survey form or questionnaire is easy if you are proficient in HTML or HTML5. Even today, lots of companies use survey forms as a means of collecting relevant data about their target audience.  In this web development project ideas, you must design a full-fledged survey form that includes relevant questions like name, age, email, address, contact number, and other questions, depending on the type of company or organization you are shaping the form. This project will put to the test your webpage structuring skills. With this project, students can learn the ins and outs of structuring and designing a comprehensive survey form using HTML or HTML5. They learn about form elements, input types, validation, semantic HTML, accessibility considerations, and user interface design, fundamental aspects of web development. Moreover, this project allows students to understand the importance of user data collection for businesses or organizations and how to create a user-friendly interface for gathering valuable information. Overall, designing a survey form provides hands-on experience in webpage structuring and is a significant step toward becoming proficient in front-end development. 13. Exit the plugin In this website ideas for projects, you will design an exit widget or plugin. When you visit a website or a webpage, you must have seen the tiny pop-ups on the screen when you wish to exit the site/page. Companies usually use exit plugins to show exciting offers to keep users on the page. This is precisely what you have to design. Website development projects like these challenge students to apply JavaScript skills in detecting user behavior and creating a dynamic and engaging exit widget. It allows them to explore user interaction patterns, content personalization, and the psychology behind retaining user interest on a webpage. You can use your JavaScript and skills to design unique exit plugins wherein the content will be customized based on how long the user stays on a page. Implementing an effective exit plugin successfully demonstrates proficiency in front-end development and user experience enhancement. This makes this one of the best website project ideas for students to develop essential skills in this field. 14. Note log This web development mini projects will be much like the to-do list we mentioned above. The aim is to design and build a notes app that can take multiple entries per note. It should allow users to select a note when they launch the app. When they choose a note, a new entry will be automatically tagged along with the current date, time, and location. Users can also sort and filter their entries based on this metadata.  This project offers a practical learning experience in web development, requiring you to apply your HTML, CSS, and JavaScript knowledge to create a functional and user-friendly note app. It allows you to explore various JavaScript functionalities, data management, user interface design, and interaction while efficiently addressing the real-world problem of organizing and tracking events. This is a great web app for tracking events and resolving messy calendar problems. As one of the best web development projects ideas for final year students, the Note Log project will encourage you to think about user needs and how technology can be used to solve practical problems. This makes it a brilliant exercise in both technical skills and problem-solving abilities in web development. 15. Social share buttons Most websites (particularly, content-based ones) built on WordPress have social share buttons that allow users to share content on various social media platforms. However, for static sites that aren’t based on WordPress, adding social share buttons is a challenge. In this project, you will take up the challenge of writing JavaScript code that will allow you to add social share buttons to static sites. While you can do this by incorporating HTML elements or images in the site’s template, using JavaScript allows you to add the share buttons dynamically. Among the best web development project ideas for beginners, it trains students in DOM manipulation, handling external APIs or URLs for social media interactions, and enhancing user engagement by enabling easy content sharing.\ Moreover, this project allows freshers to explore customization options, user interaction patterns, and design considerations for integrating external functionalities into a website, providing valuable insights into front-end development and user experience enhancement. 16. Toast notifications A toast notification is an unobtrusive and non-modal window element that is used to display brief, auto-expiring information to users. You can see toast notifications primarily on Android OS platforms. In this web development project ideas, you must design a toast notification tool. Using your JavaScript skills and knowledge, you’ve to create a functional toast notification tool that can respond to events on the page and notify the users as and when an event has been completed successfully. You could also use the setTimeout function to represent the delay in loading or saving data. 17. AJAX-style login This web development mini projects focuses on building the front end of an AJAX-style login site/page. In AJAX-style login, the login page does not need to be reloaded to ensure whether or not you have to input the correct login details. If you want, you can also create a mockup of both successful and invalid login situations by hard-coding a username and password and comparing this to the information entered by a user. You can also include error messages for situations where the input data is incorrect or not found. As one of the most basic web projects to choose from, you will gain hands-on experience in implementing AJAX for handling login requests. You will also better understand client-server communication and how to dynamically update webpage content without page reloads. Web technology projects like these provide a practical approach to enhancing user experience by creating a more responsive and seamless login process. Additionally, this project demonstrates proficiency in front-end development and interaction with server-side components—a valuable skill set in web development. 18. Word Counter This is a nifty tool for people who write detailed documentation, blogs, essays, etc., online. A word counter tool allows you to see how many words you’ve written so far and how much more you need to write.  This is a pretty simple project which requires you to build an application that can parse texts and show the number of words and characters contained in a write-up. You can also include additional functionality in the word counter to provide more advanced information such as the number of passive sentences in a block of text. 19. Countdown timer Another simple project on our list is a countdown timer or clock. For this project, you just need to create a simple webpage that can update the time every second. With JavaScript as its foundation, you can make the page more appealing by including start, stop, and pause buttons on the page. Students will create the basic structure of the webpage using HTML, defining elements to display the current time and buttons for start, stop, and pause functionalities. Styling the webpage using CSS allows students to design an appealing and user-friendly interface. They can customize the timer’s appearance, buttons, and overall layout to make it visually appealing. By working on basic web development projects like these, students gain practical experience in using JavaScript to create dynamic and interactive elements on a webpage. They learn about manipulating the Document Object Model (DOM), handling events, and updating content in real-time—a fundamental aspect of modern web development. Moreover, adding user interaction features like start, stop, and pause buttons elevate the project’s complexity, allowing students to delve deeper into handling user inputs and implementing functionality based on those interactions. Overall, this simple countdown timer or clock project is an excellent starting point for beginners to explore JavaScript and create interactive web elements. 20. Modal pop-ups This project ideas for web development is very similar to the social share button project. Here, you need to create a JavaScript code that will be immediately triggered every time a user clicks a button on or loads the page. You will design modal pop-ups to provide notifications, promotions, and email signups to users. The pop-up should be such that it can be closed with a click as well. To make the project more challenging, you can experiment with different animations and modal entrances like fade-in and slide-out. By working on website project ideas like these, students can gain practical experience in using JavaScript to create dynamic and interactive modal pop-ups. They learn about event handling, DOM manipulation, and improving user engagement by delivering targeted messages or prompts. Moreover, this project allows students to work with various design elements and interaction patterns, enhancing their front-end development and user interface design skills. 21. Address book In this web development projects for students you must build an application to search for particular entries in your address book by filtering the attributes you specify. You can either use an API that generates placeholder data, or you can also structure the JSON (JavaScript Object Notation). Once the data is in place, you must load it in your application by using an AJAX request (jQuery or XML HTTP request) just as you would in a real-world application. Also, you can design the web application to cache requests in the local storage to avoid unnecessary network requests. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? What are the uses of Web Development? Web development projects have a wide range of uses and applications for individuals and businesses. Here are some of the key uses of web development: Creating Websites Web development primarily aims to create websites that serve as online representations of individuals, businesses, organizations, or causes. Websites can provide information, showcase products or services, promote events, and more. E-Commerce Web development is essential for creating online stores and e-commerce platforms. These platforms allow businesses to sell products and services directly to customers over the Internet, reaching a global audience. Web Applications Web development is used to create various web applications offering specific functions and services. Examples include online banking systems, project management tools, social media platforms, and email services. Blogs and Content Management Web development enables the creation of blogs and content management systems (CMS) like WordPress, allowing individuals and organizations to easily publish and manage articles, posts, and other content. Online Learning Platforms Web development is crucial for building e-learning platforms where users can access educational content, courses, and interactive lessons online. Social Networking Social networking websites and platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn rely on web development to provide user profiles, communication features, and sharing functionalities. Entertainment and Media Websites and web applications are used for streaming videos, music, and other forms of entertainment. Platforms like YouTube, Netflix, and Spotify are examples of web development in the entertainment industry. Booking and Reservation Systems Web development is used to create platforms for booking flights, hotels, restaurants, and other services. These systems allow users to make reservations and manage their bookings online. Healthcare and Telemedicine Web development creates telemedicine platforms and healthcare applications that enable remote medical consultations, appointment scheduling, and health tracking. Real Estate and Property Listings Real estate websites and platforms use web development to display property listings, provide virtual tours, and facilitate communication between buyers, sellers, and agents. Government and Public Services Government websites offer various services online, such as tax filing, permit applications, and information dissemination. Web development is integral to these platforms. Portfolio and Personal Websites Individuals, artists, photographers, writers, and professionals often use web development to showcase their work, skills, and achievements through personal websites or portfolios. News and Media Outlets Online news publications and media outlets use web development to deliver their audiences up-to-date news, articles, videos, and multimedia content. Collaboration and Communication Tools Web development creates tools and platforms for remote collaboration, communication, and teamwork, such as video conferencing apps, project management tools, and messaging platforms. Looking to challenge yourself or expand your portfolio? Check out our curated list of computer science project ideas to inspire your next groundbreaking project. Conclusion These are our top web development projects for students and web development projects with code for final-year students and freshers. All the projects mentioned in our list are relatively easy; hence, they are excellent for freshers who’ve just started in the web development world. However, always choose project ideas for web development according to your skill level. Start by working on beginner-level projects and gradually move to advanced JavaScript projects. Working on these projects will expand your skill set and enhance your professional portfolio. A comprehensive combination of a professional adept in all layers of an engineering process is always a demand in businesses aimed at expansion. Companies and fellow professionals alike, highly value Full-Stack Developers. With the surplus of knowledge in hand, there is an evident shift in demands for professionals who adapt quickly to changing requirements, thus proving their mettle. With the world experiencing an increase of around 3.2 million developers globally, reports expect the number to grow further to about 8.7 million people by 2024, cementing opportunities and a bright future for web developers worldwide.  If you’re interested to learn more about full-stack development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms. 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by Arjun Mathur

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18 May 2024

15 Must-Know Spring MVC Interview Questions
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15 Must-Know Spring MVC Interview Questions

Spring has become one of the most used Java frameworks for the development of web-applications. All the new Java applications are by default using Spring core and Spring MVC frameworks. Thanks to its growing popularity, recruiters all over the globe are looking for candidates hands-on with the Spring framework. If you’re appearing for an interview for a Java developer role, Spring MVC is one of the first things that you should brush up your knowledge on Spring framework interview questions – irrespective of whether you’re a fresher or someone with experience. Also, check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. After all, the Spring MVC framework is the most commonly used Java frameworks, and you are bound to get asked questions in and around the same, in any Java (or any related interview) interview you sit for. If you didn’t know, Spring MVC is a robust Java-based framework that helps build web applications. As the name suggests, it uses an MVC architecture – Model, View, Controller. Spring MVC provides an elegant way of using Spring with the MVC framework. Released in 2002, the Spring framework’s is an open-sourced framework, that means developers all around the world can contribute to the development and further releases of the framework. Check out Advanced Certification in DevOps Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript That also means that there is an ever-active community of developers out there to help you with your queries. Being open-sourced also adds to the plethora of benefits that the Spring framework offers. Especially if you’re beginning with your career in Java, you’d require guidance, and the diverse community of Java developers ensures you don’t lack any guidance when it comes to working with Spring MVC. Check Out Advanced Certification in Cloud Computing It is important to understand the flow of Spring MVC to gain an in-depth knowledge of Java.  With so many benefits to offer, there shouldn’t be an iota of doubt as to why Spring MVC is an interview’s favorite topic to question you on. In this article, we’ll be talking about 15 such Spring MVC must-know questions which you can expect to encounter in any interview you sit for. Let’s learn about the interview questions on Spring MVC for freshers and other Spring MVC interview questions and answers for experienced candidates, which will help you ace your interview.  1. What is the Spring framework? To start off our list of interview questions on Spring MVC, let us start with the basics of what Spring MVC stands for.  Spring is an open-source framework that was built to simplify application development. It has a layered structure which allows the developer to be selective about the components they use. It has three main components – Spring Core, Spring AOP, and Spring MVC. Further, you can talk about your experience with Spring, if any. That’ll add a lot of weight to your answer. Why Companies are Looking to Hire Full Stack Developers 2. What are the main features of Spring framework? Spring framework offers a lot of features to make the developer’s life easy. Some of them are: Lightweight: Spring is extremely lightweight, the basic version is around 1MB, with negligible processing overheads. Inversion of Control (IoC): Dependency Injection or Inversion of Control is one of the most important features of Spring. Using IoC, the developers don’t need to create a complete environment for the object and its dependencies; they can simply create and test the object they are handling at the given point in time. Object dependencies will be included or called upon when the need arises. It majorly creates a window in the case of configuration management. The container, therefore, consists of different assembler codes that solely exist for configuration management.   Aspect-Oriented Programming: Spring supports Aspect-Oriented Programming. AOP isolates secondary functions from the programmer’s business logic. This not only provides modularity but also makes the code maintainable. MVC architecture: Spring comes with an MVC framework for web-applications. This framework is highly configurable using various technologies like JSP, Tiles, iText, and POI. JDBC exception handling: Spring comes with a predefined JDBC abstraction layer which simplifies the overall exception handling process. Spring MVC network is also the basis of power for other Spring-based projects like Spring Boot, Spring Cloud, and SpringGraph QL.  Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   3. Explain a bit more about Dependency Injection. Spring MVC questions like these check your test your clarity on basic concepts. Dependency injection is the fundamental aspect of Spring frameworks which theoretically injects objects with dependencies that helps in responsibly managing the components that already exist in the container. Inversion of Control or Dependency Injection aims to simplify the process of object creation by following a simple concept – don’t create objects, just describe how they should be created. Using IoC, the objects are given their dependencies at build-time by an external entity that is responsible for coordinating each object in the system. In essence, we’re injecting dependencies into objects using IOC or Dependency Injection. For example, if class One needs to operate an object which is possessed by class Two, which instantiates or operates a particular method, then it can be concluded that in this case, class One depends on Class Two.  This particular example, however, is only possible theoretically and not in the real world because it can lead to several problems in the module, like system failure and other important issues. This can also lead to loose coupling, which can be possible because of two classes being intertwined for common functionality.  Make sure you offer such clarity in your Spring MVC questions. This also marks one of the most important Spring MVC interview questions for experienced candidates.  4. Explain the different types of Dependency Injections in Spring? When to use which? Spring provides the developers with the following two types of dependency injections: Constructor-based DI: Constructor-based DI is accomplished by passing a number of arguments (each of which represents a dependency on other class) to a class’s constructor. Simply, dependencies are given in the form of constructor parameters. CDI is declared as the <constructor-arg> tag in the configuration bean file in this particular parameter.  Setter-based DI: When you are working with a no-argument constructor, you will set values by passing arguments through setter function to instantiate the bean under consideration, this is called setter-based dependency injection. For example, a class GFG can use Setter Dependency Injection (SDI) to set the property tag in the bean- configuration file.  When will you use which one of these, boils down to your requirements. However, it is recommended to use Setter-based DI for optional dependencies and Constructor-based DI for mandatory dependencies. Interview with Farooq Adam, Co-Founder, Fynd 5. What is the Spring MVC framework? Spring MVC is one of the core components of the Spring framework. It comes with ready to use components and elements that help developers build flexible and robust web applications. As the name suggests, the MVC architecture separates the different aspects of the application – input logic, business logic, and UI logic. It also provides a loose coupling between the M, V, and C of the application. These are classified further into:  Model (M): This contains the application data with a single object and a collection of objects.  View (V): A view requires provided information in a specific format. Generally, in this case, JSP+ JSTL uses this way to create a view page. This consists of components of various technologies like Apache Velocity, Thymeleaf, and FreeMarker.  Controller ( C): This contains the business logic of an application. The annotation of the @controller is used as a mark to class the controller in the program.  This question is a fine example of Spring MVC interview questions for experienced.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 6. What are some benefits of Spring MVC framework over other MVC frameworks? The Spring MVC framework has some clear benefits over other frameworks. Some of the benefits are: Clear separation of roles –  There is a specialised object for every role, thus providing a clear separation of roles. Reusable business code – With Spring MVC, you don’t need to duplicate your code. You can use your existing objects as commands instead of mirroring them in order to extend a particular framework base class. Customizable binding and validation- This helps in rewriting the code from scratch and also taking up the previous codes at times for a proper binding and validation following the function. It is very feasible and one of a kind.  Customizable locale and theme resolution- One of the important components of Spring MVC is the customizable theme resolution. The developer can surely change these based on the needs provided by the organization or the required programming clientele.  Customizable locale and theme resolution Customizable handler mapping and view resolution From Spring 2.0 onwards, the framework comes with a JSP form tag library which makes writing forms in JSP pages much easier. 7. What is DispatcherServlet? Spring MVC framework is request-driven and is designed around a central Servlet that handles all the HTTP requests and responses. The DispatcherServlet, however, does a lot more than just that. It seamlessly integrates with the IoC container and allows you to use each feature of Spring. On receiving an HTTP request, the DispatcherServlet consults HandlerMapping (these are the configuration files) to call the appropriate Controller. Then, the controller calls appropriate service methods to set the Model data. It also returns the view name to DispatcherServlet. DispatcherServlet, with the help of ViewResolver, picks up the defined view for the request. Once the view is finalized, the DispatcherServlet passes the Model data to View – where it is finally rendered on the browser. What is Test-driven Development: A Newbie’s Guide 8. What is the front controller class of the Spring MVC? A front controller is a controller which handles all requests for a Web application. When it comes to Spring MVC, DispatcherServlet is that front controller. When a web request is sent to a Spring MVC application, the DIspatcherServlet takes care of everything. First, it takes the request. Then, it organizes the different components like request handlers, controllers, view resolvers, and such – all needed to handle the request. And finally, it renders the content on the browser. 9. What is a Viewresolver pattern and how does it work in MVC? View Resolver is a J2EE pattern which allows the applications to dynamically choose technology for rendering the data on the browser (View). Any technology like HTML, JSP, Tapestry, XSLT, JSF, or any other such technology can be used for View. The View Resolver pattern holds the mapping of different views. The Controller returns the name of the View which is then passed to View Resolver for selecting the appropriate technology. 10. How does Spring MVC provide validation support? Spring primarily supports two types of validations: Using JSR-303 Annotations and any reference implementation, for example, Hibernate Validator, or Implementing org.springframework.validation.Validator interface. 11. A user gets a validation error in other fields on checking a checkbox, after which, he unchecks it. What would be the current selection status in command object of the Spring MVC? How will you fix this issue? This is one of the trickier questions to answer if you aren’t aware of the HTTP Post behaviour in Spring MVC. During HTTP Post, if you uncheck the checkbox, then HTTP does not include a request parameter for the checkbox – which means the updated selection won’t be picked up. To fix that, you can use hidden form field which starts with ‘_’. This is one of the toughest Spring MVC interview questions.  How to Succeed in Your First Software Development Job 12. How will you compare the MVC framework to the three-tier architecture? A Three-tier architecture is an architecture style whereas MVC is a design pattern. Having said that, in larger applications, MVC forms the presentation tier of a three-tier architecture. The Model, View, and Controller are concerned only with the presentation – they use the middle tier to populate their models. 13. How should we use JDBC in Spring to optimize the performance? Spring provides a template class called as JDBCTemplate. Using JDBC with this template gives manifolds better performance. This, therefore, helps in providing accurate results and finally makes programming easier for the developer.  14. What do you mean by a “Bean” in the context of Spring framework? Any class that is initialized by the IoC container is known as a bean in Spring. The lifecycle of a Spring Bean is managed by Spring IoC Container. Bean helps provide accuracy in the overall Spring MVC framework giving optimal results.  Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? 15. What is a “Scope” in reference to Spring Beans? Spring Beans comes with following five scopes: Prototype: Whenever there’s a request for a bean, a separate prototype is created each time. Request: It is like the previous scope, but only for web-based applications. For each HTTP request, Spring creates a new bean instance. Singleton: There’s only one bean created for every container, and it acts as the default scope of that bean. In all these instances, the beans cannot use a shared instance variable as it can lead to data-inconsistency. Session: A bean is created for every HTTP session Global-session: Global session is created for Portlet applications. The Spring framework is extendable, that is, you can create your own scope as well. The “scope” attribute of the bean element is used to define the scope. How to Become a Full Stack Developer 16. What are the different types of AutoWire?  This is one of the most common Spring MVC interview questions. Spring’s autowiring feature allows the framework to automatically inject dependencies into Spring beans. Spring supports a variety of auto-wiring modes: No auto-wiring (by default): In this mode, auto-wiring is disabled, and dependencies must be explicitly defined using the components in the bean configuration. Autowiring by Type (autowire=”byType”): Spring wires a property if its type is the same as one of the beans declared in the container. If there is more than one matched bean, an error is returned. Autowiring by Name (autowire=”byName”): In this mode, Spring searches for a bean that shares the same name as the property being authored. If the dependence is discovered, it is injected; otherwise, an error is returned. Autowiring by Constructor (autowire=”constructor”): Spring matches and injects dependencies depending on the constructor arguments. This style is very handy for working with several constructors or intricate dependents. Autowiring by Qualifier (@Qualifier annotation): When combined with @Autowired, @Qualifier allows you to define the precise bean name that will be injected when the container contains numerous beans of the same type. 17. What are Spring Interceptors?  This is a commonly asked Spring MVC interview questions for experienced. Spring interceptors are components that enable developers to pre-handle, post-handle, or alter requests and answers within a Spring MVC application. They allow you to inject custom behaviour into the request processing lifecycle. Interceptors are very useful for cross-cutting issues like logging, security, authentication, and altering the model before it reaches the view. To answer this Spring MVC interview questions, talk about ways to use interceptors in a Spring MVC application and how they must be specified in the application context or through Java configuration.  Spring interceptors are an effective tool for expanding the functionality of a Spring MVC application in a modular and reusable manner. They contribute to cleaner code by isolating concerns and encouraging the reuse of certain portions of request processing logic across different areas of the application. In a Spring MVC application, interceptors are created by implementing the HandlerInterceptor interface. This interface contains three methods: preHandle(): Called before the actual handler function is run. It may be used for a variety of functions, including request pre-processing, authentication checks, and logging. postHandle(): Runs after the handler procedure but before the view is rendered. This function allows developers to conduct actions on the model or alter the ModelAndView. afterCompletion(): Called after the entire request has been processed, including displaying the view. It is useful for operations like cleaning and resource release. 18. What is a Spring Configuration File?  This is one of the most anticipated Spring MVC interview questions for 10 year experience.  The Spring Configuration File is an XML or Java-based configuration file that is used to create and configure Spring beans. These configuration files are critical to the Inversion of Control (IoC) container, which governs the Spring beans’ lifespan. There are two major types of Spring configuration files: XML-based Configuration: Beans and their dependencies are defined by developers using XML markup in this configuration style. The configuration file normally contains a <beans> element as the root, followed by individual <bean> elements that specify the beans, their attributes, dependencies, and other configurations. Java-based Configuration: With the introduction of Java configuration in Spring, developers may now create beans and their connections using simple Java classes annotated with @Configuration. These classes frequently use @Bean annotations to define individual beans, as well as other annotations such as @ComponentScan or @Import to describe scanning packages or import other configuration classes. 19. When is Autowiring used?  This is also one of the most crucial interview questions on Spring MVC. To answer Spring MVC framework interview questions like this, start by mentioning that autowiring may not be appropriate for all scenarios.  Developers should think carefully about the ramifications of autowiring, such as the possibility of ambiguity when numerous candidates exist. Furthermore, it is critical to understand the many autowiring options available in Spring (byType, byName, constructor, etc.) and select the one that best meets the application’s needs. Reducing Configuration Boilerplate: Autowiring reduces the amount of boilerplate code necessary to configure dependencies. Rather than manually describing each dependency in the configuration file, Spring may identify and inject them based on predefined criteria. Maintaining Loose Coupling: Autowiring facilitates loose coupling among components. By relying on the container to automatically wire dependencies, components are not directly aware of one another, making the system more modular and maintainable. Simplifying Dependency Injection: Autowiring can make it easier to configure a bean with several dependencies. Developers do not need to explicitly wire each dependency; Spring resolves and injects them based on the autowiring option selected. Easier Maintenance and Refactoring: Autowiring simplifies code maintenance and refactoring. When new dependencies are introduced or old ones are adjusted, the configuration file does not need to be explicitly updated; Spring can react to changes automatically. Promoting Convention Over Configuration: Autowiring is consistent with the Spring idea of “convention over configuration.” It encourages developers to utilise naming conventions or particular annotations, which allow Spring to infer dependencies and wire them appropriately. 20. What is a Spring IoC Container?  The Spring IoC (Inversion of Control) Container is a core component of the Spring Framework that manages the lifespan of Java objects, generally known as beans. Traditional Java programmes frequently delegate responsibilities for creating and managing objects (beans) to the application code. However, the Spring IoC Container reverses this control by taking over the task of producing and maintaining beans. The Spring IoC Container, has the following key properties and functionalities: Bean Definition: Bean definitions are metadata that explains how to construct and configure a bean. They are the foundation of the IoC Container. These bean definitions can be defined in XML files, Java configuration classes, or a combination of the two. Bean Lifespan Management: The container handles the whole lifespan of beans, including instantiation, dependency injection, initialization, and destruction. This enables developers to concentrate on building business logic while the container tackles infrastructural issues. Dependency Injection (DI): The IoC Container supports Dependency Injection, which is a crucial Spring Framework concept. Dependencies between beans are injected at runtime, eliminating tight coupling and improving application modularity and maintainability. Inversion of Control: Unlike traditional programming, the control flow in Internet of Things applications is inverted. Instead of the application code directing the execution flow, the IoC Container manages bean creation and wiring. Configuration Options: The IoC Container enables developers to configure beans via XML-based configuration files, Java-based configuration classes, or a mix of the two. This flexibility allows developers to select the configuration approach that best meets their needs and preferences. This also falls under one ofthe top-asked interview questions on Spring MVC. Hence, it is important to prepare Spring MVC framework interview questions when you’re preparing solo or even preparing a one-on-one mock interview with your friend.  21. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Spring MVC framework?  This is one of the popularly asked Java MVC interview questions. Additionally, knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the Spring Framework is extremely important while simultaneously preparing for Spring MVC interview questions for 5 years experience, as well as Spring boot MVC interview questions.  Advantages  Modular and Flexible: The design of Spring MVC is modular and flexible, enabling programmers to arrange their code in a logical and manageable way. It encourages the separation of issues, making it easier to handle various areas of the app. Loose Coupling: The framework promotes loose coupling between components, making it easier to replace or alter individual modules without impacting the overall system. This improves maintainability and encourages proper software design practices. Integration with Other Spring Technologies: Spring MVC works smoothly with other Spring Framework components including the Spring IoC container, Spring AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming), and Spring Security. This allows for the creation of extensive and well-structured applications. Disadvantages Learning Curve: Spring MVC has a learning curve, particularly for developers new to the Spring Framework. Understanding concepts like inversion of control, dependency injection, and the MVC architecture might take time. Configuration Complexity: While Spring MVC provides configuration flexibility, some developers, particularly those working on bigger projects, may find XML-based configuration files or Java configuration classes to be complicated. This complexity can be reduced by good documentation and training. Annotation Overhead: While annotations can make code more succinct, using too many annotations might result in code that is difficult to read and comprehend. It is critical to find a balance between utilising annotations for convenience and ensuring code readability.  Wrapping Up This was all about the must-know Spring interview questions and answers revolving around the Spring framework – and Spring MVC, to be precise. If you’re a Java developer looking to get started with Spring, there couldn’t be a better time! Read more if you are looking for Java interview questions. Spend some of your precious time to get your hands on Java Spring interview questions and you will be good to go. Organizations are on a look-out for developers having strong command on this framework – thanks to the features it has to offer. The above questions have provided you with great insights about interview questions for Spring MVC freshers, Spring MVC interview questions and answers for experienced alike, accompanied with other scrutinizing details for this particular subject matter.  Enroll in Software Engineering Courses from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career.

by Arjun Mathur

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04 Mar 2024

What is Composition in Java With Examples
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68979

What is Composition in Java With Examples

Java is a versatile language that supports object-oriented programming and code reusability with building relationships between two classes. There are two types of relationships or associations in Java used to reuse a code and reduce duplicity from one class to another. These relationships are IS-A(Inheritance) and HAS-A (Association). While there is a tight coupling between the IS-A classes, HAS-A classes are loosely coupled and more preferable for the programmers. The HAS-A relationship is divided into two types, viz., aggregation and composition in Java. This article is based on the OOP concept of composition. We will see many real-life examples of how the composition is coded and the advantages gained when implemented. Check out our free courses related to software development. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript A Brief Narration of Associations or Relationships in Java In object-oriented programming, objects are related to each other and use the common functionality between them. This is where the topics of Inheritance, Association, Aggregation, and Composition in Java programs come.  Inheritance (IS-A) and Association (HAS-A) in Java Check Out upGrad’s Java Bootcamp 1. Inheritance (IS-A) An IS-A relationship signifies that one object is a type of another. It is implemented using ‘extends’ and ‘implements’ keywords. Example: HP IS-A laptop Our learners also read: Learn java online free! 2. Association (HAS-A) A HAS-A relationship signifies that a class has a relationship with another class. For instance, Class A holds Class B’s reference and can access all properties of class B. Example: Human body HAS-A Heart Source   Source 3. Aggregation Vs Composition Has-A relationship or Association can be divided into aggregation and composition. An aggregation container class and referenced class can have an independent existence. A composition reference class cannot exist if the container class is destroyed. Check Out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in Blockchain   Let’s take an example to understand aggregation and composition. A car has its parts e.g., engines, wheels, music player, etc. The car cannot function without an engine and wheels but can function without a music player. Here the engine and car have a composition relation, and the car and music player have an aggregation relationship. In the case of Aggregation, an object can exist without being part of the main object. Aspect Aggregation Composition Definition Aggregation represents a “has-a” relationship where one class contains a reference to another class. It’s like saying a car has wheels. Composition is a stricter form of aggregation where one class owns another class, meaning the contained class’s existence is dependent on the container. It’s like saying a car has an engine. Dependency In aggregation, the contained class can exist independently of the container class. If the container is destroyed, the contained class can still exist. In composition, the contained class’s lifecycle is tied to the container. If the container is destroyed, the contained class is also destroyed. Flexibility Aggregation is more flexible as it allows the contained class to be shared among multiple containers. Composition is less flexible because the contained class is exclusive to its container and cannot be shared. Relationship Aggregation signifies a weaker relationship between classes. The contained class can belong to multiple containers simultaneously. Composition signifies a stronger relationship where the contained class is part of the container and cannot be associated with any other container. Examples An example of aggregation is a university having departments. Departments can exist independently of the university and can belong to multiple universities. An example of composition is a car having an engine. The engine is an integral part of the car and cannot exist without it. Composition Vs. Inheritance   Aspect Composition Inheritance Definition Composition involves creating complex objects by combining simpler ones, composition in oops Inheritance is a mechanism where a new class is derived from an existing class. Relationship The relationship between objects is “has-a.” The relationship between objects is “is-a.” Flexibility Offers more flexibility as it allows changing the parts of the object independently. Less flexible because changes to the base class can affect all derived classes. Code Reusability Promotes code reuse by allowing the use of existing classes without being tied to their implementation details. Code reuse is facilitated through the extension of existing classes. Complexity Typically leads to simpler, more modular code. Can lead to complex class hierarchies, which might be harder to understand. Dependency Objects can exist independently of each other. Dependent on the base class, changes to which can affect derived classes. Encapsulation Encourages encapsulation as objects hide their internal details. May violate encapsulation as derived classes have access to all members of the base class.   Source Composition in Java A composition in Java between two objects associated with each other exists when there is a strong relationship between one class and another. Other classes cannot exist without the owner or parent class. For example, A ‘Human’ class is a composition of Heart and lungs. When the human object dies, nobody parts exist. The composition is a restricted form of Aggregation. In Composition, one class includes another class and is dependent on it so that it cannot functionally exist without another class. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Implementation of Composition in Java The engine and car relationship are implemented using Java classes as below. In Java, the ‘final’ keyword is used to represent Composition. This is because the ‘Owner’ object expects a part object to be available and function by making it ‘final’. public class Car {            private final Engine engine;      public Car(){     engine  = new Engine(); } }  class Engine { private String type; } Let us take another example that depicts both inheritance and composition. Source  In this program, the class Honda is a Car and extends from the class Car. The car engine Object is used in the Honda class. class CarEngine {     public void StartEngine(){         System.out.println(“The car engine has Started.”);     }     public void stopEngine(){         System.out.println(“The car engine has Stopped.”);     } }  class Car {     private String colour;     private int maxi_Speed;     public void carDetails(){         System.out.println(“Car Colour= “+colour + “; Maximum Speed= ” + maxi_Speed);     }     //Setting colour of the car     public void setColour(String colour) {         this.colour = colour;     }     //Setting maximum car Speed     public void setMaxiSpeed(int maxi_Speed) {         this.maxi_Speed = maxi_Speed;     } }  class Honda extends Car{     public void HondaStart(){         CarEngine Honda_Engine = new CarEngine(); //composition         Honda_Engine.startEngine();         } }  public class Main {     public static void main(String[] args) {            Honda HondaJazz = new Honda();         HondaJazz.setColour(“Black”);         HondaJazz.setMaxSpeed(160);         HondaJazz.carDetails();         HondaJazz.HondaStart();     } } Output: Car Colour = Black; Maximum Speed = 160 The car engine has started.  The output is derived using composition and shows the details of the Honda Jazz car. Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses UML Denotations of Association The relationships of association, aggregation, and composition in Java between classes A and B are represented as follows in UML diagrams: Association: A—->B Composition: A—–<filled>B Aggregation: A—–<>B Get Software Engineering degrees online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Learn Java Tutorials Java Tutorials Java Classes and Objects Java 8 features Operators in Java Static Keyword In Java Switch Case In Java Packages in Java For Loop in Java Thread Lifecycle In Java OOP vs Functional vs Procedural Instance variables in Java Loops in Java Identifiers in Java Java Frameworks String Comparison in Java charAt() in Java View All Java Tutorials Benefits of Composition in Java Using composition design technique in Java offers the following benefits: It is always feasible to “prefer object composition over class inheritance”. Classes achieve polymorphism and code reuse by composition. The composition is flexible, where you can change class implementation at run-time by changing the included object, and change its behaviour. A composition-based design has a lesser number of classes. THE “HAS-A” relationship between classes is semantically correct than the “IS-A” relationship. Composition in Java offers better class testability that is especially useful in test-driven development. It is possible to achieve “multiple inheritances” in languages by composing multiple objects into one. In composition, there is no conflict between methods or property names. Check out all trending Java Tutorials in 2024.  Features of Composition in Java Composition is a fundamental concept in Java programming that enables the creation of complex objects by combining simpler ones along with description, what is composition in java with example.  It facilitates code reuse, maintainability, and flexibility in designing software applications. Let’s explore the key features of composition in Java: Object Composition Object composition involves creating complex objects by combining simpler ones. In Java, this is achieved by defining classes that contain references to other classes as instance variables. This allows objects to be composed of other objects, forming a hierarchical structure. Has-a Relationship Composition establishes a “has-a” relationship between classes, where one class contains objects of another class. This relationship signifies that a class has references to other classes to fulfill its functionality. For example, a Car class may have instances of Engine, Wheels, and Seats classes and understanding what is composition in java. Code Reusability Composition promotes code reusability by allowing the reuse of existing classes within new classes. Instead of inheriting behavior through inheritance, classes can reuse functionality by containing instances of other classes. This enhances modularity and reduces code duplication, composition example in java. Encapsulation Encapsulation is maintained through composition as the internal details of the composed objects are hidden from the outside world. Each class manages its own state and behavior, providing a clear separation of concerns. This enhances code maintainability and reduces the risk of unintended side effects and composition writing examples. Flexibility and Modifiability Composition offers greater flexibility compared to inheritance, as it allows classes to change behavior dynamically by replacing or modifying the objects they contain. This promotes a modular design approach, where individual components can be modified or extended without affecting the entire system. Dynamic Behavior With composition, the behavior of an object can be dynamically changed at runtime by replacing its constituent objects. This dynamic composition enables the creation of highly adaptable and customizable systems, where different configurations of objects can be used to achieve varying functionality, with an understanding of aggregation and composition in java. Loose Coupling Composition helps in achieving loose coupling between classes, as objects are accessed through interfaces rather than concrete implementations. This reduces dependencies between classes and promotes better code maintainability and testability. Granular Control With composition, developers have granular control over the behavior and state of objects. They can selectively expose certain functionalities of composed objects while encapsulating others, providing a clear interface for interaction with the object, like composition in java. Benefits of Composition in Java Encapsulation and Modularity Composition promotes encapsulation, which is the practice of bundling data and methods that operate on that data within a single unit, with an understanding of object composition in java. By encapsulating related functionalities into separate classes, you can create modular and reusable components. This modularity enhances code organization and makes it easier to understand, maintain, and extend, with examples of composition. Code Reusability One of the primary benefits of composition is code reusability. Instead of inheriting behaviors from a single parent class, you can compose objects by combining multiple classes to achieve the desired functionality. This approach allows you to reuse existing classes in different contexts, reducing code duplication and promoting a more efficient development process. Flexibility and Loose Coupling Composition promotes loose coupling between classes, which means that the components of a system are independent and can be modified or replaced without affecting other parts of the codebase. This flexibility is essential for building scalable and maintainable applications, as it enables developers to make changes to one part of the system without impacting the entire application. Better Control over Behavior With composition, you have finer control over the behavior of your objects compared to inheritance. Instead of inheriting all the characteristics of a parent class, you can selectively choose which functionalities to include in a class by composing it with the appropriate components. This granularity allows you to design classes that are tailored to specific requirements, leading to cleaner and more efficient code. Avoiding the Diamond Problem Inheritance can result in the “diamond problem,” where ambiguity rises when a class inherits from any two or more classes that have an ancestor. Composition helps avoid this issue by allowing you to combine functionalities from multiple classes without creating complex inheritance hierarchies. This simplifies the design and prevents potential conflicts that may arise from multiple inheritance. Facilitates Testing and Debugging Composition facilitates unit testing and debugging by enabling you to isolate and test individual components independently. Since each class encapsulates a specific set of functionalities, you can easily mock dependencies and simulate different scenarios during testing. Additionally, debugging becomes more manageable as the codebase is divided into smaller, more focused units. When to Use Composition in Java? In Java programming, composition is a powerful concept used to build complex objects by combining simpler ones. It involves creating objects by incorporating other objects within them. Knowing when to utilize composition is essential for writing clean, maintainable, and efficient code, with various composition writing sample. Understanding Composition Composition establishes a “has-a” relationship between classes, where one class contains another as a part of its state. This is different from inheritance, which establishes an “is-a” relationship. In composition, the contained object does not inherit behavior from the containing class but rather is used to provide functionality or data, with english composition examples. Encapsulation and Code Reusability One of the primary use cases for composition is encapsulating functionality. By breaking down complex systems into smaller, more manageable components, you can encapsulate related functionality within separate classes. This promotes code reusability and modular design, making your codebase easier to understand and maintain. Flexibility and Modifiability Composition allows for greater flexibility in software design. Since objects are composed of other objects, you can easily modify or replace components without affecting the entire system. This modular approach simplifies testing and debugging and enables you to adapt your code to changing requirements more efficiently when association aggregation and composition in java. Preventing Tight Coupling Using composition helps avoid tight coupling between classes, which can make code brittle and difficult to maintain. By relying on interfaces or abstract classes, you can decouple components, making them interchangeable and reducing dependency on specific implementations. This enhances the scalability and extensibility of your codebase. Promoting Single Responsibility Principle Composition encourages adhering to the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP), which states that a class should have only one reason to change. By breaking down functionality into smaller, focused classes, each responsible for a specific task, you can create more cohesive and understandable code. This improves code maintainability and reduces the risk of introducing bugs when making modifications. Example: GUI Components Consider a graphical user interface (GUI) framework where various components such as buttons, text fields, and panels are composed to create complex interfaces. Each component encapsulates its behavior and appearance, allowing developers to mix and match them to design diverse user interfaces efficiently. Conclusion Composition in Java offers many advantages while programming and is one of the favoured design methods. In this article, we have tried to make you understand this important concept with real-life examples and practical code. Composition offers flexibility and robust code. Its code reusability feature helps in avoiding code duplication and achieving cost-effectiveness. This makes it one of the widely used methods in various programs.  Learn composition in Java with upGrad’s Master of Science in a Computer Science course which is aimed to make you learn and upgrade your skills in software development. Eligibility A Bachelor’s Degree with 50% or equivalent marks. No initial coding experience is needed. Pricing The program fee starts at Rs.13, 095/month for Indian Residents and USD 5999 for International residents.

by Arjun Mathur

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19 Feb 2024

Python vs Java in 2024: Difference Between Java and Python [Full Comparison]
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60876

Python vs Java in 2024: Difference Between Java and Python [Full Comparison]

Programming is now the pinnacle of technology which has immensely made several advances that have changed the world. A programming language is a group of commands, instructions, and codes to design a software program. The programming languages used by developers are integral to software development, and this is why they can’t be ignored. Here, we are going to read about a keen comparative analysis between Java or Python which is better and which can be preferred for its remarkable potential.  Choosing between various programming languages is often a difficult task for developers, let alone choosing between the two industry leaders. Are you also facing one of those dilemmas? This article is a developer’s one-stop-shop for a list of features that they should consider when deciding between Java and Python.  Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more Java and Python both have been at war for the top spot. Python has been constantly improving, while Java is used in significant organizations like Uber, Google, Airbnb, and other 10,188 companies prefer Java over Python. Python, on the other hand, is widely used in companies like IBM, Intel, Infosys, Spotify, etc. Python is inclined to be used more by software development companies than others. Both languages do their jobs well, but certain microscopic features differentiate them. In this Python vs Java which is better tutorial, you will learn the fundamental differences between Java and Python to differentiate amid Java or Python which is better for future. Java or Python, both are great technologies, and we will understand them in detail to figure out which is the best option for you.  Java Vs Python What are the basic differences between python and java: Java Java is an age-old programming language released by Sun Microsystems in the year 1995, which is still prevalent in 2024. Java is a high-level programming language that is similar to C++, but it is strictly a program-oriented language. It is a tool in the tech stack language categories. It was made with the intention of a write-once-run-anywhere language, with zero dependencies or glitches possible. Java is a fast, secured and reliable language that is used everywhere to keep up with our day-to-day chores.  One of the biggest benefits of Java is it is an easy-to-learn programming language without any hassle of compiling or debugging, unlike other complicated programming languages. Java also helps in allowing users to download untrusted code over a network without any harm, and run it in a secure environment. It will not infect the host system with a virus which makes the program unique. Check out Java Bootcamp from upGrad. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Python  Python is a dynamic, general-purpose programming language. It has been used widely in companies around the world solely focusing to analyse data and automate operations based on DevOps which helps in creating feasible enterprise applications. It is a desirable option for Rapid Application Development, courtesy of its built-in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and binding. Python reduces the cost of program maintenance. One of the benefits of Python revolves around how the interpreter and resource library is available for free on the internet. Python, therefore, becomes an excellent option for anyone not willing to invest too much in development costs. And, Python has fascinating real-world applications. For example, Python is often used as a support language for software developers which helps in testing as well as building control with adequate management styles. It also helps a great deal to work with project management as well.  Check out Python Bootcamp from upGrad. In the age-long debate of Python vs Java which is better, it could be understood that both software has advantages and disadvantages as well which makes them equally popular languages to be used among organizations.  Our learners also read – python online course free! Parameters for Comparison Considering that both these programming languages are market leaders, a few technical comparisons will shed better light on how they are different from each other. Below are the parameters to consider for a difference between Java and Python.  Popularity  Difference between java and python in terms of popularity: Both languages have always fought for popularity. After the arrival of JavaScript, however, they have been in a close tussle for the best spot.  In Stackoveer’s 2018 survey of developers, Python was crowned as the fastest-growing programming language after surpassing C++. Java reflected as a popular choice by many developers, even though the gap between both languages had reduced significantly.  However, as per GitHub’s Octoverse in the year 2021, Java ranked 3rd in the popular most used languages by defeating both JavaScript and Python. In this race of which is better Java or Python, Java has its lead.  However, according to the 2021 Stackoverflow’s Developer Survey it has been analyzed that more than 48.24% of developers work with Python, whereas only 35.35% of developers still stick to Java.  In terms of popularity, among which is best Java or Python it can be said that both of these software pose tough competition, and are equally used worldwide.  Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses Syntax  Difference between java and python in terms of syntax: Python is an extremely dynamic language. While typing, the developer doesn’t have to input the variables. These are input during the runtime. This makes Python an easy language, almost similar to English.  Another element of the ease with the language is that it does not follow indentation rules or enclosing braces. The result is a language that is beginner-friendly and uncomplicated to read. Furthermore, Python is known not to use any enclosing braces or indentations, unlike Java or other tech stack languages. It is convenient for people to write pseudocode. This makes the code a beginner-friendly program, unlike other languages.   Java is diametrically opposite in this respect. It has very strict syntax rules, where you need to type in all the variables, and should there be an error or anomaly in the code, the program won’t run. For example, in Java, to define a block or method with multiple lines, we need to put the lines inside of curly brackets. Whereas, Python allows indentation for writing blocks with multiple lines as well.  Java is not a very beginner-friendly code. On the other hand, Python does not abide by strict syntax rules. However, it totally depends upon the perspective of the developers. If a developer is comfortable with following indentation rules like Java, they are more inclined towards Java. If the developer wants to keep the program to be simple without a lot of variables and anomalies, especially in some large codebases, they can definitely stick to Python. Therefore, in the syntax comparison between Python vs Java which is better, both have taken the lead depending upon the developer’s choice of language.  Our learners also read: Learn java online free! Performance  Difference between java and python in terms of performance: Both Java and Python are run by compiling the bytecode and running them on virtual machines. This makes both languages cross-platform, with no operating system differences. It might seem that both have similar performance, but there is a fundamental difference between the two.  Java is characterized by static-typing syntax. With this kind of syntax, the compilation is a lot easier and faster than dynamic-typed syntax. It is less prone to errors and targets the platforms that it is aimed for better.  Java also comes with a Just-in-time (JIT) compiler. This device compiles the bytecode into the native machine, because of which the compiled code can be called directly. This function primarily adds to the speed and efficiency of the language. However, Java codes are also quite long and can get difficult to understand.  Source For Python, the code is processed during the compile time, and this is when the variables are considered. The code typed in dynamic-type syntax isn’t as agile or verbose to comply with every platform.  Since Python is tested usually during the runtime, any problem with the program can keep the whole application on hold. All of these variables together have led to reduced efficiency and speed of the language.  Sometimes, the differences between Java and Python can come out to be very significant. A simple binary tree test, for example, can run ten times faster in Java than in Python.  As per the August TIOBE Index 2021, it has been understood that Java is one of the best-performing programming languages, putting Python third. However, as per the TIOBE index of August 2022, it has been seen that Python is now an unstoppable language that has now the highest market share of more than 15.42%. Java has ranked for third position after Python and C with a rating of 12.40%. In this race of which is best Java or Python, Python steals the show in 2024.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Machine Learning  Java vs Python usage in Machine learning: Machine Learning (ML) is an important aspect of the programming languages because it can derive insights by making predictions with the usage of appropriate datasets. In some cases, the ML algorithms are difficult in terms of implementation, because of the requirements of significant and theoretical with practical expertise in the subject. Let’s learn in terms of a Machine Learning library, which has a widely used language in the case of Java or Python which is better for future. Scikit-learn is one of the most stable learning websites for ML in Python. Python is syntactically very easy, and therefore people from different backgrounds found it as a comfortable choice. With Python, they were easily able to experiment with machine learning and use it in their respective fields. This is how Python initiated the adaptation of machine learning by many organizations. It because of its history in developing organization-specific machine learning that it has a vast library and resources that are being accessed and developed further. Read more about the python libraries for machine learning. Java is also considered an option by many. With characteristics such as easy debugging and usage, it is used for large-scale operations and enterprise-level programs. Weka, Mallet, Deeplearning4j, and MOA are the libraries a developer can use for Java.  Java is sometimes considered to be a tad bit outdated in terms of ML because of its complicated syntax, however, it is still a widely used language among developers.  Therefore, in this aspect of Machine Learning, it can be understood that Python has more credibility than Java taking into account that the question is Python vs Java which is better for future.  Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Read more: Python Project Ideas and Topics Game Development Engines  Java vs Python application in game development engines: C++/C# is undoubtedly the leader in PC Game development, and both Java and Python cannot compete against it. C# has always provided a seamless user experience to gamers with the best performance. Now, Java or Python particularly is not slow, but they can’t provide the experience C# has been providing so far.  While answering the most widely asked question which is better Java or Python, Python is better in gaming development than Java. Java is also a good data science language that supports the terms of Big Data. However, Python has the upper hand in gaming development functions because of its low syntax complexities and user-friendly for beginners. Thus, in the case of which is faster Java or Python, Python definitely takes a lead in this one.  Read more about PyGame: Game development with Python. Learn more: Python Developer Salary in India Web Development In back-end web design, both languages, Java or Python, or both, are utilised. The backend of web design is the area of the process that deals with writing the server-side code.  It is exceedingly tough to meet all design objectives, from security to dependability and efficiency, while creating your unique backend technology from the beginning using python or java. Because of this, software engineers have produced platforms, which operate as an overlay and let you design your technology without having to start from scratch. Django and Flask are the two most used Python systems. Flask is a tiny web framework that provides you with essential features, such as request routing, with no extra effort. Django is a more feature-rich alternative that may assist you in creating a strong foundation while maximising productivity and security. Django has a strong ORM layer that makes it easier to work with datasets and execute various operations according to the data. You can easily use python or java, whichever you prefer.  Language Development and Users Both programming languages enjoy an active user base around the globe. Python has an active user base that organizes group meets named PyLadies, where women meet and code. This language has a strong community of over 1600 user groups, in more than 37 countries and 191 cities. Let’s discuss about the difference between java and python based on language development and users.  Python is best suited for the following kinds of programs:  Games Image processing and graphic designing  Language development  Machine Learning Apps  Operating Systems  Prototyping   On the other hand, there are numerous Java User Groups (JUGs) across the world and various high-profile events like JavaOne are organized by Java Programmers.  Java is best recommended for these programs:  Middleware Products  Mobile Applications  Enterprise Solutions and Embedded Systems  Desktop GUI Apps Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Java vs Python Summary of differences between Java and Python: CHARACTERISTIC  PYTHON JAVA Syntax Easy to learn and use Complex includes a learning curve Performance Slower than Java  Relatively fast Cross-Platform Yes Yes, thanks to the JVM Game Development Engines Yes, Cocos, Panda3d Yes MonkeyEngine Learn Software Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Jobs and Salary Money becomes a factor when developers face a dilemma between Java vs Python, which is better for future. Speaking of money, employment and pay scale doesn’t appear to be any objective distinction or comparison between Python and Java. The median yearly income for Python developers in the US is roughly $96,000, whereas for Java developers, it is roughly $97,000. Since both are in high demand, you can launch your career as an intern or software developer if you become proficient in either. You shouldn’t use these considerations while selecting a programming language. Instead, when considering ‘Java or Python which is better for placement,’ pick the option that best fits your unique requirements. Game Development There is no point in asking ‘Java vs Python, which is better for future game development’ because the developer community knows that C++/C# is far ahead of them both. Although Java and Python are not slow, they do not offer the best performance for game development. The game development industry demands the finest performance to deliver smooth customer experiences. Nevertheless, several well-known games, including one of the all-time greatest-selling titles, Minecraft, have been developed using these languages. A well-known Java open-source game development engine is called JMonkeyEngine. OpenGL also offers interfaces for the Java programming language, which is useful if you want to play around with computer graphics or create your engine. Although Python alone isn’t a strong option for creating games, it may be used with various engines and frameworks, including Cocos, Pygame, Panda3d, and others. A common scripting language choice for many developers, including those who create video games, is Python. So, to conclude this Java vs. Python comparison for game development, both are equally good, each having pros and cons. Stability In this section, let’s explore Java vs Python, which is better in terms of stability. In contrast to Python, Java has stringent syntactic requirements that the writer must follow to include all variables. As a result, there is a greater volume of code to review, fix, and overall manage. However, this has a positive aspect! The code must be extremely carefully written because everything must be verified and evaluated before running. As a result, the software may be more reliable and crash-free. For this reason, Java is typically seen as the ideal choice for businesses, including banks. Actually, Java is frequently strongly linked to traditional corporate languages. However, Python has also demonstrated that it can easily handle complex software. Python is not inherently unstable; in fact, Java is known for its exceptional program reliability. In contrast, large corporations like Android, Docker, and Airbnb use Java in their tech stack. However, it’s also true that Python is used in the tech stacks of Reddit and Instagram (a Python web framework created in Django). Security Now, let’s discuss Python vs Java, which is best in terms of security. Well, Python appears to have a modest advantage over Java, as security flaws in Python are being disclosed less frequently than in Java. This isn’t a good predictor, though, because a language like Java that has been around for so long is bound to have more “reported” flaws. But unlike other widely used languages, Java has a unique risk in the form of deserialization problems (it’s crucial to note that Java 17 includes capabilities to tackle this problem). Java has several advantages over Python, including robust data types, and its built-in security package provides encryption, public key infrastructure (PKI), XML signatures, and authentication. Java uses dynamic checking and static analysis to ensure that all running programs adhere to security standards. At the time of compilation, the JVM’s bytecode compilation process performs malware and virus checks. Since Python relies heavily on developers’ excellent habits, it lacks most of this imposed discipline. Availability of Libraries and Frameworks Here, we discuss Python vs Java, which is better for the future when it comes to library and framework availability: Python Python has many frameworks and packages that cover different fields. Python offers everything, including tools for web development (Django and Flask), data analysis (Pandas and NumPy), artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning (TensorFlow and PyTorch). A vast array of packages meeting various needs may be found in the Python Package Index (PyPI), which makes Python programming comparatively easy. Java Java boasts a broad ecosystem with frameworks like Spring for online and enterprise applications, Maven for dependency management, and Hibernate for database operations. Java’s ability to support a wide range of development requirements is guaranteed by the large standard Java library as well as additional community libraries. Dynamic vs. Static This topic presents yet another ‘which is best, Python or Java’ conundrum. It is up to personal preference whether to choose statically typed or dynamically typed languages. Java is static, whereas Python is dynamic. Unlike static languages, which carry out type checking during compilation, dynamic languages only check the type at runtime. Assuring that every reference type corresponds to its expected values is known as type checking. In this manner, if an integer variable, for instance, is assigned an alphabetic value, the computer won’t become confused. Of course, miscommunications or errors may occur, and when working with dynamic languages, the likelihood of them increasing is increased. However, dynamic languages are generally easier to debug and have a lower verbosity. Is being simple a valid justification for being prone to mistakes, though? Learning Curve Aspiring developers often ask the same question, ‘Should I learn Java or Python?’ Given its well-known simplicity and intuitiveness, Python is a great choice for someone learning programming for the first time. Compared to other older languages like C++, Java is easier than Python but still rather complicated. Java is not particularly difficult overall, but it does take some expertise and a general understanding of programming concepts. Even now, many new developers start with Java, even if learning it takes a little more time and effort than Python. All of these languages are fun and simple to learn because of the wealth of resources available, including community forums, instructional materials, and online courses. Portability Here, we discuss which is better, Python or Java, in terms of portability: Python Code written in Python is very portable. With the right environment setup, a Python script can run on any operating system. The Python interpreter plays a major role in this portability. A system cannot run Python code if the necessary interpreter is not installed. Dependencies are another possibility; certain Python libraries might not work or act differently on particular systems. Java Java’s Virtual Machine (JVM) makes Java portable. Your Java code is compiled into bytecode, which the JVM may run natively on any platform after it has been compiled. This implies that Java applications can run smoothly on any platform with a JVM implementation, making Java applications extremely portable. Speed and Memory Usage Now let’s compare and contrast Java with Python in terms of their speed and memory usage: Python For the most part, Python is slower than Java. This is mostly because it is an interpreted language that runs code more slowly than a compiled language. Python’s dynamic typing may require more memory than statically typed languages since it needs to store more data regarding variable types. Java Python is frequently slower than Java, particularly when high performance is necessary, such as in high-frequency trading platforms or gaming applications. Although applications may use more memory due to Java Virtual Machine (JVM) overhead, Java’s Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler optimizes the bytecode at runtime, enhancing efficiency even further. Mobile App Development Here is a comparison of Java vs Python, which is better in terms of mobile app development: Python Python isn’t usually thought of when one thinks of developing mobile apps. Python isn’t as streamlined or effective as other languages, even if it provides frameworks like Kivy and BeeWare that enable the building of mobile apps. It’s also possible that the apps lack the responsiveness and performance of those created in their original tongues. Java The link between Java and Android makes it a powerful platform for developing mobile apps. Since the Android SDK supports Java, it is the main language for creating Android apps. Java is a great option for developing feature-rich, fast mobile applications because of its stability, effectiveness, and portability. Interpreted vs. Compiled languages Due to Python’s interpretive nature, it can quickly translate code from human to machine language, facilitating debugging and code review. The language Java is compiled. Before running source code, compiled languages convert it into machine code. Java or Python Which is Better for Future? Java vs Python which is better? This is a question that has been up for debate for several years now. This debate of Java or Python which is better for future can only be solved once we understand the advantages of Java vs Python.  Advantages of Python –  Python’s adaptability is hard to match, and because of its flexibility, exploration is encouraged. This prevents programmers from being restricted to creating only a certain kind of app. You can create fresh and unique things with just one preferred language.  It enables advancements: Python is quick and user-friendly for development since it has dynamic typing. Additionally, it employs parallel programming, which allows each unit of code to operate independently, to deal with problems and obstacles more quickly. It is more flexible: Python supports a range of programming languages and concepts, giving it a more adaptable strategy for coding and development. This makes it suitable for start-ups that might need to switch strategies suddenly as well as for engineers who prefer flexibility. It might improve efficiency: Python is considered more productive than Java because of its dynamic typing and simple syntax. It also provides access system and control capabilities that can increase the productivity of programmes. It provides comprehensive libraries: These libraries can handle several common operations and commands. Additionally, it has code that can be utilized for a variety of tasks, like creating documentation, and CGI. Advantages of Java –  Java has several benefits, two of which are efficiency and effectiveness. It’s also regarded to be one of the simpler programming languages to master. You won’t need to spend as much time studying how it all operates as you would with a reduced language because many procedures of this increased language run automatically. If you spend enough time learning and practising, you will be able to master it rather fast. Java has other benefits, such as the following: It is safe: Java doesn’t use explicit references, operates in a virtual server called a ‘sandbox’, checks for unlawful programs using byte-code verifiers, and supports safety in addition to the entire Java package and the security checks. It is object-oriented – It provides a more logical method for developing large projects since you can build categories that include data, methods, and entities that are members of those categories. Additionally, it offers adaptability, simpler troubleshooting, and the capacity for code reuse. It offers multi-threading: With Java, you may execute many threads simultaneously. To improve efficiency and speed while executing several threads, they share a shared memory space. The question of java vs python which is better, will always remain. You must use the one that is most convenient for you.  So, What to Choose: Java or Python? Now that you know the advantages of Java over Python and vice versa, decide between Python and Java based on several significant considerations. Your present experience is the first, and knowing the steps involved in how to learn Java and Python and comparing them is second. Learning Python will be a marginally better option for you if you begin a software developer career. Java is a safe choice if you learn a new programming language besides the one you now know to expand your potential and advance your career. Python is the best choice for individuals who wish to learn to code quickly. In contrast, Java is best suited for enthusiasts who have more time to dedicate to learning an effective programming tool. One important thing to keep in mind is that your commitment will be rewarded with a greater salary. The region where each language is implemented is also an essential consideration. Java and Python are both object-oriented and general-purpose languages. In real-world applications, though, each has its uses and can be ineffective in others. Conclusion Python vs Java performance: Having considered both languages against various parameters, it is not clear which language trumps the other one.  Java may be a more popular option, but Python is widely used. People from outside the development industry have also used Python for various organizational purposes. Similarly, Java is comparatively faster, but Python is better for lengthy programs.  Eventually, it depends upon the type of program a developer wants to create. If you consider the above parameters, and a language ticks most of your boxes, it is safe to go ahead with it. However, if you are beginning to foray into development, Python might be a better choice. On the other hand, Java will be the preferred option for enterprise-level programs.  It can clearly be concluded which programming language should be a winner. However, in terms of faster credibility and learner’s friendly attitude, among which is faster Java or Python, Python has definitely more credibility.  If you’re interested to learn more about full stack development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.

by Arjun Mathur

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18 Feb 2024

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