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Web Developer Salary in India in 2024 [For Freshers & Experienced]
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Wondering what is the range of Web Developer Salary in India? World Wide Web is fascinating. Even though it has been around for decades, the idea that everyone around the globe can easily connect at the click of a button is amazing. For a user, it is a simple journey – go to your browser, enter a link, and a wonderful website loads in a matter of seconds. Thus, if you have the required skillset and are ready to keep yourself updated, your career as a web developer is expected to keep growing onwards and upwards. This line stands true especially when we consider that a web developer salary in India is directly or indirectly dependent on how upskilled and updated they are. However, complex mechanics are involved to make all the functions look seamless and simple. Web developers are the people responsible for managing the complexities of making the website work smoothly! Because of this reason, companies are not shying away from offering increased web developer salary in India. Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. We are sure, this must-have sparked a will to become a Web Developer within you! Let’s take a look at who exactly is a Web Developer and what is a typical Web Developer salary in India? Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more Web Developer Salary in India There is a long list of process that goes into the development of a successful website. Starting from designing, implementing, developing to testing, and deployment – each process involves different people with different skill sets and knowledge.  Average Web Developer Salary in India is Rs. 308,040 per annum. The salary could vary depending on factors like location, experience level, company profile, etc. Source Since web development is a vast field we shall divide this into the different sections. Web developer salary in India can be affected by multiple factors like Experience, Location, Skills & Company.  Read: Javascript Developer Salary in India Factors Affecting Web Developer Salary in India The four main factors affecting the Web Developer Salary in India are: Company – The company that you work for will have a direct impact on the salary you get. Experience – The more experience you have, the better is the ability to understand the roadblocks and provide quick solutions for bugs. A combination of experience and company will get salaries and positions that help create a mark. Location – In the coming years, location is all set to play a smaller role in the salary you can expect. But, even then, location will continue to have an impact on the salary you can ask for and get from a prospective employer. Skills – The important skills you have, the better is the ability to understand. Location is all set to play a vital role in deciding web Developer salary in India. Web Developer Salary in India: Based On Company It is an accepted fact, the bigger the brand or company, the higher is the salary an individual can expect. Let us look at some of the highest pay packages – Amazon offers about Rs. 1,425,000 per annum as salary. It is followed by Directi at Rs 678,018 , Accenture at Rs, 476,474. Source Companies Average Annual Salary Forbes Global 2000 ₹5.7 Lakhs Public ₹5.7 Lakhs Fortune India 500 ₹5.3 Lakhs Conglomerate ₹5.6 Lakhs Startup ₹5.3 Lakhs MNC ₹ 2.5 Lakhs – ₹ 4.6 Lakhs Source Web Developer Salary in India: Based on Location Though Covid-19 may reduce the impact of location on salaries in the future, currently, location plays a crucial factor in determining web developer salary in India per month. Hyderabad offers the highest salaries, with Web Developers in the city earning approximately 27% more than their counterparts in other cities. The comparison is done against the national average. Bangalore, the other city competing for the Hyderabad, offers salaries that are 25% higher than the national average. Source City Average Annual Salary Bangalore ₹5.1 Lakhs New Delhi ₹5 Lakhs Mumbai ₹4.2 Lakhs Hyderabad ₹5 Lakhs Pune ₹4.7 Lakhs Chennai ₹4.7 Lakhs Source Web Developer Salary in India: Based on Experience The more experience you have the higher your pay package will be. So, if you are a beginner and have only recently entered the industry, you will have to moderate your hopes accordingly, and most likely based on the average salary of web developer in India. So, let us break down software web developer salary in India, depending on how many years of experience you have in your bag – Let’s see how a web developer salary in India varies based on experience. Entry-Level Web Developer Salary in India The average entry-level web developer’s salary in India is ₹232,074. Mid-Level Web Developer Salary in India The average mid-level web developer salary in India is ₹589,443 Experienced Web Developer Salary in India The average experienced web developer salary in India is ₹1,006,429 Let’s see how the web engineer salary in India increases with experience: Source Experience Salary Fresher ₹2.8 Lakhs 1 Year ₹2.7 Lakhs 2 Year ₹3.4 Lakhs 3 Year ₹4.2 Lakhs 4 Year ₹5 Lakhs 5 Year ₹5.7 Lakhs 6 Year ₹6.5 Lakhs Source Web Developer Salary in India: Based on Skills Let’s discuss how web developer salary in India increases with skillset. As we mentioned earlier, you have to possess an impressive set of skills to acquire the best-paid jobs in the highly competitive market for web developers. Some skills get you a higher paycheque. So, try to invest in these skills. Source Web Developer Salary in India Based on Job Roles – Front End Developer A user wants to see and interact with the information they are seeking instantly. They are not interested in how the data is communicated between the page and the servers. Thus, an interactive and dynamic web page is a necessity in the modern world. Showing and hiding the right elements at the right time is handled by a front-end developer. What are the opportunities? There are about 14000 jobs for Front End developers on Naukri.com. Since every website needs a good front-end engineer, you are never going to be short of opportunities. Source The Average Salary of a Front End Developer As per PayScale, the average salary for a Front End Developer in India is an impressive Rs 487,140 per annum. Product-based companies pay higher salaries, but getting into these can be challenging.  Source However, the salaries are dependent on the company, location, skills and experience.  Salary of a Front End Web Developer – Based on Company The image below shows that an IT company will pay higher salaries as compared to other companies. Sapient Technologies is offering a salary of nearly Rs. 1,00,000 per annum in comparison to HCL Technologies which is offering a salary of Rs 740000 per annum. The lowest salary on the table is Rs 3,60,000 which is quite impressive on its own.  Source Companies Average Annual Salary Forbes Global 2000 ₹6.9 Lakhs Public ₹6.6 Lakhs Fortune India 500 ₹5.7 Lakhs Conglomerate ₹7.2 Lakhs Startup ₹7.7 Lakhs MNC ₹8.5 Lakhs Salary of a Front End Web Developer – Based on Experience The image below shows that new developers, with less than one year of experience, will start with about Rs 3,00,000 per annum. But, the time they gain 10 or more years of experience, they can hope to earn nearly 10,00,000 per annum.  Source Years Experience Average Annual Salary Fresher ₹3.6 Lakhs 1 Year ₹3.7 Lakhs 2 Years ₹4.8 Lakhs 3 Years ₹6.2 Lakhs 4 Years ₹7.2 Lakhs 5 Years ₹8.3 Lakhs 6 Years ₹8.8 Lakhs Source Skills Required by a Front End Developer As for any other domain in the web development field, you first need to know how it all works at the root level. You need to start from HTML – the basic building block of every web page. You need to know CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). All the styling elements of an HTML web page are covered in CSS.  Libraries like Bootstrap and MaterializeCSS make styling easier with predefined classes. Add to your HTML tag to implement a particular style. JavaScript is necessary for a responsive or a mobile-first web page. There are many front-end frameworks and libraries out there that you can use to ease up your development process. Most popular front-end examples include jQuery, Angular, ReactJS, and VueJS. You can decide to pick any of these based on your requirements and you can develop a more dynamic web application in a shorter period. But remember that the core element – HTML, CSS, and JavaScript remains common to all. Source A Front End Web Developer designs and delivers rapid prototypes and mock-ups optimized for a wide range of devices and interfaces including mobile apps. They are responsible for making strategic design and user interface decisions related to the core to deliver a pixel-perfect experience Read more: Front-end Developer Resume: Complete Guide & Samples Front End Developer Salary Based on Location The average salary of a front end developer in the National Capital is Rs. 6,08,000 per annum. Let’s look at what do front end developers earn on an average in the neighboring Gurgaon. It’s the same as New Delhi – Rs. 6,08,000 per annum. This figure takes a significant dip in Mumbai. A front end developer earns Rs. 4,86,000 per annum on an average in the Financial Capital of India. Source City Average Annual Salary Bangalore ₹6.7 Lakhs New Delhi ₹6 Lakhs Mumbai ₹5.9 Lakhs Hyderabad ₹6.3 Lakhs Pune ₹6.2 Lakhs Chennai ₹5.8 Lakhs Kolkata ₹6.5 Lakhs Source Website Developer Salary in India – Back End Developer What the user sees is created by the front-end developers. But when the user sees, is decided by the back-end developers. Here, you will be writing code for the server – rendering of web pages, data handling, and managing user queries.  What are the opportunities? There are more than 63000 jobs for the Back End Developer role on Naukri.com. Source The Average Salary of a Back End Developer According to PayScale, the average salary for a back-end developer in India is close to Rs 366,300 per annum. It includes both bonus and profit-sharing.  Source Salary of Back End Web Developer – Based on Experience If you just started out after completing your education and have little to no experience at all, you will earn something around 3,00,000 per annum that includes bonuses and other perks. A back end developer with 1-4 years of experience earns an average compensation of 3,80,000 per annum. This figure can rise rapidly as you move ahead in your career. A professional with 1-4 years of experience earn around 4% more than the base average. And this percentage goes up as you gain more experience in the field. Source Skills Required by a Back End Developer A Back End Developer needs to know the architecture of the website and ensure all requests can be made on the server.  Know different languages to write the code. These include PHP, Python, JavaScript, Ruby, etc. Knowledge about frameworks like Django for Python, Node.js for JavaScript, or Larval for PHP can be helpful too. Knowledge of different databases which include  – MySQL, MongoDB, Oracle, etc. – their workings, quirks, and downsides. Knowledge about the different data structures including REST and SOAP APIs. Back-end development is a complex task requiring a strong knowledge of different frameworks. In some profiles, third-party integration is a mist.  Source Back End Development requires working on a computer, sometimes by yourself. It is necessary to understand that the Back End Developer is responsible for helping to plan and execute the early development stages of a website or web page. Back End Developer Salary in India: Based on the Location Source The average salary of a back end developer in New Delhi is around 8,19,000 per annum. The maximum that you can expect to earn in the national capital is around 2,100,000 per annum. If you are in Mumbai, you will be paid around 7,21,000 per annum, which is lower than the national average. However, if you have the right experience and skills, you can earn up to 1,200,000 per annum. As we told you, Bangalore pays its back end, developers, more salary than the national average – 8,72,000 per year. This can go up to 2,100,000 for the right candidates. Hyderabad, again, offers a salary that is lower than the national average – 7,05,000 per annum. The highest salary you can earn in Hyderabad is around 8,44,000 per annum. Website Developer Salary in India – Full-stack developer A full-stack developer works on both the front-end and back-end of a website. You are an expert in all the domains and fields mentioned above. It increases your chances of getting hired by a bigger brand with a higher salary. Now, a full-stack developer generally doesn’t do designing and it is mostly handled by a separate designer, but no one is stopping you from adding it to your arsenal as well. You will be responsible for implementing the design in the front-end and the business logic in the back-end. You are responsible for using frameworks and integrating them in order to build a complete web application.  What are the opportunities? On Naukri.com, you can find more than 10000 jobs for the role of a Full-Stack developer! The number is lower than that for Front and Back End Developers, clearly indicating that the requirement is limited, but they are earning higher salaries. Source The Average Salary of the Full Stack Web Developer in India  As per PayScale, India, the average salary for a full-stack developer stands at around Rs 589,500. It is more than both front-end and back-end developers because of course, you will be handling both the roles here. Source Full Stack Developer Salary  in India: Based on experience As we all know, more number of years you’ve been on the job, the higher your pay package is likely to be. Let’s see how full stack developer salary in India varies based on experience. Here is what we know about Full Stack Developer salary based on experience: For a fresh graduate, average entry-level full stack developer salary in India is ₹375,000 An early career full stack developer with 1-4 years of experience earn an average of ₹553,006 annually. An employee with 5-9 years of experience would have the potential to secure between INR 12-14 lakhs. According to payscale, the average mid-level full stack developer salary in India is ₹1,375,689.  Let’s see how the salary increases with experience: Source What do you need? Well, you need both the front-end and back-end knowledge. So you should be able to implement a design and tell the server when and what to do with that design. You could work with the data in the database and also show it to the user on the web page. There are no limits! Learn the two trending technologies, MEAN stack and MERN stack. MEAN stands for Mongoose Express Angular Node and MERN has to React in place of Angular.  Well, all of these are just frameworks and libraries built for web development. Node is a server-side framework to let you write JavaScript code on the back-end, Express is a Node package to handle your JavaScript, Mongoose is a Node package to handle your MongoDB database on Node and Angular and React are front-end frameworks to let you create dynamic single-page web apps. If you wish to be a full-stack developer, you can pick either and get started. Full Stack Developer Salary in India: By Skills In order to secure such a high-paying job, you are expected to go beyond the qualifications of a Master’s degree and be improve your skills. The average salary for a Full Stack Software Engineer with JavaScript skills in India is ₹593,213. The average salary for a Full Stack Software Engineer with Node.js skills in India is ₹625,096. The average salary for a Full Stack Software Engineer with Java skills in India is ₹583,500. The average salary for a Full Stack Software Engineer with React.js skills in India is ₹782,993. The average salary for a Full Stack Software Engineer with Angular.js skills in India is ₹360,000. Source Estimated salaries paid by the top recruiters Here is what we know about Full Stack Developer salaries in India’s premier tech companies- Tata Consultancy Services- INR 452846 per annum IBM- INR 659371 per annum Vassar Labs-  INR 785542 per annum Nuclei- INR 10,55,280 per annum Report Garden- INR 809013 per annum Accenture-  INR 530241 per annum Wipro- INR 420826 per annum GALE Partners-  INR 818863 per annum Infosys- INR 335000 – INR 424000 per annum Cognizant Technology Solutions- INR 240000 – INR 625000 per annum Oracle- INR 1390000- INR 1693000 per annum Schlumberger- INR 168000- INR 2117000 per annum Tapzo- INR 1100000- INR 1210000 per annum Posist Technologies- INR 834000- INR 995000 per annum Source Full Stack Developer Salary in India: Based on the city of employment The city where you find employment will also have a say in how much you make as a Full Stack Developer. Certain cities have a well-established IT industry that churns out more profit than their counterpart in other cities. Everyday expenses on food, commute and lodging too are higher. Here is a breakdown of Full Stack Developer Salary based on the city of employment New Delhi and the NCT- approximately INR 593391 per annum Kolkata, West Bengal- approximately INR 504036 per annum Mumbai, Maharashtra- approximately INR 634612 per annum Gurgaon, Hariyana- approximately INR 620410 per annum Ahmedabad, Gujarat- approximately INR 37987 per month Bengaluru, Karnataka- approximately INR 760880 per annum Chennai, Tamil Nadu- approximately INR  585956 per annum Hyderabad, Telangana- approximately INR 615448 per annum Source Web Developer Salary in Other Countries Web Developer salary in The US: $63,856 Source Web Developer salary in The UK: £25,436 Source Other Similar Roles Salary Comparison Software Developer – Rs. 256,000 Sr. Software Developer – Rs. 478,000 PHP Developer – Rs. 280,332 Web Designer – Rs. 285,645 SQL Developer – Rs. 403,000 Java Developer – Rs. 446,569 Source Get Software Engineering degrees from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. These are a few tips to keep in mind when keeping pace with newer technologies in the web development space. The prime emphasis must be on proper learning via practice and not on learning via theory. Working on personal projects or side projects is excellent to polish your skills. This helps in simulating situations on a better note while also helping build muscle for debugging and finding solutions to issues on StackOverflow or Google. For those still in academia, consider doing an internship simultaneously pursuing an ongoing semester. This will help you gain real-time experience on how everything works and time management. Internships are vital since you can never really replace knowledge inherited through real-life experiences with theory. Remember to tap the online education resource since it is available and accessible at the current time. There are a ton of quality courses to pick from. You can always back these with practical learning. Check out upGrad’s Full Stack Development Bootcamp What is Web Development? It is the non-design elements that developers employ to build a website. It includes writing both markup and coding. Large organizations employ Agile Technologies to manage hundreds of web developers working to deliver the desired output.  Who is a Web Developer? According to Wikipedia, there are 3 kinds of Web Developers – Full Stack Developer, Back End Developer, and Front End Developer. As the name suggests, the Back End Developers work with the servers while Front End Developers work on the user interface and experience.  In simple words, a web developer is responsible for the programming and coding of web-based services and websites that happens at the back end. It is often quite difficult to clearly differentiate between the roles and responsibilities in different web positions, such as web developers and designers. Because of the demand, web developer salary in India is one of the highest. However, we can safely say that web developers are more technically inclined than their web designing counterparts who are more focused on the look and feel of a website. The projects that web developers are involved in vary in complexity. They could be asked to work on simple web pages one time and multi-layered e-commerce web applications the other. Check out Java Bootcamp from upGrad What does a web developer do? The responsibilities of a web developer include talking to clients over the phone or meeting with them to understand their requirements. It is very important for web developers to get clear answers to questions like what a client wants their website to do for them. What features does a client want their website to have? If you start working on the website before speaking to the client, the website won’t even be close to what the client expects you to deliver. You will be required to redo it. Waste of time, isn’t it? This is a lesson that every budding web developer needs to learn sooner rather than later to make successful strides ahead in their respective careers. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Responsibilities of Web Developers  Connecting the landing page to various databases and tables How to understand the number of people who visited your website and their details Linking the website to a payment gateway (incase its an e-commerce platform) Optimize the page for viewing on mobile Server hosting and network connectivity issues Typical Tasks of a Web Developer While the web developer salary can be lucrative, you should have an idea of what your day will look like after taking up this job role. So, your typical tasks as aweb developer salary will include: Programming Websites As a web developer, the ultimate goal is to design top-notch websites using a range of advanced programming techniques and tools. This entails staying current with modern web development principles and values. Additionally, web developers need to be proficient in  establishing an efficient and reusable coding system, and consistently optimizing the program to keep it adaptable. Website Testing To ensure the quality of the website, developers must thoroughly examine the code for potential bugs and flaws before publishing it. This involves testing the code to detect any issues early on and avoid future problems. Additionally, web development salary in India must receive continuous input from clients and consumers to ensure that the website meets the standards and requirements. Debugging Code A website’s performance is crucial, and developers must optimize the code to improve its functionality. This involves debugging the code to ensure that it works as intended and that the website application remains operational. The ability to detect, evaluate, and eliminate mistakes is mandatory for providing an unproblematic user experience and promoting business growth that helps them to get high full stack web developer salary. Website Maintenance and Facilitating Updates A website must respond quickly and efficiently to satisfy users to get high web developer salary Bangalore. Developers must ensure that all functions are operational and that the website is optimized for speed. This involves facilitating updates to maintain the website’s functionality and ensuring that all security protocols are in place. Additionally, developers must promptly detect and address any bugs and glitches to prevent issues from arising. Collaboration with Web Designers and Other Creative Specialists Web developers need to collaborate with web designers and other creative specialists to define the visual aspects of a website and to get fresher web developer salary in India. It helps in creating a consistent look and feel throughout all pages. The designer focuses on crafting the site’s graphics and branding, while the developer brings those visual elements to life through coding. To achieve a seamless user experience, both parties must communicate effectively and work together. The developer needs to incorporate the designer’s ideas into their coding and vice versa. This collaborative approach between web developers and other experts in the team is crucial for creating a responsive, functional website and to get a high website developer salary. Seamless Integration Given the prevalent nature of data management in software, web developers need to have a solid understanding of database management. When using software offline, it is essential to synchronize data between the internal memory and remote databases. Knowledge of databases enables developers to manage and store data effectively. SQLite is particularly valuable in mobile coding due to its ability to store data indefinitely, making it a crucial tool for web developers. Responsive Websites A responsive website seamlessly modifies its structure  to fit a range of screen dimensions, spanning from smartphones and tablets to desktop monitors. This impressive feat is achieved by implementing a blend of adaptable grids, layouts, and clever coding. They ensure that web pages scale seamlessly to accommodate different screen sizes.  If a website’s design is not responsive, it creates a negative user experience and reduces visitors to your website. By incorporating responsive design into web development, developers can upgrade the user experience and potentially increase conversions. What Skills Would Help You As A Web Developer In 2023? Web developers need to keep abreast of the latest trends in technology and programming for better progress in terms of career. When you look up the Web developer salary in india for freshers & experienced, you will realise that pay gets better with qualifications and experience in the domain. Take a look at the top courses that can help you further your trajectory when building a career as a web developer and bag an exceptional web developer salary per month. HTML 5 While this is the oldest language in this domain, you cannot become a web developer unless you are well-versed in the same. While basic HTML is no longer relevant to making a page, you must have knowledge of the latest versions of the same. CSS Learn up on frameworks such as Materialize, Tailwind CSS or Bootstrap. Gradually, target learning up on Flexbox and then Grid. JavaScript JavaScript has become a full-stack language today, and you can even code with the same while developing an app, end-to-end. You need to learn this language upfront, even if you are a backend or a frontend developer. The bottom line is that JavaScript is absolutely a must for any Web Developer, both frontend and backend, and you should definitely spend some time learning JavaScript in 2023 to enhance your web developer salary per month! Other must-learn web development aspects are:-         React.js         Node Package Manager         VSCode         Chrome Developer Tools         Postman         Responsive Web Design         GraphQL Other Skills to Negotiate a Better Web Developer Salary If you want to negotiate a better web developer fresher salary in India or full stack web developer salary you should work on the following: A Sense of Logic Programming languages operate based on established rules and guidelines. If you possess a rational mindset, you will find it easier to grasp these languages and learn them more quickly. As you observe how they function, you will develop the ability to deconstruct statements into their basic components and predict their logical outcomes. Web developers who must juggle multiple tasks, projects, timelines, budgets, and workflows will benefit significantly from organized techniques that rely on logic. Creativity As a web developer, your primary goal is to create the most elegant and efficient end-user solution. When you start dealing with complex web development projects, you will realize that you can adopt multiple approaches to completing them. It requires creativity to envision how each approach would work and which one would be ideal for your specific web development project. Additionally, having a strong sense of aesthetics can help you collaborate with designers and visualize the final product. So, it will naturally make you capable of earning a higher web developer salary or website designer salary. Understanding of Version Control Systems Version control systems, such as Git, help web developers track, manage, and modify code changes. These systems enable rapid mistake detection and correction, which is particularly useful for full-stack web developers who work under tight deadlines. By recording changes made to the code, you can easily examine them before making any modifications, ensuring that your work is accurate and efficient. Attention to Detail A single spelling mistake while coding can lead to a 404 error, which can negatively impact the user experience. Therefore, programmers are taught to carefully review their code multiple times to identify and fix any flaws and to approach their work with patience, concentration, and objectivity. Communication Skills Effective communication plays a critical role in the arsenal of soft skills for web developers, especially in a team environment. Web developers must remain open to feedback from designers, clients, and fellow team members and effectively articulate their ideas. By promoting a culture of open communication, developers can not only produce a top-notch end product, but also elevate their professional growth. Curiosity As web developers, we must constantly update ourselves with the latest programming languages, software, and industry developments. This is crucial for staying ahead and competitive in our field, even for those of us with extensive computer science degrees and years of experience. Continuous skill development is key in remaining at the top of our game. This dedication to learning leads to a higher web developer salary or front end web developer salary alongside better job prospects. Why should you choose a career in web development? The web is going to get even bigger and better with time. Web developers will continue playing an important role. So having the skills to develop websites has several advantages. Job flexibility: The job of a web developer is highly flexible. You are allowed to work the way you want to. If you are a team player, you can work full-time, or you can even go solo by working as a freelancer. It’s easy to begin: Even if you are not willing to be work with a company on a full-time basis, there is still plenty that you can do as a freelancer. All you need is the right skills. There are always more skills to add to your resume: HTML, JavaScript, and CSS are the basic skills that you can’t do without as a web developer. However, if you are passionate about it and want to further your career, there’s plenty more to learn as well, including AngularJS, Ajax, PHP, Ruby, and more. To make your career to grow as a web developer and earn the highest possible web developer salary in India, you need to have update yourself with required skills. Web development is interesting and fun: Web developers love everything about their work. Web development is amongst those jobs that have a significantly higher job satisfaction rate. So, there are opportunities galore for Java developers, and the indispensable nature of their jobs ensures that web developer salary in India is quite elevated. There are job opportunities aplenty: There are more jobs than you think in web development. Whatever happens, online businesses will continue to build new websites or redesign existing ones to stay competitive and relevant.The demand for these developers are always high. The list is endless. That’s the primary reason web developer salary in India is quite high. The ever increasing demand. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript   The Pathways In A Web Development Career A career in web development tends to follow a couple of distinct paths per your job expectations to reward you with a high web developer salary in India! You can either work as a full-time developer or even as a freelancer. In any full-time position for web development, you would mostly collaborate with more developers and programmers since you would be part of a bigger development team. You would get ample scope to manage projects and teams besides liaising with clients or even stakeholders from backgrounds other than tech. Since programming skills are currently in high demand, a full-time job in the web development domain will not be scarce. Moving ahead as a web developer full-time, you can easily get paid in six figures. The other end of the web development career tunnel is a freelancing role. In such a role, you get to create your own schedule and remain free to pick up projects you find interest in. A strong relationship with clients helps you get work in a steady flow. You could command a better web development salary over a full-time web developer even in the early phase of your career. The freelance mode could be ideal if you are keen on working remotely. The web development salary in such a role might not be steady, but you have full control over the flexibility of this role. Trends Shaping the Future of Web Developer Salaries in India India is seeing an increase in demand for qualified web developers as the digital landscape continues to change. The country’s future pay for web development will be shaped by several technology and industry factors, including the spike in demand. The rising emphasis on responsive and mobile-first design is one notable trend. Businesses are eager on creating seamless user experiences across different screen sizes as the bulk of internet consumers access websites through their mobile devices. Web designers with experience building responsive and mobile-friendly websites are therefore in high demand. Due to its significance in the current web development scene, this specialised skill set might fetch a higher wage. The explosive expansion of e-commerce is another trend. The pandemic hastened the shift to online buying, and companies are making significant investments in their e-commerce infrastructure. There is a great demand for web designers that can establish safe, streamlined, and attractive e-commerce websites. Their better-earning potential is influenced by their capacity to handle inventory systems, integrate payment gateways, and guarantee a seamless shopping experience. The adoption of progressive web apps (PWAs) is also impacting salaries. PWAs combine the best of both web and mobile applications, providing users with faster loading times and offline accessibility. Developers who can build such advanced web applications are considered valuable assets, leading to increased compensation packages. Blockchain technology and its integration into web development also deserve mention. Blockchain’s potential to enhance security, transparency, and data integrity is opening up new avenues for web developers. Those who understand blockchain’s intricacies and can implement it within web applications are positioned for higher salaries due to the specialized nature of this skill. Navigating Negotiations for Better Web Developer Salaries Negotiating your web developer salary is a crucial step in ensuring you’re fairly compensated for your skills and experience. Here are some strategies to consider: Research: Before any negotiation, research the average salaries for web developers in your region. This data will give you a solid foundation for your negotiation. Highlight Your Value: During negotiations, emphasize your skills, experience, and any unique abilities you possess. Explain how your expertise can contribute to the company’s success and growth. Be Confident, Not Confrontational: Approach the negotiation with confidence and professionalism. Avoid being confrontational, and instead, focus on creating a win-win scenario. Discuss Benefits: Salary isn’t the only component of compensation. Consider discussing other benefits such as flexible work hours, remote work options, health insurance, and professional development opportunities. Practice Patience: If the initial offer isn’t what you expected, don’t rush to decline. Express gratitude for the offer and request some time to evaluate it thoroughly. Consider Long-Term Growth: While the initial offer is important, also consider the potential for growth within the company. A lower starting salary might be justifiable if there’s a clear path to advancement. Have a Backup Plan: Be prepared for various outcomes. If the negotiation doesn’t go as planned, know your bottom line and be ready to make an informed decision. Tips to Enhance Your Web Development Skills for a Better Salary The secret to increasing your web developer salary or web developer salary for fresher is constant skill development. A few basic ways to upgrade your web development skills involve: Embracing Latest Technologies By continuously learning new skills related to developing websites, you can maintain a competitive edge in the industry. This proactive approach will also equip you to stay relevant in a constantly changing and fast-paced landscape of web development. Continuous Practice As you develop your coding skills, your expertise will flourish. Consistently practicing coding allows you to pinpoint errors and prevent them from resurfacing. Don’t miss out on the abundance of free online resources geared towards honing your coding abilities. With dedicated practice, your programming aptitude will undoubtedly blossom. Enhancing Interpersonal Skills As a web developer, developing strong interpersonal abilities is necessary to truly excel and stand out in this competitive field. These skills contribute to your overall proficiency so that you can secure top jobs and command a higher salary. The skills will allow you to excel in your career and reach your full potential as a well-rounded web developer. Highlight Your Web Development Skills to Become Noticeable You need to be spotted by top recruiters to obtain a high web developer fresher salary in India or freelance web developer salary in the competitive market. A few ways you can highlight your web development skills and capture the attention of top hiring companies include: Share Real-World Experience While attending a web development job interview to get the high web programmer salary or full stack web developer salary in India you should make it clear how your skills align with the job requirements. Use your real-world experience to answer interview questions and demonstrate your expertise in web development. Highlight Your CV Remember, a top-notch CV that effectively showcases your abilities in this field can make all the difference. Be sure to highlight specific projects you’ve worked on in the skills section of your CV to solidify your web development prowess. Highlight Your Cover Letter Your cover letter is another valuable chance to highlight your experience and skills in web development. As the initial piece of information a hiring manager will read, your cover letter should be error-free and engaging. Keep it succinct, tailor it to the job requirements, and do not hesitate to include pertinent background details about your expertise in web development. Also, Read Highest paying web developer salary in india Conclusion Web development is a vast field and every business requires a proper functioning website. As you have seen all the different aspects of web development, it’s time now that you decide which one you want to choose! There is one thing you should know, getting the right skills is necessary. Also, you need to keep upgrading your skills to get the highest possible Web Developer Salary in India.  We hope you liked our article on Web developer salary in India. These numbers above are not set in stone. The real influencer of your salary is the skills you have,  the mastery you have attained over them, and how quickly you grow and make the company grow as well. If you’re interested to learn more about full-stack software development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects, and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms. Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. We would assist them to upskill with the right program, and get them a highest possible pre-applied fee-waiver up to ₹70,000/- You earn referral incentives worth up to ₹80,000 for each friend that signs up for a paid programme! Read more about our referral incentives here.
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by Rohan Vats

01 Jun 2024

9 Best Full Stack Coding Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners
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A Full stack developer is an engineer who can design and develop an end-to-end application independently by handling all the work of coding, databases, servers and platforms. Full stack projects can be further classified as web stack, mobile stack or native application stack depending on the solution stack being used.  As more and more companies are looking to hire full stack developers in India, “Full-stack developer” is a title that every other coding/development engineer wants to update in their LinkedIn and Facebook. Being a full stack developer, you will need to know all of the technologies that are required to build an application from scratch. To become full stack developers, most engineers want to expand their skills horizontally. But unless the skills are known in-depth, the claim will remain a hollow title. If you are upgrading your skills to become a full stack developer, be sure to learn all the technologies in its full depth of understanding. Doing hands-on projects can help you gain in-depth knowledge. Also, Check out our free courses In this article, we will discuss 9 full stack coding project ideas with source code you can try out. You should choose different languages, databases and frameworks for different projects. You may choose technology combinations from the examples below Front-end languages: HTML, CSS, Javascript etc Front-end frameworks: AngularJS, React.js, Bootstrap, jQuery, SASS, Foundation, Semantic-UI, Materialize, Express.js, Backbone.js, Ember.js etc. Back-end: PHP, C++, Java, Python, JavaScript, Node.js Back-end frameworks: Django, Express, Laravel, Rails, Spring etc Database: Oracle, MongoDB, MySQL Check out upGrad’s Java Bootcamp Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more 9 Full Stack Coding Project Ideas & Topics 1) Content Management System for a blog WordPress and Drupal would be the best examples of full stack web app development project ideas for students. Using the CMS users must be able to design a web page using the drag and drop method. Users should be able to add textual or media content into placeholders that are attached to locations on the web page using drag and drop method. This way, users should be able to design the whole website. Users must also get an option to publish blog posts. For this, you need to have a text editor component that accepts user input text and converts it into HTML and push into a database. The website must be published over HTTP and HTTPS protocols such that the blog posts are served from the database and displayed to the visitors in the page template designed by the blog owner.  Source Code: Content Management System for a blog Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 2) Multi-client website offering client services Here merchants are your primary customers. Merchants must be able to sign up at the site and create a page for themselves that display a list of their services and the pricing. The users who are customers to your customers should be able to sign up as users and purchase goods or services from the merchants. There should be a standard checkout process throughout which is integrated into a payment gateway system.  Enroll in Software Engineering Courses from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. The site could offer different categories of services, like home, beauty, pet, etc. Merchants can select their category when signing up. Customers can browse and search for merchants by category. Merchants can customize their pages with images, descriptions, availability, and other service details. The checkout process should securely collect customer and payment information. Integrating a payment gateway allows for secure credit card processing. Email receipts can be sent to the customer and merchant after purchase. Merchants should have a dashboard to view orders and manage their accounts. Customers can leave reviews and ratings for merchants. Additional features could include appointment scheduling, notifications, customer accounts and order history. The multi-tenant structure allows easy scaling as more merchants and customers join the platform. Robust admin tools help manage users, categories, disputes, and platform growth over time. The core functionality connects service providers to customers in a seamless online marketplace. Source Code: Multi-client website offering client services 3) e-commerce website for automotive parts Under this project, you can develop a standard e-commerce website that displays products to be sold. Users should be able to select the products they want to buy and add them to cart. Users must then be able to make payments via a secure payment gateway. The site would focus on selling automotive parts and accessories, like brake pads, batteries, tires, engine parts, lights, electronics, tools, and more. Customers can browse parts by make/model or general categories. Product information includes specifications, images, reviews, related/alternate parts, and availability. An intelligent search helps customers find the right parts. The shopping cart saves selected items persistently across sessions until checkout. Customers provide shipping and billing information and payment via integration with a payment processor like Stripe at checkout. Order confirmation emails provide order details and tracking info. Customers have an account to view order history. The admin interface enables product and inventory management, order processing, customer service, marketing, and sales reporting. New arrivals and promotions incentivize repeat purchases. SEO, ads, and affiliate programs expand reach. Integrations with parts suppliers, drop shippers, and logistics services enable rapid scaling while minimizing overhead. Looking to challenge yourself or expand your portfolio? Check out our curated list of computer science project ideas to inspire your next groundbreaking project. Source Code: E-Commerce Website for Automotive Parts 4) Food delivery application This application should be able to form a bridge between restaurants and consumers. Restaurants owners must be able to sign up and list out their food items along with the price. Users must be able to sign up, view the restaurants nearby and order food items from selected restaurants. Restaurants should accept the order and assign a delivery person to the order. The location of the delivery person and the dynamic ETA of delivery must be displayed to the user who ordered food. The cart and payment page must be unique across the full application.  upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4 Additional features could include parts recommendation engines, vehicle fitment lookup, custom packaging, loyalty programs, and auto-replenishment. The focus is on providing automotive parts buyers with an intuitive, tailored e-commerce experience. The app can include cuisine browsing, personalized recommendations, ratings/reviews, and dish photos. Restaurants manage menus, availability, pricing, and order processing through a dashboard. Customers can save delivery addresses, payment methods, and favourite/recent orders. Once an order is placed, the restaurant receives the order with customer details. The restaurant confirms the order receipt and prep time. When ready, a delivery driver is assigned for pickup. Integrate with mapping APIs to track driver location and optimize routes. Push notifications update customers on order status. The delivery driver can mark orders picked up and dropped off within the app. Customers pay online or via cash. Ratings help restaurants and drivers improve service. Analytics provide insights on dishes, customers, and geography to inform marketing and operations. Source Code: Food delivery application 5) Grocery delivery application Assume this project is for a huge online departmental store. Assume that they have a myriad of grocery items at their godown. All items must be listed on the website, along with their quantities and prices. Users must be able to sign up and purchase groceries. The system should present him with delivery slot options, and the user must be able to choose his preferred slot. Users must then be taken to the payment page where he makes the payment with his favourite method.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Additional features could include parts recommendation engines, vehicle fitment lookup, custom packaging, loyalty programs, and auto-replenishment. The focus is on providing automotive parts buyers with an intuitive, tailored e-commerce experience. The app can include cuisine browsing, personalized recommendations, ratings/reviews, and dish photos. Restaurants manage menus, availability, pricing, and order processing through a dashboard. Customers can save delivery addresses, payment methods, and favourite/recent orders. Once an order is placed, the restaurant receives the order with customer details. The restaurant confirms the order receipt and prep time. When ready, a delivery driver is assigned for pickup. Integrate with mapping APIs to track driver location and optimize routes. Push notifications update customers on order status. The delivery driver can mark orders picked up and dropped off within the app. Customers pay online or via cash. Ratings help restaurants and drivers improve service. Analytics provide insights on dishes, customers, and geography to inform marketing and operations. Source Code: Grocery delivery application 6) e-commerce portal for used furniture sales Another big example of full stack web app development project ideas for students is creating an e-commerce portal. Assume this project is for a startup that is acquiring used furniture from users at a price, refurbishing them and selling them off at a margin. The website must display second-hand furniture that is currently being sold. Users must be able to sign up on the site and set up their profile. Users must be able to search for their required products and checkout to the payment page. Once payment is successful, the expected time of product arrival must be communicated to the user via email as well as displayed on the order page. Users must also be able to sell used furniture to the company. Users must be able to upload pictures of the items they intend to sell. Based on the images, company admins must be able to decide whether to buy or not. Source Code: E-Commerce Portal for used Furniture Sales Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Check out upGrad’s Full Stack Development Bootcamp 7) Web portal for motor servicing at home This project is going to be for an automotive workshop that is intending to deliver doorstep service. The workshop must be able to display their services and cost on the website. Users must be able to register and login to cart the required services. Users must then be able to confirm the service time slot and complete the checkout process. The mern project ideas site or mern stack project ideas lists the workshop’s offerings, such as oil changes, tire rotations, brake jobs, inspections, engine work, detailing, and more. Customers input their vehicle info to see applicable services and pricing. A shopping cart saves selected services, and a calendar displays available 2-hour appointment windows for at-home service. After selecting a time slot, customers enter payment and vehicle/location details. The workshop receives the service order and confirms via email and text. Customers are notified when the technician is en route with an ETA based on traffic. The technician can access service orders on a mobile app. Required parts and tools are loaded onto the vehicle beforehand. Customers pay any balance due upon completion. Email receipts summarize services rendered and parts replaced. The workshop manager assigns technicians and monitors schedules via a dashboard. Customer satisfaction ratings enable continual improvement of technicians and services. Marketing tools help acquire new customers in targeted geographies. Additional features could include: On-demand emergency roadside assistance. Fleet servicing. Maintenance reminder alerts for customers. Integration with spare parts inventory. The focus is on providing maximum convenience and transparency for at-home auto service. Source Code: Web portal for motor servicing at home 8) Project Management application This is going to be the toughest of all with a lot of features. The should have a framework of a basic social media site with users being able to communicate with each other. Users should be able to create projects and tasks within projects. Users must be able to assign tasks to other users and must be able to comment on it just like on a social media post. To start with, each user can have a calendar view and a kanban style board. Users must be able to close and archive tasks as well as projects when completed. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Adding one more easy and hassle-free idea to this list of full stack project ideas for resume. Source Code: Project Management application 9) To-do list project A to-do list app is a fundamental and straightforward project with a use case in daily life. One of the most common full-stack projects for beginners is a to-do list. Like Microsoft’s to-do list application, you can create a to-do list. When a task is finished, the feature to remove it from the list must also be available. Your front-end development skills will improve due to working on this project. You’ll gain valuable experience using the CRUD operations on databases by storing items in the directory and erasing them from it. You can also implement user login and authentication using the to-do list app. Below is a link to a sample source code for a to-do list website. You are welcome to draw ideas from it and create an amazing to-do list using your own talents and creativity. Source Code: To-do list project Advanced full stack project ideas for resume While working on full stack web app ideas for beginners will strengthen your base, practising on full stack web development project ideas for final year students will further enable your skills to shine brighter. Here are a few other full stack application examples and ideas to build your portfolio. 10) Blog Website and App One of the best advanced full stack project ideas for your resume is to create a website. Users can post their opinions on a variety of topics on a blog website. You can be as imaginative as you like. There are a huge number of blog websites. Any of these blog websites can serve as inspiration for your own. People must use their login credentials to access this site, and proper authentication will also be performed. The user can then publish their blogs for viewing by the public, and they should be saved in the database, so they stay there. The ability to edit a blog post after it has been published and delete it entirely from the post would be the icing on the cake. Source Code: Blog Website and App 11) Portfolio Website In the modern world, portfolio websites are a trendy concept. Developers create some amazing portfolio websites to impress clients and showcase their abilities. Making a portfolio website is a great practice, especially for front-end work, and there are no restrictions for students or even professionals having to learn web development. You can be as imaginative as you like. These full stack web development project ideas for students will allow them to not only present their own portfolio but flaunt their practical implementation, too, with a smooth interface. A developer portfolio site is a chance to highlight your best work and skills in a live setting. The homepage can include a bio, skills overview, and featured projects. Each project can have its page detailing the problem, technologies used, images, and results. Blog posts help demonstrate communication abilities along with full stack projects with source code. The site design itself acts as a showcase of front-end abilities with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript be it java full stack projects. A custom design system, animations, interactions, and responsive layout strengthen the presentation. The backend can utilize frameworks like Node, Django, or Ruby on Rails to serve content. Portfolios of full stack coding project ideas for final year students provide insights into coding style through tidy, commented code on GitHub. Integrations with services like LinkedIn and Twitter expand reach. Analytics provide data on visitor demographics, engagement, and conversions. The site can be continuously improved over time as new projects are completed. Version control makes iterating easy. Automated testing and performance monitoring ensure a smooth experience. Dynamic content allows customization for different audiences. The result is an ever-evolving representation of a developer’s skills, abilities, and growth. A portfolio site empowers you to put your best work on display for career opportunities or freelance clients. Source Code: Portfolio Website 12) Food delivery app/website Who is not a fan of food? After a long day of work, everyone wants to indulge in a delicious meal. As a result, many websites and apps, including Uber-eats, Swiggy, and Zomato in India, have become well-known and built profitable businesses around this concept. Therefore, a popular and relatively new idea for a full-stack project is a food application or website. Such full stack web development projects, if implemented successfully, can significantly gain popularity among the audience.  A food ordering and delivery platform connects customers, restaurants, and drivers for seamless meals on demand. Customers can browse local restaurants, menus, reviews, photos, and deals. A persistent cart allows ordering from multiple places in one checkout. Restaurants manage dynamic menus, availability, pricing, and order management via a dashboard. The order is assigned to a driver for pickup and delivery based on location and volume. Integrations with mapping and payment APIs enable optimized routes, ETAs, and cashless transactions. Customers can save delivery addresses and payment methods for faster repeat orders. Rating systems help restaurants and drivers improve service quality. Customer support tools facilitate refunds, cancellations, and issue resolution. Marketing features like promotions and partnerships drive acquisition. Backend databases maintain the menu, customer, restaurant, driver, and order data. Machine learning algorithms optimize driver dispatch and delivery times over time. Granular analytics provide insights to improve operations and marketing. The result is a scalable platform connecting hungry customers with their favourite local eateries via speedy delivery. Features like group ordering, self-service kiosks, and loyalty programs provide further engagement. Source Code: Food delivery app/website 13) Website or app for e-commerce Because it is a very well-known project, you can find an e-commerce website or app in almost every full-stack developer’s portfolio. This project is huge and calls for a great deal of database, front-end, and back-end expertise. It requires a lot of effort and time to complete and is considered a major project. Either create your own e-commerce website or app or attempt to copy an already successful, widely used app or website, such as Amazon, Flipkart, etc. Make sure to brainstorm diverse full stack web app ideas for e-commerce platforms. Source Code: Website or app for e-commerce  14) Video Conferencing App/Website Try to work on the most in-demand full stack web development projects to keep up with the changing demands of the time, and what’s better than the most popular video conferencing applications! The websites and apps for video conferencing are also excellent full-stack projects to get your hands on. Video conferencing tools like Zoom, Google-Meet, Microsoft Teams, and others have become indispensable in our lives since the global pandemic hit. A video conferencing app may have features like audio-video chat, text chat, video recording and storage for later use, call recording and chat storage, a whiteboard for drawing and explanations, and more. In this project, there is a lot to integrate and discover. Source Code: Video Conferencing App/Website 15) Social Media App/Website Another full stack application example is a social media app. In today’s world, social networking is all that is around us. We use numerous social media platforms on a daily basis, including Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and others. Making your own social media application is a fantastic full-stack project. A social media site or app is different from a chat app. An image, video, or text can be posted here for others to like, dislike, comment on, and share. It is comparable to creating a social network. This project is excellent for practising both front-end and back-end code (along with the database). The platform lets users sign up for accounts, create profiles, and connect as friends. The news feed shows posts from friends in chronological order. Users can create posts with text, images, videos, links, events, polls, etc. Likes, comments, shares, and reactions create engagement. Profiles, followers, tags, and discover features enable connections. Private messaging provides one-to-one and group chats. Push notifications alert users to new interactions. Moderation tools combat abuse. Analytical dashboards track growth, engagement, ads, and user demographics. APIs allow integration with other apps and embedding of social features. Additional capabilities could include live streaming, stories, influence scores, groups, events, marketplaces, and augmented reality. The focus is cultivating an active user community that provides entertainment, connection, and value at scale. Source Code: Social Media App/Website 16) Content Management Tool or System for Blogs Another good example of advanced full stack project ideas for your resume is creating a CMS. A good example of a content management system is WordPress. The user can drag and drop the available items to build a web page. An uncommon project like that attests to your full-stack developer expertise. Users of a Content Management System (CMS) must be able to drag and drop elements to build their own web pages. The user should be able to add text and media content into placeholders attached to the web page by using these features. Therefore, users should be able to create websites and post blogs. A text editor that accepts user input converts it to HTML and pushes it to the database. Source Code: Content Management Tool or System for Blogs 17) Project Management Tool The Project Management tool is the most difficult full-stack project and has many features. Examples include the Kissflow Project, Asana, and Trello. This project must have the structure of a fundamental social media platform with user-to-user communication. Users should be able to collaborate on project creation and create tasks inside of projects. The users should be able to allocate work to one another and comment on them, just like on social media. The tool allows teams to collaboratively plan projects, break down work into tasks, assign tasks, set due dates, track progress, and communicate. Robust permissions allow managers to restrict access as needed. Each project gets its dashboard for an overview and task management. Tasks can be categorized, tagged, prioritized, and assigned to team members. Due dates keep work on schedule. File attachments, comments, and activity feeds facilitate discussion of work. Integrations with calendars, email, and other tools sync across apps. Managers can view project health metrics and task completion status. Analytics provide insights into team productivity over time. Customizable workflows automate repetitive processes. API access enables integration with other systems. Additional features include time tracking, expense reporting, resource management, GANTT charts, budgeting, invoicing, and billing. The focus is on providing the features and flexibility to manage projects and tasks across any team, process, or enterprise. Custom branding and white-labeling make it easy to embed the tool across organizations. Source Code: Project Management Tool Conclusion Being a full stack developer is a tough job & that’s an important reason full stack developers get very good salary package. Its difficult but it’s achievable if you do the right amount of hard work. Execute these project ideas using different technologies and frameworks, and you will have hands-on experience in all underlying technologies. Make sure not to reuse the same language, database or framework over and over again on all projects. We hope you will have an excellent learning opportunity in executing these projects. If you are interested to learn more and need mentorship from industry experts, check out upGrad & IIIT Banglore’s PG Diploma in Full-Stack Software Development.
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by upGrad

30 May 2024

14 Best PHP Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners [2024]
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Summary: In this article, you will learn about 14 best PHP project ideas. Best PHP Project Ideas & Topics Build a Clothes Recommendation System Customer Relationship Management for ISP Predict Movie Success through Data Mining Fake Review Identification Data Mining Implementation for Secure Learning Detect Net Banking Phishing Predict User Behaviour A Chatbot for Students Portal for Doctors Product Rating System According to Customer Reviews College Admission Prediction System Social Network System for Job Placement Review Mining for Restaurants Automate Time Table Creation Read more to know each in detail. PHP Projects & Topics Hypertext Preprocessor or PHP is a programming language that everyone in the field of web development will be well aware of. One of the most widely used general-purpose scripting languages today, PHP supports the server-side or back-end of over 77.4% of websites. The who’s who of the tech field and global corporations use PHP, such as WordPress, Flipkart, Yahoo!, Facebook, Etsy, and Wikipedia.   The open-source scripting language has a legacy of over 25 years since its development. A large and loyal community supports efforts to upgrade, troubleshoot and improve the functionality of PHP. An easy-to-learn language, PHP is a great starting point for beginners who are interested in web development. In addition, PHP ability to integrate advanced functionalities and platform independence ensures that despite its ease of use, even experienced web developers can use it to support complex projects dynamically.  For those interested in learning PHP, several readily available resources, like community-supported tutorials, certificate courses, community chatrooms, etc., can help in the learning process. Although you can gain fundamental knowledge of PHP by building a theoretical understanding of the language, you must learn by doing. Gaining practical experience is the building block for a comprehensive knowledge of any programming language and applying the theory in practice.  But how does a beginner start on the journey of gaining valuable practical experience as a PHP developer? The best way to learn a top programming languages is through projects. They allow you to try out your knowledge of the subject while challenging your creativity. So, if you are a PHP beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time PHP projects. You can also check out our free courses offered by upGrad in Management, Data Science, Machine Learning, Digital Marketing, and Technology.  We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting PHP projects which beginners can work on to put their PHP knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 15 top PHP project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience in PHP. Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind: why to build PHP projects? When it comes to careers in software development, it is a must for aspiring developers to work on their own projects. As freshers with zero real-world experience or as experienced software developers seeking to master a new programming language, learning through PHP projects can be a confidence booster.  Developing real-world projects is the best way to hone your skills and materialize your theoretical knowledge into practical experience. As you start working on PHP projects, you will not only be able to test your strengths and weaknesses, but you will also gain exposure that can be immensely helpful to boost your career. Check out our Java Bootcamp designed to upskill working professionals. Adding PHP projects to your professional portfolio can help you expand your professional horizon and demonstrate to interviewers the scope of your skills. By challenging yourself through these projects that have real-world applications, you can put your PHP ability to the ultimate test.  So are you a PHP beginner looking to expand your skillset, an experienced web developer brushing up on the basics, or a software engineering student scrambling to look up the “best PHP projects for final year students”? Worry not. We at upGrad have you covered with our list of the most exciting PHP project ideas for beginners.  You’ll find various project ideas on this list, each one completely different from the rest. Go through this list, and let us know which project you are going to try your hands on. But first, let’s discuss PHP a little. So, here are a few PHP Project ideas which beginners can work on: What is PHP? A Brief Overview PHP is an open-source general scripting language. Programmers use it to develop web applications and websites. The credit for creating it goes to Rasmus Lerdorf, who developed this language in 1994.  Lerdorf, a Danish-Canadian developer, developed PHP, then known as Personal Home Page (PHP) tools, to track the traffic on his personal home page. He released the code to the public by adding new functionalities in 1995. Since then, PHP has come a long way with extensive updates and bug fixes, building a steady and loyal following over almost three decades.  This easy-to-learn and free-to-use language allow developers to choose between different protocols, scripting languages, platforms and databases. Its distinguishing feature is that the PHP code is initially executed in the server, and only then is the result returned to the browser. The client (and the browser) can only view the result of the PHP script but not the code itself.  Learning PHP is secure, and if you’re a beginner who wants to learn web development, then you can start with this language. Flipkart, Facebook, Wikipedia, are some of the websites based on PHP. Here are some qualities of this programming language: This accessibility is beneficial for beginners as it removes financial barriers, allowing them to learn, experiment, and develop projects without incurring costs associated with licensing. It is simple, fast, efficient, and, more importantly, secure. PHP’s simplicity in syntax and its execution speed make it an efficient choice for web development. Additionally, PHP has built-in security features, making it a reliable option for developing secure applications. Its straightforward nature is advantageous for beginners who can quickly grasp and apply its concepts. You can embed it with HTML files, and PHP files can also contain HTML codes. This integration allows the creation of interactive and data-driven web applications, providing a powerful tool for beginners to enhance the functionality of their projects. You can run PHP on any device, whether your smartphone, tablet, desktop or laptop. This cross-device compatibility ensures that PHP-based applications can be accessed and run on a wide range of platforms, enhancing the accessibility and reach of projects. You can create static and dynamic websites with PHP. Beginners can start with simple static pages and gradually progress to building dynamic websites that respond to user input and deliver personalized content. This flexibility caters to different project requirements and levels of complexity. You can implement business logic layers. This allows for the separation of presentation and application logic, contributing to better code organization and maintainability, a fundamental principle in scalable and robust application development. It uses hashing techniques enabling encryption of users’ data. This is crucial for protecting sensitive information such as passwords and ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of user data in web applications. You can build desktop applications with PHP. This versatility allows beginners to explore different project types, expanding their skill set beyond web-based applications. It supports cross-platform development. This is advantageous for beginners who can develop applications that are not restricted to a specific platform, broadening the potential user base. Connects to the database and allows you to perform various operations (updating and writing data). The more you experiment with different PHP projects, the more knowledge you gain. This database integration is crucial for the development of dynamic web applications, offering beginners practical exposure to data manipulation and management. Read:  Web development project ideas. Now that you know the functionalities and qualities of PHP, you must be itching to spearhead your own PHP project. The following section outlines 15 exciting PHP projects for final year students and freshers to try their hand at PHP so they can hone their skills in web development. Read on to know more. What are the benefits of working on PHP projects for beginners? Working on PHP projects can be immensely beneficial for beginners in the field of web development. PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a server-side scripting language that is widely used for creating dynamic and interactive web applications. For newcomers to programming and web development, engaging in PHP projects offers a host of advantages that contribute to skill development, hands-on experience, and future career opportunities. Easy Learning Curve PHP boasts a straightforward syntax and logical structure, making it an ideal starting point for beginners to grasp programming fundamentals without overwhelming complexities. Learners can greatly benefit from PHP projects for beginners. From a gradual progression, starting with basic scripts and advancing as they gain confidence.  The language avoids overwhelming complexities, encouraging experimentation and understanding of fundamental principles. PHP beginner projects are also ideal because of PHP’s forgiving nature with errors, and logical structure aligned with common patterns. It additionally offers a supportive community making it an ideal choice for those new to programming, providing a positive and accessible learning experience. Hands-On Experience Engaging in PHP projects offers hands-on experience, allowing beginners to apply theoretical knowledge in practical scenarios. This bridges the gap between theory and application, enhancing comprehension. PHP projects enable beginners to work on actual coding tasks, implementing the concepts they’ve studied in a practical manner. PHP project ideas for students enable beginner-level learners to gain a deeper understanding of how to structure code, handle potential challenges, and make informed decisions during the development process. This practical application helps solidify theoretical concepts and enhances overall comprehension. Moreover, there are many PHP projects for final year students that offer hands-on experience. Theoretical knowledge can only get you so far. This practical experience can help them solve real-world problems as they get ready to step into a related profession. PHP projects enable beginners to work on actual coding tasks, implementing the concepts they’ve studied in a practical manner. PHP project ideas for students enable beginner-level learners to gain a deeper understanding of how to structure code, handle potential challenges, and make informed decisions during the development process. This practical application helps solidify theoretical concepts and enhances overall comprehension. Moreover, there are many PHP projects for final year students that offer hands-on experience. Theoretical knowledge can only get you so far. This practical experience can help them solve real-world problems as they get ready to step into a related profession.  Real-World Application PHP projects provide a platform to create functional web applications and websites, simulating real-world development scenarios. This prepares beginners for industry expectations and requirements. By working on PHP project topics, beginners gain the practical experience they need in building applications that serve real-world purposes, such as content management systems, e-commerce platforms, or interactive websites. Taking up PHP projects will allow beginners to understand the collaborative nature of web development, where multiple components and technologies come together to create a cohesive application. This experience helps them appreciate the interconnectedness of different aspects of development, from server-side scripting to database interactions and front-end design. Database Interaction PHP’s seamless integration with databases like MySQL enables beginners to learn database manipulation, which is essential for dynamic web applications. This practical exposure cultivates skills in data management. Database manipulation is essential because data plays a central role in user interactions and content management while building said web applications. Even by taking up a PHP mini project, beginners can learn the ability to insert, update, retrieve, and delete data. Since PHP works in conjunction with SQL for database operations, beginners get working experience writing SQL queries to interact with databases from PHP projects with source code. This includes creating tables, defining relationships, and executing queries to retrieve or modify data. This exposure lays the groundwork for proficiency in database management. Diverse Project Types PHP’s versatility supports various project types, from content management systems (CMS) to e-commerce platforms. Beginners can explore varied project domains, refining their interests and skills. Taking up PHP project titles can significantly help learners because they can help gaing resourceful insights into user interface design, content organization, and database management. By working on diverse project types, beginners can refine their interests and skills.  This further allows them to discover which aspects of web development they find most engaging and align with their career aspirations. Additionally, exposure to various project domains enhances a beginner’s adaptability and understanding of different development challenges, contributing to a well-rounded skill set in PHP development. Resource Abundance The extensive history of PHP means a wealth of online resources, tutorials, and forums. Beginners can access valuable guidance, troubleshooting solutions, and community support. Numerous online tutorials also help beginners by providing step-by-step guides and interactive learning platforms with coding exercises. As for community forums, they are in abundance, This includes Stack Overflow and PHP-specific communities that offer a space for beginners to seek advice, ask questions, and engage in discussions with experienced developers.    There are numerous video tutorials, courses, blogs, and articles that contribute to the diverse array of learning materials available, accommodating different learning preferences. This abundance of resources not only facilitates learning at various levels but also provides crucial support for troubleshooting and problem-solving.  If you are a beginner-level learner, taking up PHP beginner projects can give you access to real-world solutions, and help you stay updated on industry trends. You can also benefit from the collective knowledge of this active PHP community, fostering a conducive environment for skill development and growth. Creativity Encouragement PHP projects empower beginners to exercise creativity. They can experiment with design elements, user interfaces, and features, fostering innovation and exploration. The creative encouragement that most PHP project ideas offer to learners, enhances the learning experience, instilling a mindset that values originality and problem-solving. Through diverse PHP project topics, beginners build confidence in thinking creatively, honing their ability to devise distinctive solutions in web development.  All in all, these projects serve as a creative playground, allowing beginners to learn both the technical aspects of coding and the art of imaginative problem-solving. Framework Familiarity PHP frameworks like Laravel and CodeIgniter expedite development by providing pre-built structures and tools. Beginners gain exposure to industry-standard practices and efficient development methods. These frameworks streamline the coding process, allowing beginners to focus on specific functionalities rather than starting from scratch. When learners create Laravel projects, it gives them exposure to industry-standard practices and efficient development methods widely adopted in professional settings. They learn to leverage features like MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture, routing, and database abstraction, enhancing their understanding of scalable and maintainable code structures.  This knowledge in frameworks not only accelerates development but also introduces beginners to best practices, setting the foundation for more effective and organized coding practices in their future projects. Overall, these PHP projects for beginners empowers learners to adopt industry-standard approaches, improving their coding efficiency and reinforcing good development habits. Portfolio Building Working on PHP projects helps beginners create a portfolio showcasing their practical skills. This portfolio is valuable for demonstrating competency to potential employers or clients. This collection of work serves as a valuable asset when seeking employment or freelance opportunities, allowing potential employers or clients to assess the competence and proficiency of the beginner. A well-constructed portfolio not only highlights the diversity of PHP project titles undertaken but also showcases problem-solving abilities, creativity, and attention to industry best practices. This demonstration of practical skills is particularly beneficial for beginners entering the job market, providing evidence of their capabilities beyond academic qualifications. Problem-Solving Skills PHP projects present challenges that encourage beginners to develop problem-solving skills. Overcoming coding obstacles boosts confidence and resilience in tackling complex issues. PHP project ideas for students help them identify and rectify issues instills a sense of confidence in beginners, as they witness their ability to overcome challenges and make progress.  Community Engagement The vast and active PHP community offers a platform for beginners to ask questions, share experiences, and collaborate. This interaction fosters a sense of belonging and growth. Being part of the PHP community allows beginners to tap into a collective pool of knowledge, gaining insights from more experienced developers. The ability to ask questions and receive constructive feedback accelerates the learning process, helping beginners overcome obstacles and refine their understanding of PHP. Collaboration Exposure PHP projects often involve collaboration, teaching beginners to work effectively in teams. They learn version control, communication, and project management, all essential in professional settings. Community engagement, as discussed above is one of the best ways to introduce beginners to collaborative problem-solving. Collaborative discussions enable them to learn different techniques, best practices, and industry insights.  Career Opportunities PHP’s widespread use ensures a continuous demand for skilled PHP developers. Engaging in PHP projects enhances employability, opening doors to entry-level positions and internships. Working on PHP projects gives beginners real-world experience that they can showcase to potential employers. A well-organized portfolio, demonstrating the variety and complexity of their PHP projects, becomes a strong asset during job searches and interviews. Employers value candidates with hands-on experience, and PHP projects offer beginners the opportunity to highlight their practical skills and problem-solving abilities. Moreover, PHP’s flexibility enables beginners to contribute to a wide range of projects, such as content management systems and e-commerce platforms. This exposure to diverse web development domains expands their skill set, making them adaptable to different roles in the industry. In simpler terms, PHP projects not only demonstrate what beginners can do but also make them versatile candidates with practical expertise in various aspects of web development. Cross-Platform Compatibility PHP’s cross-platform nature enables beginners to develop applications that run seamlessly on various operating systems. This versatility expands the reach of their projects. In practical terms, this cross-platform compatibility expands the reach of their projects, allowing users on different devices and operating systems to engage with the applications without encountering compatibility issues. For beginners, this capability enhances the accessibility and usability of their creations, making their work more widely available and applicable across diverse technological environments.  In a nutshell, PHP’s cross-platform compatibility simplifies the deployment of applications, enabling beginners to reach a broader audience with their projects. Skill Transferability Skills acquired while working on PHP projects are transferable to other programming languages and web development technologies, increasing beginners’ adaptability and proficiency. The knowledge of fundamental programming concepts, problem-solving approaches, and web development practices garnered from PHP projects serves as a solid foundation. This adaptability allows beginners to transition seamlessly into learning and working with different languages and frameworks. For instance, concepts such as database interaction, server-side scripting, and general coding practices are applicable across various web development technologies. As beginners become proficient in PHP, they develop a problem-solving mindset and coding skills that are easily transferable, enabling them to explore and excel in a broader range of programming environments. The knowledge of fundamental programming concepts, problem-solving approaches, and web development practices garnered from PHP projects serves as a solid foundation. This adaptability allows beginners to transition seamlessly into learning and working with different languages and frameworks. For instance, concepts such as database interaction, server-side scripting, and general coding practices are applicable across various web development technologies. As beginners become proficient in PHP, they develop a problem-solving mindset and coding skills that are easily transferable, enabling them to explore and excel in a broader range of programming environments. Engaging in PHP projects offers a holistic learning experience for beginners in web development. The language’s approachable syntax, hands-on practice, diverse project opportunities, and database integration provide a strong foundation. Through practical projects, beginners gain valuable insights into real-world development, refine their problem-solving abilities, and build a tangible portfolio. The vast resources and supportive community further accelerate learning and growth. Ultimately, PHP projects not only nurture technical skills but also instill creativity, teamwork, and a solid groundwork for a successful career in web development. So, if you plan to make your career in PHP, give your best and make informed decisions.  Top 14 PHP Project Ideas This list of PHP project ideas for students is suited for beginners, intermediates & experts. These PHP projects will get you going with all the practicalities you need to succeed in your career as a PHP developer. Further, if you’re looking for PHP project ideas for final year, this list should get you going. So, without further ado, let’s jump straight into some PHP projects that will strengthen your base and allow you to climb up the ladder. Check out Cybersecurity course to upskill yourself and gain an edge. Here are some PHP project ideas that should help you take a step forward in the right direction. 1. Build a Clothes Recommendation System One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on PHP projects for students is working on clothes recommendation system. In this project, you’ll use PHP to build a recommendation system for an online clothing store. Your solution can take user data, such as their previous purchases, the products in their wishlist, and the product they looked at, to recommend them related products. You can use collaborative filtering to provide accurate and efficient recommendations because it can identify similarities between users.  Such recommendation systems are quite popular among E-commerce stores. The most efficient and powerful recommendation system is Amazon’s. You can take a look at their system to get inspiration for this project.  Source Code: Build a Clothes Recommendation System 2. Customer Relationship Management for ISP This is an excellent PHP projects for beginners. You can create a CRM solution with PHP that allows an Internet Service Provider to handle customer complaints effectively. ISPs get different kinds of complaints, and by using CRM software, they can classify them according to their category. This way, they can resolve complaints faster and improve their customer experience.  You can take your CRM software a step further and give ISPs additional features. For example, you can add a feature that alerts the customer when their plan is close to its expiration date. You can also add the functionality to send personalized internet plans to customers according to their past data use. Building a CRM solution will give you experience in many areas, including product development, classification, and user experience. Source Code: Customer Relationship Management for ISP Check out: PHP Developer Salary in India 3. Predict Movie Success through Data Mining Do you like to critique movies and figure out whether it was a hit or flop? Well, in this project, you’ll be using PHP to predict the success of a particular movie. To begin with, you can use historical data of different constituents of the movie, such as its actors, producer, genre, and music. You can also take various factors that influence the success of a film into account, for example, what other movies are coming with the movie in question? Is the movie releasing near a holiday? These are crucial factors that play a massive role in determining the success of a movie in the box office.  Apart from data, you’ll need to add different classes for the movies (hit, flop, average). The admin of the system should have the option to add all the details about the film including its cast, production house, etc. The admin can also add the details of upcoming movies in the system. By using the historical data of a movie’s constituents, your system can predict the success of a film. If the last movies of the lead actors were hits, then this film could be a hit too. You’ll enjoy working on this project, that’s for sure. Mentioning PHP projects can help your resume look much more interesting than others. Source Code: Movie Success Prediction Also, visit upGrad’s Degree Counselling page for all undergraduate and postgraduate programs. 4. Fake Review Identification Fake reviews can damage the credibility of a platform substantially. For example, many sellers had added fake positive reviews on Amazon because positive reviews help in generating more sales for a product. Amazon has implemented many measures to mitigate counterfeit reviews on its platform, but you can understand what a huge problem this is.  You can build a fake review identifying system by using PHP. Your system can focus on user IDs to see if the same user profile has given multiple reviews on different products in the same tone and wordings. You can also add a few keywords in your system to help it identify fake reviews. For example, fake reviews tend to be way more positive than average. They are vague and contain filler words. You can also feed your system organic reviews so it can classify standard reviews from fake ones. As you can see, you can build quite an effective and powerful false review identification system with PHP. Source Code: Fake Review Identification Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 5. Data Mining Implementation for Secure Learning One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on PHP projects for students is working on Data mining implementation. The pandemic has triggered a significant shift in the learning sector. People are now more inclined to learn from online platforms as they reduce human contact and help them stay safe. A significant problem for online learning platforms is piracy and security. You can create a solution for this issue through PHP.  These platforms have to keep a lot of data with them, such as their course details, student records, study material, and others. You can build a security solution by using PHP to ensure this data remains safe. You can use decryption and encryption techniques to keep the courses secure and prevent any breach. PHP is an excellent tool for cybersecurity, and if you’ve been interested in this field, then this project would be perfect for you. Your security implementation would ensure that only authorized people (instructors and students) can access the course material and no one else. Source Code: Data Mining Implementation Also read: Full Stack Development Project Ideas 6. Detect Net Banking Phishing This is one of the interesting PHP project ideas to create. Online banking has undoubtedly become one of the most popular transaction methods these days. While it’s a great solution, it has its risks as well, among which the most prominent one is phishing. Phishing websites in this field ask users to provide their sensitive data (password, account details, etc.) and use this data for wrong reasons. You can create a PHP solution that detects such websites.  For this project, you’ll need to build a flexible and intelligent solution that uses classification algorithms. A data mining classification algorithm can classify multiple websites according to their legitimacy. To ensure your algorithm is accurate and behaves optimally, you’ll need to add certain features of phishing websites and train your model with them. The Domain Authority, URL identity, level of encryption on the website are some features you can use to classify these websites. Using a data mining algorithm would be better than other classification algorithms. It’s one of the most sophisticated PHP projects you’d work on. Source Code: Detect Net Banking Phishing upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4 7. Predict User Behaviour This is one of the trending PHP projects. After completing this project, you’d have a lot of experience in A/B Testing and user behavior, both of which are necessary skills in the digital industry. You can use session web mining to predict user behavior in this project.  First, you’ll have to create a session file from which you’ll extract user sessions. Your built system would display the most relevant page (or information) to the user according to the created session. You’ll need some user data before creating sessions. Apart from that, you’ll have to clean the data and identify the right course for the right user.  Data cleaning will help you in getting rid of unnecessary bits of information because they can hinder the performance of your system. After you’ve cleaned the data, you’ll need to associate different sessions with different users. You can then analyze user behaviors by studying how long they stayed on a page and how much time they spent on a particular section of it. Source Code: Predict User Behaviour Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 8. A Chatbot for Students In this PHP project, you’d build a bot that analyzes a user’s messages and queries to reply accordingly. It’s a web app that answers students’ queries. You can make it a college query bot, so students don’t have to visit the college physically to get their answers. They can simply use this web application and remove their doubts. Your chatbot will have to use artificial intelligence to analyze user queries effectively and give the required replies. If the bot doesn’t provide a relevant response to a user’s question, he/she can give feedback on the same so that the bot can improve its accuracy. The admin can see the incorrect replies of the bot and modify them to enhance it further. The admin should also have the option to delete invalid responses of the bot.  To take it a step further, you can add a visual user interface, which makes it seem like the user is talking to a person. The chatbot can give the students updates on college events and activities as well. You’d get to use your knowledge of PHP, artificial intelligence, and user interface in this project. Learn more about how to create chatbot with Python. Source Code: Chatbot for Students 9. Portal for Doctors So, why not use your skills to develop an impressive PHP project based on healthcare?  PHP has many capabilities, and in this project, you’ll get to use them. You can build a portal for doctors and patients where they can interact. Patients can book appointments on the portal according to their schedule and the available timings of the doctors. This is one of the interesting PHP projects. This portal can reduce a lot of hassle from the appointment booking process and enhance its efficiency. Doctors would also have the benefit of managing their various appointments on the portal quickly. The system would display available slots to the patients, and they can select which one they want to choose.  You can add several other features for doctors too. For example, the portal could allow doctors to save a patient’s medical records in the database. This way, the patient’s profile would have a consistent medical record whenever he/she logs in to their account. Accessing and storing patient records can become quite simple this way.  You can add an organ donor section where people can register for organ donation. It can allow medical professionals to find urgent organ donors in cases of emergencies within a few seconds. Source Code: Portal for Doctors In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 10. Product Rating System According to Customer Reviews You must’ve seen product rating systems on prominent E-commerce platforms. These systems reflect the average rating of the customer reviews to help a visitor understand the popular opinion on a product (or service). It’s a great solution to enhance customer experience while allowing the organization to know how they can serve them better. Your rating system would need an algorithm to track all the customer reviews and manage them. You can mine and match specific keywords present in customer reviews to your database for opinion mining.  You can create a sentiment analyzing solution that finds specific keywords in a customer’s review and determines whether it was good or bad. On the other hand, you can follow the ‘Star rating system’ and show the average of the 5-star ratings people give to a product.  You should ensure that your system has the feature to add product listings on it. You can go to Amazon and take a look at their product rating system to get inspiration for this project. Source Code: Product Rating System According to Customer Reviews Learn more: How to Design an Amazing E-commerce Website! 11. College Admission Prediction System It’s one of the advanced level PHP project ideas. You’ll have to create an admission predictor that tells students what college they will get according to their grades and test results.  The admin of the application should have the option to add the college and batch details. It would have to check the selection requirements of different colleges and compare them with the results of a student to make the prediction.  Your admission prediction system would be able to automate the seat allotment process of colleges as well. The admin would have the ability to allow the seats according to the selection criteria and save the details in the system. This project would test your problem-solving skills and help you create an efficient PHP-based solution. And this is the perfect idea for your next PHP project! Source Code: College Admission Prediction System Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? 12. Social Network System for Job Placement In this project, you’ll create a web application that connects recruiters and potential candidates. In essence, it would be a social network that enables people to communicate with each other and thus find suitable opportunities. You can take inspiration from major social media platforms such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Facebook is based on PHP, so you can easily imitate some of its features.  The platform would allow recruiters to post a job opening along with its description and other details. The system would require the following functionalities to work optimally: A registration window where a person can join the network An option of responding to posts so people can share their opinion through comments or other methods (such as ‘Likes’) An option to post images The admin would be responsible for allowing a person to start an account on the platform. A chatting system so one user can talk with another.  Source Code: Social Network System 13. Review Mining for Restaurants This is one of the most exciting PHP projects we have on this list. You’d have to create a system that detects people’s sentiments in their feedback. It would use opinion-mining to deliver the desired results.  It would be a web application that takes feedback from multiple users, and according to its analysis of that feedback, it’d figure out whether the particular restaurant is good or bad. You’d need to use a database that has multiple keywords of both categories (good and bad). For example, ‘Terrible’ would be a negative keyword, and ‘Best’ would be a positive one. Once built, you can use this system for different restaurants, and the admin of the app would have the option to add new restaurants, keywords, and feedback. It’s excellent that has a lot of utility in the online food industry. You’ll learn a lot from this project. And this is the perfect idea for your next PHP project! Source Code: Review Mining for Restaurants 14. Automate Time Table Creation “So many courses and so little time.” This is one of the interesting PHP projects. Time management is a significant issue for students. To manage their different courses and subjects, they create time tables. A time table has to fit in all of the classes and courses a student attends while making sure that none of them coincide. Apart from this problem, it should also ensure that all the subjects get the required amount of time so the student can study them properly. In this project, you’ll have to build a custom algorithm that uses a timetable object. Your timetable object should have objects for different classrooms (Class Objects) along with a fitness score. The Fitness Score would depend on the times the timetable crashes due to the different calendars of various classes. The Class object would have Week objects, which would have Days, and Days would have Time Slots. A Time Slot should have an address in which the teacher and student are related. You should use a composite configuration design so you can add obligations. Mentioning PHP projects for the final year can help your resume look much more interesting than others. Source Code: Automate Time Table Creation Also read: Why Should You Be Hired For This Internship Learn Software Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Learn More About PHP That’s it for now. We hope you enjoyed our collection of PHP projects. In this article, we have covered the top PHP project ideas. If you wish to improve your PHP skills, you need to get your hands on these PHP projects. This backend language is a good starting for beginners to enter the world of web development.  PHP supports the efficient functioning of over three-quarters of the world’s websites. This should be enough to convince you of the importance of PHP for web development. What makes this server-side scripting language is how easy it is to learn and use to undertake real-world projects. Add to this its cross-platform compatibility and it opens up a wide variety of options for its users.  So if you want to get ahead of your competition, learn PHP by taking up PHP projects. Only by working with tools and practise can you understand how infrastructures work in reality. Now go ahead and put to test all the knowledge that you’ve gathered through our PHP project ideas guide to build your very own PHP projects! If you’re interested to learn more about full-stack software development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects, and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.
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by Rohan Vats

29 May 2024

SQL vs PL/SQL: Difference Between SQL & PL/SQL
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Even though PL/SQL and SQL are tightly integrated with each other, there are a number of differences in the way they operate. While SQL executes one query at once, PL/SQL can execute an entire block of code. SQL and PL/SQL also differ in their performances, error handling capabilities and the way they interact with databases. In this article, we will look at all the differences between the two languages so you know what their individual usages are. Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. What is the Difference Between SQL and PL/SQL? Aspect SQL PL/SQL Nature SQL is a declarative language primarily used for querying and managing relational databases. It focuses on retrieving and manipulating data. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is an extension of SQL incorporating procedural elements. It is designed for creating program units that can be executed in an Oracle database. Functionality SQL is mainly used for querying and manipulating data in databases. It excels in SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and managing database structures. PL/SQL, being procedural, goes beyond SQL’s capabilities. It allows the creation of blocks of code with variables, control structures, and exception handling, enabling the development of more complex and functional programs. Execution SQL statements are executed one at a time, and each statement is considered a separate transaction. PL/SQL, on the other hand, allows the creation of blocks of code that can contain multiple SQL statements. These blocks are treated as a single unit of work, enhancing efficiency and allowing for more complex operations. Use in Programming SQL is basically used as a query language within applications. It’s instrumental for tasks like retrieving data, defining and modifying database structures. PL/SQL, with its procedural capabilities, is designed for programming within the Oracle database environment. It’s employed for creating stored procedures, functions, triggers, and more, making it a powerful tool for database development. Variables SQL has limited support for variables, typically used in the context of queries and conditions. PL/SQL, being procedural, supports the declaration and usage of variables extensively. This allows for more dynamic and flexible coding, especially in creating complex algorithms and logic. Error Handling SQL has basic error handling using SQLCODE and SQLERRM functions, but it lacks the robustness of exception handling in PL/SQL. PL/SQL excels in error handling with its comprehensive exception handling mechanism, allowing developers to capture and manage errors effectively, enhancing the reliability of applications. Portability SQL is relatively more portable as it adheres to industry standards, making it compatible with various database systems. PL/SQL, being Oracle-specific, is less portable. It ties closely to Oracle databases, and migrating to a different database system may require significant code modifications. SQL: Brief Overview Structured Query Language (SQL) is a powerful, non-procedural, database language which is used in the management of relational databases. Developed by IBM research, it is highly portable, upgradeable and offers a high degree of abstraction when compared with procedural languages. Through SQL, end-users can interact with several database management systems as per their availability.  Check out upGrad: Full Stack Development Bootcamp (JS/MERN) Advantages of SQL SQL offers several benefits that make it a highly famous and reliable language. They are: – Swift Query Processing Speed SQL has a high query processing speed that swiftly retrieves vast amounts of data with remarkable accuracy. This means operations like data insertion, deletion, and manipulation are executed with minimal time investment. This efficiency is a key factor contributing to its widespread adoption. Standards are well-defined It has earned the stamp of approval from ANSI and ISO/IEC as the standard language for relational databases. This recognition provides users with well-defined standards, ensuring consistency and reliability. The global community surrounding SQL further reinforces its appeal, attracting individuals and businesses toward this technology. Portability Across Platforms One of SQL’s notable advantages lies in its portability. It’s a versatile language, seamlessly programming across PCs, servers, laptops, and even mobile phones. This platform’s independence enhances its practicality, allowing users to engage with SQL across various devices. User-Friendly Mastery SQL stands out as an approachable language, particularly for beginners. Its simplicity and ease of learning make it a go-to choice for those entering the world of relational databases. The learning curve is gentle, empowering users to grasp the essentials swiftly. Interactive Efficiency Being an interactive language, SQL excels in delivering quick responses to complex queries. Users can obtain the information they need within seconds, streamlining the process of extracting valuable insights from databases. Versatility in Data Views SQL empowers users to construct diverse views of database structures. By creating virtual tables with rows and columns, it facilitates the analysis and slicing of data in myriad ways. This versatility allows users to formulate different perspectives, enhancing their ability to glean meaningful insights from the data at hand. Coding Skills are not Required. SQL shines as a versatile tool that doesn’t demand extensive coding expertise. This means that managing databases becomes accessible without the need for an abundance of code, making it a user-friendly choice for beginners and seasoned professionals. Disadvantages of SQL The drawbacks of SQL are as follows: – Navigating Complexity SQL is a powerful language but not without its complexities. Users often find its interface intricate, posing challenges when attempting to access and interact with the system. This complexity can sometimes create barriers for users, especially those newer to the SQL environment. Control Constraints SQL programmers encounter limitations in terms of database control due to concealed business rules. These hidden rules can restrict the extent of control users have over the database, introducing an element of partial control that may be frustrating for those seeking comprehensive authority. Financial Hurdles Some versions of SQL come with a notable drawback – high operating costs. This financial aspect can become a hurdle for programmers, creating barriers to accessibility. Affordability concerns may impact the accessibility of certain SQL versions for a subset of programmers. Vendor Lock-In A prevalent challenge arises with databases where SQL is the parent. This scenario often leads to vendor lock-in, making it challenging for users to seamlessly transition between systems. Breaking free from these implementational boundaries becomes a critical consideration for users navigating the SQL landscape. Dependency on Tables Creating a view based on underlying tables within a database introduces another layer of complexity. If structural changes occur in these tables, modifying the associated view becomes imperative. This interdependence of tables and views adds a layer of intricacy to the task, demanding meticulous attention to maintain a coherent database structure. You Must Read: Rename Column Name in SQL PL/SQL: Brief Overview PL/SQL is a powerful procedural language that extends procedural constructs to SQL statements. It is known for its high processing speed and error handling capabilities.  In PL/SQL, blocks of code or multiple statements are executed at once which consist of functions, triggers, packages, etc, that enhance the functionality of an operation. This also helps in reducing network traffic. Learn more about PLSQL developer salary in India. Its full form is Procedural Language extensions to SQL. It is a block-structured language that allows developers to integrate the power of procedural statements and SQL. A block’s all statements are passed to the oracle engine at once. Consequently, it boosts processing speed and reduces traffic. It is also popular as a database-oriented programming language that further extends SQL power with procedural abilities. Oracle Corporation developed it during the early 90s to enhance the functionalities of SQL. It adds iterative constructs (loops) and selective (if…then…else…) to SQL. Before discussing PL SQL vs SQL, let’s first discuss the advantages of PL/SQL. Advantages of PL/SQL: It handles exceptions or errors via a PL/SQL program’s execution. After an associate degree exception is captured, the relevant actions can be implemented based on the exception type. Alternatively, it can be shown to the user with a message. It allows developers to execute multiple SQL statement in PL/SQL at once after enclosing them in a block. Being compatible with SQL, it lets you use all the SQL statements, cursor handling, data manipulation, and transaction statements in PL/SQL blocks. No need for conversion between SQL and PLSQL. Maintaining the subprogram is because only a single copy is saved in the database server. The same can be retrieved by all the applications and clients using it. It enables scalability by accessing the centralised processing on the database servers. Hence, multiple synchronised users can access it over a single node. It supports portability because the applications are written in PL/SQL. You can use it on hardware and computer OS where the Oracle database exists and runs effectively. Its PLSQL full form states its objective, and its syntax is easy to understand if you are acquainted with any programming language. It helps the users to define triggers that are automatically fired when a specific condition is met. PL/SQL is better than SQL as it extends SQL with procedural features, allowing for the creation of complex scripts with loops, conditions, and exceptions. This enables more robust and flexible database programming, supporting stored procedures and functions for enhanced performance and maintainability. Check out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in DevOps Disadvantages of PL/SQL The disadvantages of plsql full form are given below: – I/O Limitations PL/SQL encounters limitations in input/output (I/O) functionalities. This programming language provides limited support for reading/writing files or interfacing with user interfaces. This restricted I/O capability may pose challenges for developers seeking more robust interactions within their applications. Syntax Puzzles While powerful, PL/SQL can present challenges with its syntax, occasionally proving less straightforward for programmers to follow. The complexity and inconsistency in the syntax can create puzzles that developers need to navigate, demanding a deeper understanding of the language’s intricacies. Oracle Proprietary Constraints One significant drawback of PL/SQL is its proprietary nature, exclusive to Oracle databases. This exclusivity implies that if a user contemplates changing their database vendor, adapting the existing Oracle PL/SQL code becomes a mandatory, albeit potentially expensive, task. This vendor lock-in adds a layer of complexity for users considering diversification. Learning Curve Challenges For beginners entering the coding arena, PL/SQL may present challenges. Certain concepts within the language can be difficult to grasp, contributing to its reputation as not the most beginner-friendly programming language. Aspiring developers might find themselves navigating a steeper learning curve than more accessible alternatives. The block-structured language has program blocks that can be of two types: Anonymous Blocks – when a block of code is not stored in your database. Stored procedures – when a block is named and stored as a parsed representation in your database. Must Read: SQL Developer Salary in India Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Key Differences Between SQL and PL/SQL SQL is a Structural Query Language created to manipulate relational databases. It is a declarative, detail-oriented language. Whereas, PL/SQL is a Procedural Language/Structured Query Language that uses SQL as its database. It is an application-oriented language. There are no variables in SQL whereas PL/SQL has variables constraints, data types, etc. In SQL, we use DDL and DML to write queries and commands whereas with PL/SQL, code blocks containing functions, triggers, variables, control structures (for loop, while), conditional statements (if..then..else) are written.  In SQL, a single operation or query can be executed at a time. However, In PL/SQL, multiple operations or an entire block of close can be executed at once. This results in reduced network traffic.  It is possible to embed in a PL/SQL block whereas the opposite can’t be done. Unlike PL/SQL, there is direct interaction between SQL and the database server PL/SQL offers high processing speed while performing manipulation of large volumes of data. This can’t be achieved with SQL.  Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript SQL vs PLSQL: Execution  Execution in SQL  We have statements in SQL which are essentially instructions through which a user tells SQL what they want to be done. SQL then compiles these instructions and navigates the database to perform the task. Every operation needs to be executed using SQL statements. Further, there are certain words in SQL that are reserved to perform a specific task. For instance, SELECT,  UPDATE, DELETE. These can not be used as names for any other purpose. (Note: Almost all operations are performed by SQL but there are also tools and apps available to make SQL’s task easier.) There are six types of statements in SQL.  Data Manipulation Language statements (DML) Data Definition Language statements (DDL) Transaction Control statements Session Control statements System Control statements Embedded SQL statements Data Manipulation Language statements and Data Definition Language statements are most commonly used in SQL queries. So, let’s take a brief look at the two:  Data Manipulation Statements (DML) DML statements comprise the likes of SELECT, DELETE, INSERT, UPDATE. They are basically used to manipulate a database. Using DML statements, you can perform operations like delete or add rows, select a particular table or more than one table, select a view, updates values in existing rows, etc.  Here is an example: SELECT ename, mgr, comm + sal FROM emp;  INSERT INTO emp VALUES (4321, ‘ROBERT’, ‘ACCOUNTANT’, 9876, ’14-JAN-1982′, 1600, 500, 30);  DELETE FROM emp WHERE ename IN (‘WARD’,’JONES’); Data Definition Statements (DDL) Using DDL statements, you can create a schema object, alter its structure or rename or drop it. You can also delete all the data in a schema object without having to delete the entire structure. There are several other operations that you can perform using DDL statements.  Some DDL statements include CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, ANALYSE, COMMENT, to mention a few.  Here is an example: CREATE TABLE plants  (COMMON_NAME VARCHAR2 (15), LATIN_NAME VARCHAR2 (40));  DROP TABLE plants;  GRANT SELECT ON emp TO Scott;  REVOKE DELETE ON emp FROM Scott;  Transaction Control Statements: They handle the changes by grouping DML statements and DML statements into transactions. You can use transaction control statements to do the following tasks. COMMIT: Makes transaction changes permanent. ROLLBACK: Undo the changes within a transaction because either the transaction began or due to a savepoint (). SAVEPOINT: Sets a point to which you can roll back. SET TRANSACTION: Launch properties for a transaction (). Understanding these types of transaction control statements helps you to easily understand PL SQL vs SQL. Session Control Statements: They manage a specific user session’s properties. They let you do the following tasks. ALTER SESSION: Changes the current session by implementing a specialized function like enabling/disabling the SQL trace facility (). SETROLE: Enable and disable groups of privileges for the existing session.  System Control Statements: They alter the Oracle Server instance’s properties. It uses the system control command i.e. ALTER SYSTEM. It lets you modify settings like kill a session, the minimum number of shared servers, and other tasks. These statements are easy to understand if you thoroughly understand the PLSQL full form.  Embedded SQL Statements: They incorporate DML, DDL, and transaction control statements in a procedural language program. They are used with the Oracle Precompilers. Embedded SQL statements allow you to do the following: DECLARE CURSOR, CLOSE, OPEN: Defines, allocates, and releases cursors (). DECLARE DATABASE, CONNECT: Declare a database’s name and connect it to Oracle (). DECLARE STATEMENT, DESCRIBE, WHENEVER: Allocates variable names, set descriptors, and mentions how warning conditions and errors are handled (). PREPARE, EXECUTE, EXECUTE IMMEDIATE, FETCH: Parses and executes SQL statements, and access data from the database (). You must know all these types of statements before going through PL SQL vs SQL. Execution in PL/SQL Procedures are stored in the database to be called as required by an application. They can also be called from another PL/SQL block (anonymous or stored). As a procedure is called by an application, it is compiled and loaded into the System Global Area where PL/SQL and SQL process them using their respective executors.  Every program unit a PL/SQL is present in the form of a block, which consists of declarations and statements. It can be nested to include another block.  They are designated by the following keywords DECLARE – for variables, subprograms and local types. A declarative part of a block ends on completion of execution to avoid clutter.  BEGIN – contains statements which have access to the declarations. This is the executable part of the block. EXCEPTION – any exceptions raised during execution are taken care of here. The exception handling part of the block is usually placed at the end of a subprogram to eliminate exceptions in the same. END  Another important aspect of PL/SQL is its control structures that help you control the flow of statements. These are quite important while writing Triggers. They can be categorised into three types Conditional Control: This includes the IF-THEN-ELSE statements where if checks for a condition, ELSE indicates the action to perform and ELSE denotes what should be done if the condition is not true. Iterative Control: These include loop statements using which you can perform an action multiple times. FOR, WHILE and WHEN are included here.  Sequential Control: This is to let you move from one label to another without any conditions applied. (GOTO statement)  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Usage of SQL and PL/SQL Due to the detail-oriented nature of SQL and that it can directly interact with the databases), SQL statements are a great option for creating analytical reports. Since it writes DML statements, it also finds use in supporting applications where there is a need for simple updating. Essentially, it is designed for data manipulation and does just that.  PL/SQL is application-based and is primarily used to design applications such as building user screens or creating back-end logic for web pages. SQL is responsible for providing data for these PL/SQL based applications. PL/SQL can be integrated with Java and PHP to create complex logic.  What Is Parsing? Parsing is a step in SQL statement processing.  When an application defines a SQL statement, it does a parse call to Oracle. In this process, Oracle does these tasks: Tests the statement for semantic and syntactic validity Decides whether the process defining the statement has the right to run it Assigns a private SQL area for the statement. It is also determined whether a shared SQL area exists comprising the statement’s parsed representation in the library cache. If it exists, then the user process utilises this parsed representation and instantly runs the statement. Otherwise, the statement is parsed, and the following tasks are performed: The statement’s parsed representation is generated. The user process assigns a shared SQL area for the statement within the library cache and saves its parsed representation in that cache. You can better understand the difference between PL SQL and SQL when you know the dynamic SQL, as discussed below. Dynamic SQL in PL/SQL: Dynamic SQL helps you to write stored processes and anonymous PL/SQL blocks. The dynamic SQL statements are not incorporated into your source program. Instead, they are saved in character strings that are entered or developed by the program during runtime. This allows you to make procedures that are used for general purposes. For instance, dynamic SQL helps you to create a procedure that works on a table whose name is unknown until runtime. PLSQL also allows you to parse any DML or DDL statement through the DBMS_SQL package. It solves the problem of the inability to parse data definition language statements using PL/SQL directly. You can choose to execute a DROP TABLE statement from a stored procedure using the PARSE procedure provided with the DBMS_SQL package. Why should you use PL/SQL? You can better understand the difference between PL SQL and SQL if you know the importance of using PL/SQL. Suppose you want to update a salary record with a hike of 10% for all employees in the “Employee” table having 500+ values.  It is impractical to write the update command 500+ times and implement SQL query every time to update the records. This is where PLSQL proves to be useful. It simplifies this process in only two lines of code without interruptions. Any web application must conceal the implementation logic from its end-users. This is accomplished using interfaces in programming languages like C++ and Java. Identically, the database is the major module in Database intensive applications. Moreover, the SQL tables and queries are its implementation data. These modules are concealed behind the PL/SQL interface. As a result, it maintains scalability, correctness, security, maintainability, and abstraction for both the end-users and developers. PL/SQL also allows working with the triggers like Database level triggers, View level triggers, Table level triggers, and Session level Triggers.   Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Conclusion  As we know, PL/SQL is an extension of SQL and does what SQL does but on large volumes of data using functions, control structures and triggers. SQL only deals with the what of action while PL/SQL even tells you how. PL/SQL is a refined approach to deal with complex SQL problems. While SQL is better at data abstraction and portability, PL/SQL scores where performance and speed are concerned. Learn Online Software Development Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Bottom Line To conclude, it is obvious adding an extra skill to your portfolio is always a good idea. A wise man once said, “Knowledge never gets wasted.” And, to take a little credit, that wise man is me. By becoming proficient in SQL, you can expect jobs in game-changing industries like Finance, Web Development, Accounting, and Digital Marketing, to name a few. So expand your skillset and enter the job market with even more confidence! If you are curious to learn about SQL, PL/SQL, full-stack development, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s  Executive PG Program in Full Stack Software Development which is created for working professionals and offers 10+ case studies & projects, practical hands-on workshops, mentorship with industry experts, 1-on-1 with industry mentors, 400+ hours of learning and job assistance with top firms.
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by Rohan Vats

28 May 2024

7 Types of Keys in DBMS Explained
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Summary In this article, you will learn 7 types of keys in DBMS. Take a glimpse below.   Primary Key Super Key Candidate Key Alternate Key Foreign Key Composite Key Unique Key Read the full article to learn more in detail. What are the Keys in DBMS? A key in DBMS is an attribute or a set of attributes that help to uniquely identify a tuple (or row) in a relation (or table). Keys are also used to establish relationships between the different tables and columns of a relational database. Individual values in a key are called key values. Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. This blog will cover everything you need to know about the keys in DBMS and attribute closure to find the Key of any relation (table). Stick till the end of the article for some critical GATE questions on keys in DBMS. For example, every unique identification number is used to identify candidates in an educational institute. These can also help find all the available details maintained on the server about the candidate, such as their address, passport number, or phone number are keys unique to each candidate. Keys are imperative for analyzing and identifying data types. You can also consider doing our Java Bootcamp course from upGrad. Why are the Keys Required? A key is used in the definitions of various kinds of integrity constraints. A table in a database represents a collection of records or events for a particular relation. Now there can be thousands and thousands of such records, some of which may be duplicated. Featured Program for you: Fullstack Development Bootcamp There should be a way to identify each record separately and uniquely, i.e. no duplicates. Keys allow us to be free from this hassle. Let us take a real-life example of the database of each student studying in an engineering college. What attribute of the student do you think will uniquely identify each of them? You could refer to a student by using their name, department, year and section. Or, you can mention only the university roll number of the student, and you can get all the other details from that.  A key could either be a combination of more than one attribute (or columns) or just a single attribute. The main motive of this is to give each record a unique identity. Also Read: DBMS vs RDBMS  Different Types of Keys in DBMS There are broadly seven types of keys in DBMS. All these types of keys in SQL must be implemented appropriately for the relevant database to negate redundancy. Correct identification will lead to database accuracy, improving results in a limited time. Let’s explore these DBMS keys to learn more about what are keys in SQL. Primary Key Candidate Key Super Key Foreign Key Composite Key Alternate Key Unique Key Let’s look at each of them separately. 1. Primary Key If you’re wondering what is primary key in DBMS,  primary key is a column of a table or a set of columns that helps to identify every record present in that table uniquely. There can be only one primary Key in a table. Also, the primary Key cannot have the same values repeating for any row. Every value of the primary key must be different with no repetitions. Amid many details, a primary key is the most significant one to understand what are keys and what is primary key in DBMS. The PRIMARY KEY (PK) constraint put on a column or set of columns will not allow them to have any null values or any duplicates. One table can have only one primary key constraint. Any value in the primary key cannot be changed by any foreign keys (explained below) which refer to it. Examples of Primary Keys  In this example, the student ID is the primary key. StudID Roll No First Name Last Name Email 1 21 Alice Johnson alice@example.com 2 22 Bob Smith bob@example.com 3 23 Carol Taylor carol@example.com In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 2. Super Key Super Key is the set of all the keys which help to identify rows in a table uniquely. This means that all those columns of a table than capable of identifying the other columns of that table uniquely will all be considered super keys. Super Key is the superset of a candidate key (explained below). The Primary Key of a table is picked from the super key set to be made the table’s identity attribute. Examples of Super Keys  Here is a table with examples of super keys in a relational database context. Assume we have a table named Students with the following attributes: StudentID, RollNo, FirstName, LastName, and Email. Super Key Example Attributes Included Super Key 1 StudentID Super Key 2 StudentID, RollNo Super Key 3 StudentID, Email Super Key 4 StudentID, FirstName, LastName Super Key 5 RollNo, FirstName, LastName, Email Super Key 6 Email, FirstName, LastName upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4 3. Candidate Key Candidate keys are those attributes that uniquely identify rows of a table. The Primary Key of a table is selected from one of the candidate keys. So, candidate keys have the same properties as the primary keys explained above. There can be more than one candidate keys in a table. There can be more candidate keys than just one for any table, but they can never be empty. Every candidate key carries unique information and value. Besides these characteristics, a combination of attributes also works as a set of candidate keys. Examples of Candidate Keys StudID Roll No First Name Last Name Email 1 31 Alice Brown alice.brown@example.com 2 32 John Doe john.doe@example.com 3 33 Emma Davis emma.davis@example.com Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 4. Alternate Key As stated above, a table can have multiple choices for a primary key; however, it can choose only one. So, all the keys which did not become the primary Key are called alternate keys. Examples of Alternate Keys Alternate Key Example Attributes Included Alternate Key 1 RollNo Alternate Key 2 Email In this table: The primary key could be StudentID, which uniquely identifies each record. The alternate keys are RollNo and Email, each of which could also uniquely identify a record but are not chosen as the primary key. 5. Foreign Key Foreign Key is used to establish relationships between two tables. A foreign key will require each value in a column or set of columns to match the Primary Key of the referential table. Foreign keys help to maintain data and referential integrity.  Foreign keys are essential for maintaining a difference between two entities that might be linked with the same information but do not share similar information. In such cases, the tables are linked to maintaining a connection but do not entirely work as a replacement for each other. For instance, any individual working for the marketing department might have marketing department information in its employee table, but that does not mean the table can be similar to the department table held by the marketing department. Examples of Foreign Keys Department Table Dept code Dept name 101 Mathematics 202 History 303 Biology Teacher Table Teacher ID Fname Lname T001 Alice Johnson T002 Bob Smith T003 Carol Taylor Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 6. Composite Key A composite Key is a set of two or more attributes that help identify each tuple in a table uniquely. The attributes in the set may not be unique when considered separately. However, when taken all together, they will ensure uniqueness. The ‘concatenated key’ is another name for a composite key. Examples of Composite Key StudentID CourseID RegistrationDate Grade S001 C101 2024-01-15 A S002 C102 2024-01-16 B+ S001 C102 2024-01-17 A- S003 C101 2024-01-18 B In this table: StudentID alone does not uniquely identify a record because a student can register for multiple courses. CourseID alone does not uniquely identify a record because a course can have multiple students registered. The combination of StudentID and CourseID forms a composite key that uniquely identifies each record in the CourseRegistrations table. 7. Unique Key Unique Key is a column or set of columns that uniquely identify each record in a table. All values will have to be unique in this Key. A unique Key differs from a primary key because it can have only one null value, whereas a primary Key cannot have any null values. Among the seven types of keys available in the DBMS, a few other types of keys in SQL are also accessible. The key type is called Artificial Keys. An artificial has no relevance or meaning to the business but is often used to tackle conflicting data management situations. For example, if there is no attribute that comprises all required primary key properties or if the primary keys are complex. Employees Table EmployeeID FirstName LastName Email E001 Alice Johnson alice@example.com E002 Bob Smith bob@example.com E003 Carol Taylor carol@example.com E004 David Brown david@example.com In this table: Each EmployeeID is unique, but it’s not the unique key because it’s specifically generated for each employee and might not be used externally. Email is chosen as the unique key because it uniquely identifies each employee. No two employees can have the same email address in this scenario. A comparison of Primary and Unique key attributes in DBMS Keys play a significant role when it comes to DBMS Relational Algebra, with key in database . There are multiple categories or types of keys in DBMS with example. They include alternate key, super key, candidate key, foreign key, primary key and unique key in DBMS. Every class of key carries its significance and level of implementation in DBMS including simple key in DBMS. However, the primary key and unique key in DBMS are the most prevalent and most implemented ones. Here’s How the Unique key differs from the primary key in DBMS or key in relational database. Attribute Primary Key Unique Key Uniqueness Must be unique for each record in the table Must be unique for each record in the table Selection Chosen as the main identifier for a record Ensures uniqueness but not necessarily the main identifier Number of Keys Only one primary key allowed per table Can have multiple unique keys in a table Usage Main identifier for a record Provides an alternative unique identifier Example EmployeeID in an Employees table Email in an Employees table This table shows the differences between primary and unique keys in a database. It compares them based on how unique they need to be, whether they’re the main identifier for records, how many can exist in a table, how they’re used, and gives examples. Primary Key in DBMS and Concept of keys in DBMS The primary  DBMS key is a table infused with a single column that can identify every row individually. This key can enforce constraints of integrity to the particular table. One must also note that just a single primary key is allowed for utilization in a table. The primary key can implemented in the table but does not allow any Null or duplicate values and types of key. The value of the primary key present in the table fluctuates rarely. Therefore, it needs to be selected carefully where the alterations can take place in specific cases. The attribute of role number is never supposed to have a Null or a similar value. This is because every candidate enrolled in the institution can get individual role numbers. Henceforth, two candidates can never have relevant roll numbers. Every row included in the table is identified individually, along with the roll numbers of candidates. Unlike the case of a unique key in DBMS, one can consider the attribute of roll number as a primary key in this situation in .  The Most Critical Features in Primary Keys Before working with the primary key, check out some of the essential components of primary keys: There can be no room for duplicate rows when it comes to the case of Primary keys. Just one primary key can be used when working with the table. The primary key comprises no Null constraints. Primary keys can be formed from a single table or multiple fields of tables.  Unique Key in DBMS Constraints of the Unique Key in DBMS can determine the rows in entirely unique ways in relevancy or the table. The table can consist of more than a single unique key, different from the primary key. Constraints of Unique Key in DBMS can easily receive a single Null value when working with the column. The unique key constraints can also attain reference from the foreign key of any other table. It can be utilized when a user needs to incorporate the unique key constraints within a group of columns or a single column and does not come with a primary key. The attributes of roll numbers are assigned with the citizen identification and primary keys or types of keys in DBMS. They can get unique constraints where every entry in the column of citizen ID must be different. This is because every citizen of the nation needs to get their UIN identity similar to an Adhaar number. However, if the candidate has migrated to a different nation, in this scenario, then they would not get any citizen identification. The entry can often get a Null value as just one Null is accepted in the constraint of Unique Key in DBMS. The Main Properties of Unique Key in DBMS When asked, how many keys are there in DBMS, there might exist more than a single Unique Key in DBMS for the table The Unique Key in DBMS comes with many significant features. Some of them are demonstrated below. The unique keys treasure the liberty of receiving column-based Null values. These keys can be created from a single or more number of tables The foreign keys can be referred to as a Unique Key in DBMS if there is a need for reference or providing key attribute in DBMS. Determining the Key Values Are All Unique The Unique Key in DBMS can be imposed routinely or by default for ISAM, Hash or the B-tree tables by utilizing the process of modifying. Speaking of which, some of the sheer advantages of the unique keys include the following: A proper design of a database often offers a Unique Key in DBMS and helps in improving the overall performance. One can be easily sure about the addition of all information to the table that includes the Unique Key in DBMS. In most scenarios, the unique keys are a significant source of benefit when it comes to business organizations. Therefore, it is often a part of the systems of small, medium, and large-scale ventures belonging to various industries today.  However, as explained above, the primary key is not going to allow or receive any category of Null values. The table should include a single primary key, while the Unique Key in DBMS will allow the incorporation of Null values. The table can get just a single primary key, while multiple unique ones are on the table. The clustered index can be generated by default when the primary key can be identified, and the unique key creates a non-clustered index. However, it is imperative to keep in mind that the primary key can be considered as a Unique Key in DBMS. However, the unique key cannot be viewed as a primary key. Working With the DBMS Keys Successfully f your database management system supports foreign and primary keys, you will be able to work with power builder keys. Learning how to implement and execute the keys in DBMS in the right way is essential.  It is vital to check that your DBMS system is supportive of the leys that you are supposed to use. Users shall be able to use the foreign and primary keys to incorporate the referential authenticity of the database system. In this way, one can depend on the DBMS to ensure that only valid values have been used. This process is applicable in the case of specific columns rather than having to write the code for enforcing authentic values.   For instance, if you have two different tables known as Table A and Table B, the latter can comprise the head identification of Table A, which holds the identity of Table B’s manager. You will need to ensure that just the ID of the authentic table B is supposed to be incorporated into the table. The values that are valid for table A are the actual values for table B in the particular table.   In order to define and incorporate this type of relationship, you will need to identify the foreign key for table A that points towards table B. By placing the key in the proper position, the database system of management lets any value for table B that does not match with the value of table A. In order to get a more in-depth understanding of this process, one can look for cutting-edge DBMS programs. The suitable courses infused with pragmatic knowledge can also help you design your own database or create industry-centric DBMS documentation.  Functional Dependencies Now that we know a different kind of keys in DBMS, let’s see how to identify them when given a table from a database. For this, we use the concept of functional dependencies. A functional dependency (FD) is a constraint between two sets of attributes. This constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X], then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. This means the value of the X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y.  FD is denoted as X ? Y (this is read as “Y is functionally dependent on X”). The left side is called the determinant, and the right side is called the dependent. Closure of a set of Attributes A closure is a set of all possible FDs derived from a given set of FDs. It is also referred to as a complete set of FDs. If F is used to donate the set of FDs for relation R, then the closure of a set of FDs implied by F is denoted by F+. We will now define the closure of a set of attributes concerning a given set of FDs. It will help identify the super Key of the relationship and find whether an FD can be inferred from a given set of FDs or an FD is redundant. After finding a set of functional dependencies on a relation, the next step is to find the Super Key for that relation (table). Then we find out the set of attributes’ closure to decide whether an attribute (or set of attributes) of any table is a key for that table or not. The set of attributes that are functionally dependent on the attribute X is called Attribute Closure of X, and it can be represented as X+. Below are some rules needed to determine F+: Reflexivity: If X is a superset of Y or Y is a subset of X, then X ? Y. Augmentation: If X ? Y, then XZ ? YZ. Or If Z ⊆W, and X ? Y, then XW ? YZ. Transitivity: If X ? Y and Y ? Z, then X ? Z. Union: If X ? Y and X ? Z, then X ? YZ. Decomposition: If X ? YZ, then X ? Y and X ? Z. Pseudo-Transitivity: If X ? Y and YW ? Z, then XW ? Z. How to find Candidate Keys and Super Keys using Attribute Closure? If the attribute closure of an attribute set contains all attributes of relation, the attribute set will be super Key of the relation. If no subset of this attribute set can functionally determine all the relation attributes, that set will be the candidate key. Also visit upGrad’s Degree Counselling page for all undergraduate and postgraduate programs. Let’s discuss a few previously asked GATE questions to see the applications of attribute closure. GATE 2014 Consider the relation scheme R = {E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N} and the set of functional dependencies {{E, F} ? {G}, {F} ? {I, J}, {E, H} ? {K, L}, K ? {M}, L ? {N} on R. What is the key for R? (A) {E, F} (B) {E, F, H} (C) {E, F, H, K, L} (D) {E} Approach: We will check the attribute closure of all the options provided. The set whose closure will give us the entire relation R will be the correct answer. A: {E, F} + = {EFGIJ} ≠ R B: {E, F, H} + = {EFGHIJKLMN} = R  C: {E, F, H, K, L} + = {EFGHIJKLMN} = R D: {E} + = {E} ≠ R Both options B and C give us the entire relation scheme. However, we choose the minimal option to be the correct answer because a Candidate Key should be the minimal Super Key. Answer: B GATE 2013 Relation R has eight attributes ABCDEFGH. Fields of R contain only atomic values. F = {CH ? G, A ? BC, B ? CFH, E ? A, F ? EG} is a set of functional dependencies (FDs) so that F+ is exactly the set of FDs that hold for R. How many candidate keys does the relation R have? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 Approach: We will take the LHS of each functional dependency given in the question and find their attribute closures. CH+ = G A+ = ABCEFGH B+ = ABCEFGH E+ = ABCEFGH F+ = ABCEFGH So we see that closures of A, B, E, F have the entire relationship except for attribute D. So there is a total of 4 candidate keys AD, BD, ED and FD. Answer: B Learn Software Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? The Perks of Working with Functional DBMS Keys Enhanced Data Security and Information Sharing By offering rapid solutions to the queries of the database, the system of database management can encourage many quick and easy results. Not only that, in a short span of time, it can also provide more accurate information. The end users, such as the salesperson, can speed up the patterns and cycles of sales and attain more perfect results when it comes to sales prospecting. Therefore, a robust system of database management is a must when it comes to prospecting sales.  Robust Information Integration System Utilizing the system of database management can easily demonstrate how the procedure in a single facet of a firm can influence the other teams. An active and functional design of database management can effortlessly integrate the options for normalizing the information across several sources. This method is also applicable when it comes to getting rid of segments and duplicates. It also helps in enriching the sets of data that are in custom workflow.  Providing Reliable and Consistent Data Inconsistent information takes place when the various versions of the matching information exist in various spaces. For instance, if one team has a customer’s correct contact information and another team have the incorrect contact number. By utilizing the right and functional database system along with information quality checklists, one can ensure that the information is viewed and cleansed perfectly across your venture.  Helps Boost Productivity A cutting-edge system of database management can empower individuals to spend a tremendous amount of time on strategic and high-value tasks. It can significantly reduce the need and time for manual scrubbing notes. Comparison of 7 Types of keys in DBMS Key Type Uniqueness Selection Criteria Number of Attributes Usage Example Primary Key Unique Chosen as primary identifier Single Main identifier for a record EmployeeID in an Employees table Super Key Unique May contain more attributes Multiple Used to identify records EmployeeID or a combination of EmployeeID and Email Candidate Key Unique Minimal super key Single Candidates for primary key selection Email or EmployeeID in an Employees table Alternate Key Unique Not chosen as primary key Single Provides alternative unique identifiers Email in an Employees table Foreign Key Not necessarily unique References primary key Single Establishes relationships between tables DepartmentID referencing DepartmentID in another table Composite Key Unique combination Combination of attributes Multiple Formed by a combination of attributes StudentID and CourseID in a CourseRegistrations table Unique Key Unique Can be a candidate key Single Ensures uniqueness, not necessarily primary key Email in an Employees table Conclusion Keys and functional dependencies play a very vital role in designing a database. These concepts also help to find the difference between good and bad database design. The final process of removing redundancies and making the database efficient is normalization, which uses all concepts mentioned in this article. Keys’ characteristics of establishing integrity and identifying the relationship between two tables are their most vital feature, allowing users to edit data with precision while maintaining uniqueness. From alternate keys to composite, the goal is to separate the identity of each record through unique keys defining separate qualities. If you’re interested to learn more about full-stack development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development, which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects, and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.
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by Rohan Vats

28 May 2024

22 Best Angular Project Ideas & Topics with Source Code [Updated 2024]
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Summary: In this article, you will learn about 22 best angular project ideas & topics for all levels. Best Angular Project Ideas & Topics Soundnode Notepad application Angular Hello World project Angular Bare Bones project Data binding in forms Angular projects on local storage Customer service manager Admin Panel Framework AngularJS in Patterns Standard chat application Electronic musical instrument Angular 2 chess game URL shortener Interactive tables and grids in Angular AngularJS Google Maps (AGM) Angular CLI Storybook AngularSpree Compodoc NGX-Admin NGX-charts NGRX Read more to know each in detail. Angular Projects Angular projects offer a great way to build single-page client applications by implementing HTML and Typescript functionalities. So, if you are a beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time angular projects. An activity-based learning approach works best for understanding the architecture of web frameworks. So, let us explore what the Angular platform is all about.  Also, Check out our  free courses We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Angular projects which beginners can work on to put their knowledge to test. You can also consider doing our Python Bootcamp course from upGrad to upskill your career. Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind: why to build Angular projects? When it comes to careers in software development, it is a must for aspiring developers to work on their own projects. Developing real-world projects is the best way to hone your skills and materialize your theoretical knowledge into practical experience. The more you experiment with different angular projects, the more knowledge you gain. Also, check Full Stack Development Bootcamp Job Guaranteed from upGrad As you start working on angular projects, you will not only be able to test your strengths and weaknesses, but you will also gain exposure that can be immensely helpful to boost your career. In this tutorial, you will find interesting angular projects for beginners to get hands-on experience. In this article, you will find top angular projects for beginners to get hands-on experience on Python Get Software Development Course from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Top Angular Project Ideas: Beginner and Final Year Students 1. Angular Hello World project Hello, World offers a tremendous opportunity to hone your skills if you are just starting with Angular and Typescript. It contains a single module and component, creating an open environment for experimentation. Let us take a quick glance at the project’s structure: You will use package.json and npm to load Angular modules You will Typescript with tsconfig.json You can discover how to speed up load time and reduce scripts with Webpack and Ahead-of-Time compilation feature With a starter project containing just a single module and component, developers have an open sandbox for experimentation. Here, they can grasp key building blocks like data binding, directives, services, dependency injection and more at their own pace. Just outputting a dynamic greeting message opens the door to countless small tweaks reinforcing Angular capabilities.Even without advanced functionality, Hello World allows exploration into performance optimisation techniques like ahead-of-time compilation. Understanding what happens internally to bootstrap and render the app faster paves the way for building more efficient applications using angular projects with source code, and angular application example. Mentioning Angular projects can help your resume look much more interesting than others. Source Code: Angular Hello World project Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 2. Notepad application This is one of the excellent angular projects for beginners. A note-taking app is like a digital notebook where you can create and store notes. You can jot down text in the app and view it upon returning to the window, editing, or deleting the records if required. The notes are organized according to the dates when users have last opened them. A notepad project is a classic instance of Angular development in practice. You can build it with NodeJs, Angular CLI, and Bootstrap (using Node Package Manager).  The notes created in this angular new project can be related to the wholesaler’s data or the key points of your research stored concisely. This app helps you to organize the notes based on the time and date they were updated.  You can use technologies like Angular CLI, NodeJS, and Bootstrap to create your Notepad application. Source Code: Notepad application Read: Full Stack Project Ideas For Beginners 3. Angular Bare Bones project This project can teach you about Angular routing as a simple service or with multiple components. The easy-to-understand code makes it a popular choice among beginners. Here is a stepwise flow of the topic: Basic Node.js installation Angular CLI installation App dependency injection using npm App launch with a simple command Angular Bare Bones project shows Angular routing, which handles different routing components like RouterLink, RouterOutlet, RouterModule, and other imported routes. Its easy-to-understand code makes sure this project is suitable for Angular beginners. You may need a single feature component i.e. Barebones introduced with data dependency and flexible routing between the homepage and feature component. You need to install Node.js and Angular CLI (using npm install -g @angular/cli) for implementing this project. Subsequently, you need to run npm install for installing app dependencies. Finally, run the ng serve -o to start the Bare Bones angular new project depending on the event-driven Angular model. Source Code: Angular Bare Bones project 4. Data binding in forms The Angular Forms project is another starter assignment that can help you get acquainted with the inner workings of the architecture. It demonstrates the approaches of template-driven (with NgModel) and reactive forms and how they can be tied with a backend service. Additionally, it discusses various examples of custom validators, binding to different form controls, and accessing submitted data. This is one of the most straightforward Angular projects for you to work on. Validating user input serves as another common area to explore with Angular forms. Complex logic can augment templates through custom validators and error messages reactive to each keystroke. And validation pairs perfectly with communicating back-end errors from web services in real-time as users interact with forms. Field directives highlight problematic user entries while explicit error messages convey issues gracefully – no blinking console necessary! Between juggling multiple form styles, validation, business logic coordination and user experience polish, even a simple contact form starts feeling like a feature-rich single-page app. This breadth of practical application makes mastering Angular forms so fulfilling yet non-intimidating for newcomers. With some creativity, developers soon bind data effortlessly across mock services, templates and components simultaneously. Source Code: Data binding in forms Check out: Web Development Project Ideas 5. Angular projects on local storage This is one of the interesting angular projects. You can hone your Angular skills by replicating a project on the LocalStorage module. This exercise will help you grasp how to access a browser’s local storage with cookies fallback. You can also check out the NGX store library to get the hang of methods related to LocalStorage, SessionStorage, cookies, and injectable services. It adds Angular decorators for saving and storing variables and managing data changes.  Local storage plays well with server synchronisation, too, for hybrid online/offline modes. Queuing data mutations during disconnected periods and batch updating external APIs eventually keep both data sources consistent. Other creative potential usage involves local testing against realistic persisted mock data. Developers bootstrap projects without needing servers ready while still exercising full code paths. Such versatility within the browser unlocks a range of Angular learning possibilities – no backend required! Therefore, local storage presents a browser API for typical persistence needs and a springboard for training well-rounded Angular adepts comfortable building online, offline or hybrid progressive web experiences. Source Code: Angular projects on local storage 6. Interactive tables and grids in Angular You can use the Smart Table module to compose tables in a declarative manner (through a set of directives or plugins). These tables are lightweight (less than 4kb minified) with no dependencies apart from Angular. They also have built-in features for sorting, filtering, row selection, etc. The design is extensible and developer-friendly, facilitating modifications and customizations to meet your unique needs. Observable data sources means fluid updates when backend tables change. Push-button CSV exports automate reporting needs almost automatically. Row selection enables seamless editing workflows or record action commands. Expandable detail sections house contextual metadata. Soon ad-hoc enterprise database UIs require zero coding. Source Code: Tables and Grids in Angular 7. URL shortener This is one of the trending angular projects. Polr is an open-source web application written in PHP and powered by Lumen. It uses MySQL as the primary database and provides a robust interface to manage your links. You can host it on your domain to shorten URLs, brand them, and provide an overall modern theme. You can download and go through the Polr repository to familiarize yourself with the tool. You can even develop your own URL shortener along the same lines leveraging TypeScript, Express, and MongoDB.  Best of all the project complexity adapts smoothly from trivial to enterprise-grade with Angular’s capabilities. Basic versions store plain key/value pairs locally for building offline prototypes. More advanced implementations track geos and devices, integrate privacy controls, or display related links by topic. Sharing shortened URLs then enables integrating file sharing, social promotion and messaging too. Click performance analyzes campaign and channel attribution across networks. Integrating payments facilitates pay-per-click monetization or data sales. Source Code: URL shortener Top Angular Project Ideas: Intermediate Level Soundnode One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on angular projects for students is working on Soundnode. It is an open-source project that relies on the Soundcloud API to support music streaming for Windows, Mac, and Linux. Although Soundcloud lets third-party apps play only up to fifteen thousand tracks per day, you can still listen to the same number of audio pieces the next day. Moreover, apart from the display-and-stream functionality, you will get to search for new music with easy navigation, like tracks, create playlists, and follow/unfollow users.  You can build this Soundcloud for desktop application with Electron, Node.js. And Angular. The documentation is freely available on the GitHub repository.  Additionally, while the initial version interacts with Soundcloud’s limited free API, the core foundation established could evolve to support other services too. What begins as a basic music player could become a fully featured social community for music lovers one day. The possibilities are endless for where continuous open source innovation might lead. Providing real functionality instead of mocked up data drives rapid learning through engaging trial and error. Source Code: Soundnode 2. Customer service manager The tile of this project is ‘Integrating Angular with Node.js RESTful Services.’ Using MongoDB as the backend database, the application can perform CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operations. You can run it locally or use the Docker container option. Template-driven and reactive forms, custom components, and RxJS observables are some of the concepts covered under the scope of this customer service app.  Learn more: CRUD Operations in MongoDB: Tutorial with Examples Capable of running locally during development or as a containerized production deployment, this project checks all boxes to demonstrate a modern web stack. The Node API layer abstracts away data persistence details, while Angular manages presentation intricacies. This clean separation of concerns is what enables scaled, team-based delivery. With working REST endpoints, state management, routing and visuals wired up, developers have a flexible base prime for expansion. Numerous features, from reporting to real-time notifications, can build upon the core foundations for managing customers. The sky’s the limit when blending the efficiency of Angular with the versatility of Node and MongoDB. Source Code: Customer service manager 3. Standard chat application A typical chat application comprises three main models, namely: Message, Thread, and User. These models hold individual chat messages, metadata for a group of messages, and data on individual users, respectively. There are specific services to manage the streams for each of the models. To accomplish the goal, you apply Angular CLI, RxJS, write injectable services using Angular 2, and much else.  You can refer to a sample case here. Start by cloning the repo, change it into ‘repo directory’, and then, install and run to launch the project. This is an excellent angular projects for beginners. Source Code: Standard chat application 4. Electronic musical instrument Try your hand at a synthesizer pad capable of responding to user interactions. For this app, you could use the Web Audio API, which works in Chrome, Safari, and Opera. The API lets you create, load, and manipulate audio directly into your browser and turns it into a personal mini-studio. This is one of the interesting angular projects. Viktor NV-1 is a famous example of a synth that can be played with a keyboard, mouse, finger, and midi. You can also share and save presets with others. So, download the source code and fine-tune your AngularJS skills with this innovative device.  Source Code: Electronic musical instrument 5. Angular 2 chess game It is a plugin-oriented chess component meant for Angular applications. In other words, this module is a shell UI with plugins. Since numerous chess implementations already exist, a plugin system wraps up the work and saves time. Moreover, the Angular 2 chess game supports a variety of game variants. You can use the Engine plugin for games having different rules and the UI alternative for 3D and native implementations.  Under the hood, Angular handles UI representation by decoupling view presentation from the core model. Whether replicating paper play or building a full metaverse experience – the model persists unaware. The effort focuses strictly on responsive visual appeal. Truly this framework represents the tip of the chess possibilities iceberg. By combining Angular’s rendering speed with the virtues of composable plugins and services, developers enjoy endless potential for innovation within the chess ecosystem. All while honing genuine and transferrable skills in component architecture, business logic modelling, and tool creation that carry forward into ambitious future applications. Source Code: Angular 2 chess game 6. AngularJS Google Maps (AGM) This is one of the interesting angular projects to create. AGM is a CoffeeScript and Javascript-based library that allows you to set up Google maps within your Angular applications. It holds directives for a range of objects, such as markers, lines, windows, and shapes. You can easily find the source code for AGM as it is hosted on GitHub. Do make sure that you have installed Node.js before beginning with this project.  Underneath, developers need not master cartographic minutiae either thanks to Google’s cloud services. Fallbacks ensure graceful degradation if webGL canvas mode is unavailable. A focus stays on augmenting application functionality versus configuring yet another external system. Source Code: AngularJS Google Maps 7. Admin Panel Framework One of the best ideas to start experimenting you hands-on angular projects for students is working on admin panel framework. You can practice designing a customizable admin panel framework with the BlurAdmin project. This Angular2-based project uses Bootstrap, Sass, AngularJs, Jquery, charts, etc. It is an MIT-licensed solution that comes with easy customization, responsive layouts, and high-resolution templates – all available free of cost.  Soon, developers find themselves with an extensible Angular backend poised for both public and private portal integration. Menu systems connect modules with proper permissions, single sign-on fits integration needs, and theming/branding welcomes custom enhancements. Therefore, BlurAdmin grants aspiring Angular adepts a creative sandbox. It handles the grunt work of building an admin content management backbone so developers can focus on constructing engaging management experiences. All while exemplifying how modular component architecture enables scalable, performant and ultimately extensible database applications. Source Code: Admin Panel Framework Read: Web Designing Project Ideas & Topics 8. Angular CLI This is a popular command-line interface tool designed for initializing, developing, scaffolding, and maintaining Angular applications. With Angular CLI, you can create new projects that can run from the get-go. Angular CLI will help incorporate all the necessary elements in the project (based on the best Angular practices) so that it is ready to run immediately. And this is the perfect idea for your next angular project! The new projects you create will contain all the elements within a well-structured directory along with the source code. Moreover, Angular CLI also lets to run both unit tests and end-to-end tests. Source Code: Angular CLI In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 9. Storybook This is an open-source tool that is explicitly created for building UI components in isolation for Angular, React, and Vue. Storybook is unique as it can run outside of an application, thereby making it possible to develop UI components in isolation. When you build UI components this way, it improves the reusability and testability factors of an app and also boosts the development speed.  Storybook boasts of an easy-to-use API that you can configure in minutes and even extend to fit your dynamic needs. It includes numerous add-on features for component design, documentation, testing, etc. With Storybook, you need not worry about application-specific dependencies. It makes development easier and faster by isolating components. It helps you to work on one component at once. You can develop whole UIs without launching a complex dev stack, force some data into your database, or route around your application. Storybook helps you to develop complex pages and tiny atomic components in your web application. You can also use it to build a UI. It helps you to document components for reuse and visually test your components to avoid bugs. You can use a network of add-ons that allows you to fine-tune responsive layouts or validate accessibility. It integrates with famous JavaScript UI frameworks and supports server-rendered frameworks like Ruby on Rails. You can explore its features when working on a sample angular project. Source Code: Storybook 10. Compodoc If you are looking for an efficient documentation tool for your Angular apps, Compodoc is just the tool you need! Compodoc can create static documentation for all Angular applications. It can generate documentation for the standard Angular APIs, such as components, modules, common classes, injectables, routes, directives, and pipes. Compodoc has eight themes extracted from some of the most popular documentation tools, including Gitbook, Read the Docs, Vagrant, Stripe, Postmark, Laravel, and Material design. Also, Compodoc has a robust search engine, such as lunr.js, that can easily search and show the information you want to access. The best part – Compodoc provides out-of-the-box support for Angular-CLI projects. In Compodoc documentations, the content rests on the right side, whereas the primary endpoints are situated on the left side. It uses the elements discovered during parsing to create the table of contents in the documentation.  Compodoc is a CLI-friendly Angular project that helps you to create documentation of any digital products. It supports all famous APIs of the Angular framework. These APIs are modules, routes, directives, components, classes, and other obligatory elements of Angular. One of its best features is that it provides support for Angular-CLI projects. The built-in search engine known as lunr.js boasts user-friendly navigation that lets the developers access essential information in real-time. It can quickly search and show the information you need to access. Compdoc supports a total of eight themes. They can be accessed from efficient automation tools like Gitbook, Vagrant, Postmark, Read the Docs, Stripe, Laravel, and Material design. You can use any of these themes when working on a sample angular project. Source Code: Compodoc 11. NGX-charts NGX-charts is a declarative charting framework for Angular. It supports several chart types, including bar, pie, line, area, heatmaps, treemaps, and much more. What sets NGX-charts apart from other charting tools is that it doesn’t wrap d3. While it uses Angular to render and animate SVG elements with all its binding elements, it leverages d3 for its top-notch math functions, scales, and axis and shape generators. Since Angular handles all the renderings,  it brings forth tremendous possibilities for the Angular platform. NGX-charts are aesthetically appealing and you can customize the styles completely by using CSS. If you want, you can also create custom charts by using the different components of this tool that are accessible via the NGX-charts module. Source Code: NGX-charts 12. AngularJS in Patterns As the title suggests, this document contains information about design patterns that are used inside Angular frameworks. The paper lists and explains the fundamental concepts of object-oriented design and architectural patterns. In the process, it covers several AngularJS components, including directives, filters, services, controllers, scope, etc.  Angular doesn’t just adopt classic patterns; it expands upon them for the web. Stateful services enable centralized data stores to mirror the flyweight pattern. Hierarchical injectors allow for the easy management of wide object graphs. By the end, developers grasp how directives act as Revealing Module wrappers, or how two-way data binding reflects the Observer synchronization method. Each paradigm is now mapped to concrete Angular implementations. Moreover, the AngularJS Patterns guide shines light on WHY Angular code looks and operates the way it does. The method behind the magic gives developers the ability to not only use but extend the framework thoughtfully themselves one day. Source Code: AngularJS in Patterns Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses Top Angular Project Ideas: Advanced Level AngularSpree This is one of the interesting angular projects. AngularSpree is an e-commerce application. It is a plug-and-play frontend app for AviaCommerce API developed on Angular(7), Redux, and Observables & ImmutableJs. Although it was initially designed for AviaCommerce, you can use AngularSpree with any e-commerce app having an API interface, Magento, Opencart, and Spreecommerce. AngularSpree comes with a range of excellent standard features for e-commerce applications, including reading, sorting, managing coupons, and updating product lists, to name a few. Source Code: AngularSpree 2. NGX-Admin NGX-Admin is probably the most popular Angular project on GitHub. It consists of six beautiful visual themes (default, material dark, material light, dark, cosmic, and corporate), two dashboards (IoT and E-commerce), and over 40+ Angular components with 60+ usage examples. It comes with detailed documentation and enjoys GitHub community support.  NGX-Admin is perfectly compatible with Angular Material and Nebular (you can choose the best option from both). Also, it is relatively easy to integrate NGX-Admin with any backend of your choice, like Java, PHP, .Net, and .Net Core, among others. NGX lays rocksolid groundwork where newcomers can thrive immediately and experts can innovate long-term. Moreover, developers aiming to elevate admin skills should look no further. NGX-Admin will massively amplify productivity while exemplifying how world-class Angular apps come together. The savings in time and best practices pays unlimited dividends. Source Code: NGX-Admin 3. NGRX  NGRX is a host of Reactive libraries for Angular. It is a community-oriented Angular project. The NGRX Store provides Reactive state management for Angular apps based on Redux. It lets you unify the application events and derive the Reactive state via RxJS. There’s also NGRX Effects that offers the requisite framework for isolating the side effects from components by correlating the observables of actions to the store. On the other hand, NGRX Schematics eliminates the need for writing common boilerplate, thus, allowing you to focus solely on app development.  Source Code: NGRX Also Read: MEAN Stack Project Ideas for Beginners Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Advantages of using Angular Newer versions of Angular are significantly faster development tools than React and Redux. Due to its modern features and multi-platform capabilities, we can find many real-life examples of Angular projects around us. We have mentioned some of them below. Gmail Youtube TV Netflix Xbox Live Deutsche Bank API program The software industry has a high demand for professionals with Angular skills. It is one of the most widely used Javascript frameworks among technology-powered businesses. And the projects are not restricted to Fortune 500 companies and cash-rich enterprises. Even early-stage startups use Angular for client-side operations. So, it is one of the top skills to learn and master if you are aspiring to become a front-end developer or software engineer.  Here are more advantages of using Angular: 1. Easy to learn: People familiar with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript can rapidly grasp Angular. This framework benefits programmers with more opportunities in web development.  Many free courses and tutorials on Angular are available online.  You can quickly learn how to test and design your web application using these Angular courses and tutorials. You need less time on developing web applications after being thoroughly familiar with Angular. It is easy to develop an angular sample project because it’s easy to learn. The programmers don’t depend on third-party software to back up their applications. They can save a lot of time and resources when working on Angular projects.  2. A declarative UI: Angular uses HTML to define the app’s UI. HTML is an interpretive language. So, it is more intuitive and less complex than describing the UI systematically in JavaScript. The interface written in JavaScript is more robust to reorganise than that in JavaScript. HTML is also used to impact the app’s execution. The special HTML attributes determine which controllers to use for each element. The declarative approach simplifies app development similar to the WYSIWYG approach. 3. Two-way binding feature: Angular instantly synchronises the view and the model. Any change in the data in the model is reflected in the view. The model is modified as per the changes in the viewdata. The two-way data binding feature significantly streamlines the application’s presentation layer. So, it offers an easier approach to DOM display to develop the UI.  4. Real-time testing: The angular framework lets you efficiently test your web app. It supports end-to-end and unit testing. You can use its testing features to determine how to manage their dependencies. So, programmers can easily test their applications and identify flaws in an angular sample project.  5. Less coding: Using Angular means that you don’t have to compose your MVC pipeline. Angular uses HTML to present succinct and defined views. It is easy to compose data models. The data-binding feature eliminates the need for manually putting data into the view. The directives are dissimilar from the app code. So, another programming team can write them in parallel with minor integration issues.  6. Filters flexibility: Filters first filter the data and then pass it to the view. It supports functions like filtering an array depending on a parameter, reversing an array’s order, including pagination, or formatting a number’s decimal places. You can use any of these filter functions when working on an angular new project. 7. Optimised Server Communication: Connecting Angular apps to backend servers and APIs is a smooth experience. Features like the HTTPClient module handle all the complex networking code under the hood when fetching or saving data. There’s no need to worry about streams or low-level connection handling. Developers can focus on the application logic rather than implementing boilerplate networking code. It just works out of the box! 8. Code Consistency and Organization: Angular promotes good project organisation through its components, services, modules, and routing conventions. Following these consistent patterns makes navigating even the largest Angular codebases easy to find exactly what you need. The ecosystem is also robust, with endless third-party libraries that nicely extend Angular’s capabilities while fitting into the predictable Angular architecture. 9. Active Open Source Community: With Angular being one of the most popular frameworks, it has an enormous community contributing to its growth. There is a wealth of collective wisdom available online, including documentation, guides, tools and discussion forums. Whenever developers hit roadblocks, chances are that another user has faced and solved the issue already. The Angular community ecosystem drastically accelerates development and troubleshooting. 10. Model-View-ViewModel Architecture: Angular adheres to a logical component architecture that separates concerns into different layers: models hold business data and logic, views handle visual presentation and UI, and view-models are intermediaries connecting the two. This pattern yields many advantages such as promoting loose coupling between layers, allowing parallel workstreams and isolating changes for reduced regression risk. The MVVM architecture scales exceptionally well in the long run. So, here are a few Angular Projects which beginners can work on: Also visit upGrad’s Degree Counselling page for all undergraduate and postgraduate programs. Read: How To Implement Pagination in Angular JS? upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Angular Code Examples 1. Event Binding Event binding lets you listen for events like clicks, touches, keystrokes, etc. and respond to them by calling a method. You use round brackets to bind to an event. For example: “` <button (click)=”onClick()”>Click me</button>   “` When a user clicks this button, Angular will call the onClick() method that is defined elsewhere. This allows the application logic to react to events appropriately. 2. Property binding Another useful data binding technique is property binding. This allows you to set values for HTML element properties dynamically. By using square brackets, you can specify data to bind from your component: “` <input [value]=”userName”> “` Here, the value property of the input element is bound to the userName variable in the component class. When that value changes, the input will automatically update. 3. Loops with *ngFor and String Interpolation Displaying lists of data is very common in applications, and Angular’s *ngFor directive makes it easy to loop through arrays. By using *ngFor, you can tell Angular to repeat a chunk of HTML for each item: “` <div *ngFor=”let item of list”>   {{item.name}}   </div> “` This will display each item’s name property within its div. Everything from simple lists to complex grids can be constructed with *ngFor. Why should you practice Angular projects? Beginner software developers should practice Angular projects to learn more. You can develop real-world Angular projects to implement your theoretical knowledge into practical projects. You gain more knowledge if you practice more with various Angular projects. You can assess your strength and weakness when working on Angular projects.  It is better to begin with an angular sample project to identify and correct your flaws. You can use Angular for small projects. Its modular structure, built-in tools, and robust ecosystem make it suitable for both small and large-scale applications, providing scalability and maintainability from the start. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Steps to create a project in Angular: You can follow the below steps to get started with a sample angular project. Create a folder on your desktop and name it “First-Angular-Project”. Open that folder, and from the clipboard, you need to copy the folder path. Open Visual Studio Code. Open “Open Folder” from the “File” menu. Now select “First-Angular-Project” from the “Desktop”. Conclusion With this, we have covered the essential topics related to Angular development. In this article, we have covered 22 Angular projects. Besides knowing the framework inside-out, you should also be trained in TypeScript, npm, HTML, CSS, RxJs, and so on. We discussed the applications of all these tools to give you a well-rounded list. So, level up your coding skills with the above Angular project ideas and develop impressive applications with confidence! If you wish to improve your angular skills, you need to get your hands on these Angular projects. Now go ahead and put to test all the knowledge that you’ve gathered through our angular project ideas guide to build your very own angular projects! If you’re interested to learn more about full-stack software development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.
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by Rohan Vats

27 May 2024

Top 65 Splunk Interview Questions & Answers For Beginners & Experienced [2024]
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Splunk is one of the top load management and analysis solutions in the field of IT Operations. The tool is one of the top devops tools in the market always in high demand, and so are Splunk experts. And knowledge of splunk is one of the important requirement to become a devops engineer. Naturally, when it comes to Splunk jobs in the IT sector, the competition is pretty tough and challenging. So, if you wish to bag a niche job in Splunk, you must be ready to ace the Splunk interview. Worry not, for we’ve created a detailed post with the top Splunk interview questions that will not only help to sharpen your Splunk knowledge but also bag that job you’ve been eying! Keep these interview questions and Splunk answers in mind to excel in your interview rounds. Your Splunk answers must offer an in-depth insight into the technicalities, so make sure to read up on the technical aspects to prepare thoroughly for the interview! Without further ado, let’s get cracking on the top Splunk interview questions! Top Splunk Interview Questions & Answers  1. Define Splunk Splunk is a software platform that allows users to analyze machine-generated data (from hardware devices, networks, servers, IoT devices, etc.). Splunk is widely used for searching, visualizing, monitoring, and reporting enterprise data. It processes and analyzes machine data and converts it into powerful operational intelligence by offering real-time insights into the data through accurate visualizations. Splunk is used for analyzing machine data because: It offers business insights – Splunk understands the patterns hidden within the data and turns it into real-time business insights that can be used to make informed business decisions. It provides operational visibility – Splunk leverages machine data to get end-to-end visibility into company operations and then breaks it down across the infrastructure. It facilitates proactive monitoring – Splunk uses machine data to monitor systems in real-time to identify system issues and vulnerabilities (external/internal breaches and attacks). Check out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in Blockchain 2. Name the common port numbers used by Splunk. The common port numbers for Splunk are: Splunk Web Port: 8000 Splunk Management Port: 8089 Splunk Network port: 514 Splunk Index Replication Port: 8080 Splunk Indexing Port: 9997 KV store: 8191 3. Name the components of Splunk architecture. The Splunk architecture is made of the following components: Search Head – It provides GUI for searching Indexer – It indexes the machine data Forwarder – It forwards logs to the Indexer Deployment server – It manages the Splunk components in a distributed environment and distributes configuration apps. 4. What are the different types of Splunk dashboards? There are three different kinds of Splunk dashboards: Real-time dashboards Dynamic form-based dashboards Dashboards for scheduled reports Check out upGrad’s Full Stack Development Bootcamp 5. Name the types of search modes supported in Splunk. Splunk supports three types of dashboards, namely: Fast mode Smart mode Verbose mode 6. Name the different kinds of Splunk Forwarders. There are two types of Splunk Forwarders: Universal Forwarder (UF) – It is a lightweight Splunk agent installed on a non-Splunk system to gather data locally. UF cannot parse or index data. Heavyweight Forwarder (HWF) – It is a heavyweight Splunk agent with advanced functionalities, including parsing and indexing capabilities. It is used for filtering data. 7. What are the benefits of feeding data into a Splunk instance through Splunk Forwarders? If you feed the data into a Splunk instance via Splunk Forwarders, you can reap three significant benefits – TCP connection, bandwidth throttling, and an encrypted SSL connection to transfer data from a Forwarder to an Indexer. Splunk’s architecture is such that the data forwarded to the Indexer is load-balanced by default. So, even if one Indexer goes down due to some reason, the data can re-route itself via another Indexer instance quickly. Furthermore, Splunk Forwarders cache the events locally before forwarding it, thereby creating a temporary backup of the data. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   8. What is the “Summary Index” in Splunk? In Splunk, the Summary Index refers to the default Splunk index that stores data resulting from scheduled searches over time. Essentially, it is the index that Splunk Enterprise uses if a user does not specify or indicate another one. The most significant advantage of the Summary Index is that it allows you to retain the analytics and reports even after your data has aged. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 9. What is the purpose of Splunk DB Connect? Splunk DB Connect is a generic SQL database plugin designed for Splunk. It enables users to integrate database information with Splunk queries and reports seamlessly. 10. What is the function of the Splunk Indexer? As the name suggests, the Splunk Indexer creates and manages indexes. It has two core functions – to index raw data into an index and to search and manage the indexed data. 11. Name a few important Splunk search commands. Some of the important search commands in Splunk are: Abstract Erex Addtotals Accum Filldown Typer Rename Anomalies Also read: Splunk v Elk: Which one should you choose? 12. What are some of the most important configuration files in Splunk? The most crucial configuration files in Splunk are: props.conf indexes.conf inputs.conf transforms.conf server.conf 13. What is the importance of the License Master in Splunk? What happens if the License Master is unreachable?  In Splunk, the License Master ensures that the right amount of data gets indexed. Since the Splunk license is based on the data volume that reaches the platform within a 24hr-window, the License Master ensures that your Splunk environment stays within the constraints of the purchased volume. If ever the License Master is unreachable, a user cannot search the data. However, this will not affect the data flowing into the Indexer – data will continue to flow in the Splunk deployment, and the Indexers will index the data. But the top of the Search Head will display a warning message that the user has exceeded the indexing volume. In this case, they must either reduce the amount of data flowing in or must purchase additional capacity of the Splunk license. Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 14. Explain ‘license violation’ in the Splunk perspective. Anytime you exceed the data limit, the ‘license violation’ error will show on the dashboard. This warning will remain for 14 days. For a commercial Splunk license, users can have five warnings in a 30-day window before which Indexer’s search results and reports will not trigger. However, for the free version, users get only three warning counts. 15. What is the general expression for extracting IP address from logs? Although you can extract the IP address from logs in many ways, the regular experssion for it would be: rex field=_raw “(?<ip_address>\d+\.\d+\.\d+\.\d+)” OR rex field=_raw “(?<ip_address>([0-9]{1,3}[\.]){3}[0-9]{1,3})” 16. How can you troubleshoot Splunk performance issues? To troubleshoot Splunk performance issues, perform the following steps: Check splunkd.log to find any errors Check server performance issues (CPU/memory usage, disk i/o, etc.) Check the number of saved searches that are running at present and also their system resources consumption. Install the SOS (Splunk on Splunk) app and see if the dashboard displays any warning or errors. Install Firebug (a Firefox extension) and enable it in your system. After that, you have to log into Splunk using Firefox, open Firebug’s panels, and go to the ‘Net’ panel to enable it). The Net panel displays the HTTP requests and responses, along with the time spent in each. This will allow you to see which requests are slowing down Splunk and affecting the overall performance. 17. What are Buckets? Explain Splunk Bucket Lifecycle. Buckets are directories that store the indexed data in Splunk. So, it is a physical directory that chronicles the events of a specific period. A bucket undergoes several stages of transformation over time. They are: Hot – A hot bucket comprises of the newly indexed data, and hence, it is open for writing and new additions. An index can have one or more hot buckets.  Warm – A warm bucket contains the data that is rolled out from a hot bucket.  Cold – A cold bucket has data that is rolled out from a warm bucket.  Frozen – A frozen bucket contains the data rolled out from a cold bucket. The Splunk Indexer deletes the frozen data by default. However, there’s an option to archive it. An important thing to remember here is that frozen data is not searchable. 18. What purpose does the Time Zone property serve in Splunk? In Splunk, Time Zone is crucial for searching for events from a security or fraud perspective. Splunk sets the default Time Zone for you from your browser settings. The browser further picks up the current Time Zone from the machine you are using. So, if you search for any event with the wrong Time Zone, you will not find anything relevant for that search. The Time Zone becomes extremely important when you are searching and correlating data pouring in from different and multiple sources.  19. Define Sourcetype in Splunk. In Splunk, Sourcetype refers to the default field that is used to identify the data structure of an incoming event. Sourcetype should be set at the forwarder level for indexer extraction to help identify different data formats. It determines how Splunk Enterprise formats the data during the indexing process. This being the case, you must ensure to assign the correct Sourcetype to your data. To make data searching even easier, you should provide accurate timestamps, and event breaks to the indexed data (the event data).  20. Explain the difference between Stats and Eventstats commands. In Splunk, the Stats command is used to generate the summary statistics of all the existing fields in the search results and save them as values in newly created fields. Although the Eventstats command is pretty similar to the Stats command, it adds the aggregation results inline to each event (if only the aggregation is pertinent to that particular event). So, while both the commands compute the requested statistics, the Eventstats command aggregates the statistics into the original raw data. 21. Differentiate between Splunk App and Add-on. Splunk Apps refer to the complete collection of reports, dashboards, alerts, field extractions, and lookups. However, Splunk Add-ons only contain built-in configurations – they do not have dashboards or reports. 22. What is the command to stop and start Splunk service? The command to start Splunk service is: ./splunk start The command to stop Splunk service is: ./splunk stop 23. How can you clear the Splunk search history? To clear the Splunk search history, you need to delete the following file from Splunk server: $splunk_home/var/log/splunk/searches.log 24. What is Btool in Splunk? Btool in Splunk is a command-line tool that is used for troubleshooting configuration file issues. It also helps check what values are being used by a user’s Splunk Enterprise installation in the existing environment. 25. What is the need for Splunk Alert? Specify the type of options you get while setting up Splunk Alerts. Splunk Alerts help notify users of any erroneous condition in their systems. For instance, a user can set up Alerts for email notification to be sent to the admin in case there are more than three failed login attempts within 24 hours. The different options you get while setting up Alerts include: You can create a webhook. This will allow you to write to HipChat or GitHub – you can write an email to a group of machines containing your subject, priorities, and the body of your email. You can add results in CSV or pdf formats or inline with the body of the message to help the recipient understand the location and conditions of the alert that has been triggered and what actions have been taken for the same. You can create tickets and throttle alerts based on specific conditions such as the machine name or IP address. These alerts can be controlled from the alert window. 26. What is a Fishbucket and what is the Index for it? Fishbucket is an index directory resting at the default location, that is: /opt/splunk/var/lib/splunk Fishbucket includes seek pointers and CRCs for the indexed files. To access the Fishbucket, you can use the GUI for searching: index=_thefishbucket 27. How to know when Splunk has completed indexing a log file? You can figure out whether or not Splunk has completed indexing a log file in two ways: By monitoring the data from Splunk’s metrics log in real-time:  index=”_internal” source=”*metrics.log” group=”per_sourcetype_thruput” series=”&lt;your_sourcetype_here&gt;” | eval MB=kb/1024 | chart sum(MB) By monitoring all the metrics split by source type: index=”_internal” source=”*metrics.log” group=”per_sourcetype_thruput” | eval MB=kb/1024 | chart sum(MB) avg(eps) over series 28. What is the Dispatch Directory? The Dispatch Directory includes a directory for individual searches that are either running or have completed. The configuration for the Dispatch Directory is as follows: $SPLUNK_HOME/var/run/splunk/dispatch Let’s assume, there is a directory named 1434308943.358. This directory will contain a CSV file of all the search results, a search.log containing the details about the search execution, and other relevant information. By using the default configuration, you can delete this directory within 10 minutes after the search completes. If you save the search results, they will be deleted after seven days. 29. How can you add folder access logs from a Windows machine to Splunk? To add folder access logs from a Windows machines to Splunk, you must follow the steps listed below: Go to Group Policy and enable Object Access Audit on the Windows machine where the folder is located. Now you have to enable auditing on the specific folder for which you want to monitor access logs. Install Splunk Universal Forwarder on the Windows machine. Configure the Universal Forwarder to send security logs to the Splunk Indexer. 30. How does Splunk avoid duplicate indexing of logs? Among many, one of the common Splunk interview questions and answers for experienced is this. The Splunk Indexer keeps track of all the indexed events in a directory – the Fishbuckets directory that contains seek pointers and CRCs for all the files being indexed presently. So, if there’s any seek pointer or CRC that has been already read, splunkd will point it out. 31. What is the configuration files precedence in Splunk? The precedence of configuration files in Splunk is as follows: System Local Directory (highest priority) App Local Directories App Default Directories System Default Directory (lowest priority) 32. Define “Search Factor” and “Replication Factor.” Both Search Factor (SF) and Replication Factor (RF) are clustering terminologies in Splunk. While the SF (with a default value of 2) determines the number of searchable copies of data maintained by the Indexer cluster, the RF represents the number of copies of data maintained by the Indexer cluster. An important thing to remember is that SF must always be less than or equal to the replication factor. Also, the Search Head cluster only has a Search Factor, whereas an Indexer cluster has both SF and RF.  33. Why is the lookup command used? Differentiate between inputlookup & outputlookup commands. In Splunk, lookup commands are used when you want to receive specific fields from an external file (for example, a Python-based script, or a CSV file) to obtain a value of an event. It helps narrow the search results by referencing the fields in an external CSV file that matches fields in the event data. The inputlookup command is used when you want to take an input. For instance, the command can take the product price or product name as input and then match it with an internal field such as a product ID. On the contrary, the outputlookup command is used to produce an output from an existing field list. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? 34. Differentiate between Splunk SDK and Splunk Framework. Splunk SDKs are primarily designed to help users develop applications from scratch. They do not require Splunk Web or any other component from the Splunk App Framework to function. Splunk SDKs are separately licensed from Splunk. As opposed to this, the Splunk App Framework rests within the Splunk Web Server. It allows users to customize the Splunk Web UI that accompanies the product. Although it lets you develop Splunk apps, you have to do so by using the Splunk Web Server.  Learn Software Development Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. 35. What are the pros of getting data into a Splunk instance using forwarders? The benefits of using forwarders to enter data into Splunk include secure SSL connections, bandwidth throttling, and TCP connections for sending valuable data from a forwarder to an indexer. 36. In which form does Splunk stores its data? When asked In which form does Splunk stores its data, you can answer by mentioning Splunk stores data in a flat-file format. Based on the amount and age of the data, Splunk stores all data in an index and in hot, warm, and cold buckets. 37. Explain the map-reduce algorithm? To speed up data searches, Splunk employs the map-reduce method. It takes its cues from two functional programming constructs: 1) reduce () 2) map (). Here, the reduce () function is connected to a Reducer class, while the map () function is connected to a Mapper class. 38. Explain various types of data inputs in Splunk? The following list includes various Splunk data inputs: Using files and directories as sources Setting up network ports to start receiving inputs Include Windows inputs. There are four different kinds of windows inputs: the active directory monitor, printer monitor, network monitor, and registry inputs monitor. What are Pivot and Data Models? Pivots are used to build the front views of your output and choose the proper filter for a better view of this output. When processing enormous amounts of unstructured data in Splunk, data models are utilized to build a hierarchical model without running complicated search queries on the data. Data models are frequently used to build authentication structures for multiple applications, add access levels, and create sales reports. On the contrary, Pivots allow you to design numerous views and view the outcomes as you see fit. Even managers of stakeholders with no technical background can construct views and learn more about their departments with pivots. 40. What are Workflow Actions? One of the commonly asked Splunk interview questions and answers for freshers & experienced is this. In Splunk, “workflow actions” are knowledge objects with a high degree of configuration that let you interact with other areas and websites. Splunk workflow actions can be used to construct HTML links and utilize them to search field values, send HTTP post requests to particular URLs, and carry out secondary searches on particular events. 41. Which component of a bucket stores raw event data?  ‘Which component of a bucket stores raw event data?’ can most likely be asked by interviewers to test your in-depth knowledge. You can answer this in the following manner. Each bucket has a compressed journal in time-series index files. Splunk stores our unprocessed event data in the journal. It is made up of numerous smaller compressed slices, each measuring roughly 128kB. The index keys to our journal file are the time-series index files or TSIDX files. 42. Specify the command that is used for the “Filtering results” category. The following commands are used for the “filtering results” category: “where,” “Sort,” “rex,” and “search.” 43. List the various Splunk licensing types. Splunk licenses come in the following types:         Free license         Beta license         Search head license         Cluster member license         Forwarder license         Enterprise license Who are the largest competitors to Splunk? The largest competitors of Splunk are logstash, Loggly, LogLogic, sumo logic, etc. 45. What do Splunk licenses specify? They specify how much data you can index per calendar day. 46. How does Splunk determine 1 day from the licensing point of view? Splunk determines the time from Midnight to midnight on the clock of the license master. 47. How are forwarder licenses purchased? You need not purchase forwarder licenses separately, as they are included with Splunk. 48. What is the command to restart only the Splunk web server? The command is – Splunk start Splunk web. 49. What is the command to restart only the Splunk daemon? The command is – Splunk start Splunk. 50. What are the three Splunk versions? There are three different versions of Splunk available. Splunk enterprise, Splunk light, and Splunk cloud are the three available versions. Splunk Enterprise: Many IT firms utilize the Splunk Enterprise edition. You can use it to examine data from numerous applications and websites. Splunk Cloud: Splunk Cloud is a SaaS (Software as a Service) that includes features like APIs, SDKs, and apps that are similar to those of the business edition. Splunk lite: Splunk light is a free version that lets you search, edit, and create reports using your log data. Splunk Light has limited features as compared to its other versions. Explain Stats vs Transaction Commands. This is one of the most common Splunk interview questions for production support or splunk interview questions for soc analyst used in interviews to gauge a developer’s or engineer’s level of expertise with Splunk. The following two particular scenarios are where the transaction command comes in most handy: When there is insufficient difference between two transactions based just on the unique ID (from one or more fields). This occurs when the identifier is used repeatedly, as in online sessions where a cookie or client IP is used to identify the session. In this instance, the data is also divided into transactions using the time interval or pauses. A specific message indicates the start or finish of a transaction when an identification is reused, as in DHCP logs. When it is preferable to view the events as they are written together rather than breaking them down into their component fields. In most other situations of this splunk administration interview questions using statistics is preferable. The stats command can be utilized because of its improved performance, particularly in distributed search environments. The stats command can be used in the event that each ID is unique. Why should one use Splunk? Can they go for open source too? This type of inquiry is intended to gauge the extent of your knowledge. To answer Splunk interview questions for production support like this, mention that Splunk faces a lot of competition in the industry when it comes to business intelligence, security, executing IT operations, and machine log analysis. Nonetheless, Splunk is the only solution that can perform all of these tasks, and that is where Splunk excels right out of the box. With Splunk, scaling up your infrastructure is simple, and you can receive expert support from the business that developed the platform. Among its rivals in the cloud log management market are Sumo Logic and ELK in the open-source space.  Write the use cases of Splunk’s knowledge objects. This is among the most commonly asked Splunk interview questions for production support or splunk interview questions for soc analyst where you must answer in pointers. Here’s what to tell: : Employee Management: It has the ability to keep an eye on what employees doing during their notice period are doing. With this, we may compile a list of those individuals and establish a policy prohibiting them from misusing any private information belonging to the company. Physical Security: Knowledge items in Splunk can be used to address physical vulnerabilities. Knowledge objects can be utilized to obtain important information regarding earthquakes, volcanoes, flooding, and other natural disasters if your organization is involved in physical security. Network Security: By preventing particular IP addresses from accessing your network, knowledge objects’ lookup functions can be leveraged to improve system security. Real-Time Application Monitoring: Real-time application monitoring is made easier with the help of knowledge objects. To be informed when our programme fails or has any downtime, we may also set up notifications. Make Data Searching Simple: Instead of writing lengthy search queries, knowledge objects help us tag information, define event kinds, initiate a search with limitations, and condense the results to make them easier to recall, correlate, and comprehend. What is Splunk Query? This splunk interview questions and answers or splunk developer interview questions and answers helps you to get successful. Machine-generated data can have specified operations performed on it using Splunk queries. Splunk queries use SPL (Search Processing Language) to exchange data with a database or other data source. A multitude of functions, parameters, commands, and other elements exist in this language that can be utilized to get needed information from data provided by machines. Users can now execute queries to analyze their data in this way. It enables users to update, query, and modify data in databases similarly to SQL. Its main applications are in the analysis of log files and the extraction of reference data from data produced by machines. Businesses that need to handle and analyze multiple data sources simultaneously to provide findings in real-time will benefit most from it.  How would you create a geo-distributed Splunk architecture that manages data from several places efficiently while guaranteeing performance and adherence to local data privacy regulations? This is one of the advanced Splunk interview questions for production support or splunk siem interview questions that interviewers ask experienced candidates. Tell that a global organization faces a challenging but crucial issue when designing a geo-distributed Splunk architecture. The organization’s data privacy obligations and compliance laws in each area must first be evaluated. Since they may specify where data can be processed and stored, it is essential to comprehend these laws, such as the CCPA in California and the GDPR in Europe. Next, suggest a Splunk architecture that spans several sites. Ensuring that data from an area remains within its geographical boundaries as required by data privacy legislation requires the establishment of Index Clusters in each region.  For high availability and to manage the volume of data, these clusters would be made up of several Indexers. Replicating and forwarding data with Splunk is essential for effective data transmission between locations. This would guarantee compliance while enabling local data collection and processing. Compare search head clustering and search head pooling. When one search head goes down, Splunk’s high availability is made possible by search head clustering and pooling. Search head pooling is a long-standing feature that accomplishes the same goal as search head clustering despite the latter being recently added.  Search head clustering, on the other hand, is more dependable and efficient than search head pooling. Therefore, search head pooling will be eliminated in later Splunk releases. Define the MapReduce algorithm. These types of Splunk interview questions for production support or splunk siem interview questions seek answers like this ‘Faster data searching in Splunk is made possible via the MapReduce method. It is, in essence, a large-scale parallelization method that operates in batch mode. Well-known big data processing systems like Hadoop and Apache Spark employ it as well, drawing inspiration from functional programming’s map() and reduce() capabilities.’ What is Splunk Btool? On the Splunk Enterprise instance, the Splunk Btool command-line tool assists in identifying the parameters that are configured and where they are set. This command is helpful for resolving configuration file problems as well.  The Splunk software merges and loads configuration files to facilitate task execution by generating a functioning set of configurations. In addition to assisting with the file merging process, the Splunk Btool offers a report about the combined settings. What is file precedence in Splunk? File precedence is an aspect that developers, administrators, and architects must all take into account when troubleshooting Splunk. Most aspects pertaining to Splunk’s behavior are set via these configuration files.  Due to the layered nature of these files’ existence in directories, file precedence provides insight into how Splunk evaluates them. Splunk uses each configuration’s context to determine which configuration files are most important and how to arrange the folders. How does the data age in Splunk? Directories, usually referred to as buckets, are used to organize the material that is fed into an indexer. These pails go through several phases over time: from hot to warm, from cold to frozen, and then finally thawed.  The indexer traverses the event processing pipeline. There are two phases to it: parsing separates them into discrete events, and indexing puts these events into the pipeline for further processing. How can you assign colors in a chart based on field names in Splunk? Chart color assignments are necessary when generating reports and showcasing outcomes. The colors are typically chosen at random.  What if, however, you wanted to choose your own colors? For instance, you may require that the chart show the graph in red when your sales figures drop below a certain level. So, how will it be possible to alter the color of a Splunk Web User Interface? To change the panel settings from the user interface, you must first alter the panels that are created on top of a dashboard. After that, you can choose whatever color you want. You can also write code or input hexadecimal values to write instructions that select colors from a palette.  However, Splunk UI is the better option since it allows you to simply and flexibly assign colors to various values according to the types of information in the line or bar chart. Additionally, you can set your values into a water gauge or radial gauge and apply various gradients. What are the various kinds of Splunk products? This is another important splunk admin interview questions and answers or splunk basic interview questions. Splunk products are available in the following three versions as per the experts of interview questions on splunk. Splunk Enterprise: This software is utilized by several IT firms. This programme examines information from various websites, apps, gadgets, sensors, etc. With this program, you may search, analyze, and visualize data from your IT or business infrastructure. Splunk Cloud is essentially a Software as a Service (SaaS) platform that provides many of the same functionalities as enterprise versions, including SDKs and APIs. It is possible to track and sort user logins, lost passwords, unsuccessful login attempts, and server restarts. Splunk Light: You can see, search through, and update your log data using this free version of Splunk. Compared to previous versions, this one is less feature- and capability-rich. 63. What is a Splunk Tool? Splunk is a powerful software platform used for searching, monitoring, and analyzing machine-generated big data via a web-style interface. It captures, indexes, and correlates real-time data in a searchable repository, providing insights through reports, dashboards, and alerts. 64. How to Write Basic Splunk Queries? Basic Splunk queries are written in the Search Processing Language (SPL). A simple query example is: index=your_index_name | stats count by source 65. What are 2 Features of Splunk? Data Indexing and Searching and Visualization and Dashboards. Splunk Fundamentals: Key Concepts and Architecture It is crucial to have a solid understanding of Splunk’s fundamental concepts and architecture to excel in the interview. Let’s explore the essential elements of Splunk and its underlying architecture. Data Ingestion: Understanding how Splunk ingests & indexes data is fundamental. Explain data ingestion, the different data sources Splunk can handle, and the best practices for optimizing data input. Indexing and Search: Delve into Splunk’s indexing mechanism, including data parsing, indexing, and storing in buckets. Discuss the role of various index files and the search head in querying indexed data efficiently. Search Language: Splunk’s search language, SPL (Splunk Processing Language), is a powerful tool for querying and analyzing data. Discuss the basics of SPL, including search commands, functions, and how to construct effective searches. Splunk Data Models: Data models provide a way to accelerate data analysis. Explain the building of data models, their benefits, and how they facilitate faster searching and reporting. Splunk Apps and Add-ons: Explore the concept of Splunk apps and add-ons and their significance in extending Splunk’s functionalities for specific use cases. Discuss popular Splunk apps that the industry is using widely. Advanced Splunk Techniques and Real-World Use Cases Beyond the fundamentals, interviewers often seek candidates with expertise in advanced Splunk techniques and real-world implementation experiences. Let’s delve into some of the advanced topics and practical use cases. Complex Queries and Transformations: Demonstrate proficiency in constructing complex queries involving multiple commands, sub-searches, and transactions. Discuss how to use the eval command for field transformations and calculations. Splunk Data Onboarding: Share insights into handling large-scale data onboarding scenarios, including best practices for parsing and handling high-volume data streams. Splunk Enterprise Security: Discuss the Splunk Enterprise Security (ES) app and the app’s role in Security Information and Event Management (SIEM). Explain how ES assists in threat detection, incident response, and security monitoring. Machine Learning Toolkit: Showcase your knowledge of the Splunk Machine Learning Toolkit (MLTK) and its applications in anomaly detection, predictive modeling, and trend analysis. Splunk Dashboard and Reporting: Elaborate on creating visually appealing and insightful dashboards using Splunk’s dashboarding features. Discuss best practices for dashboard design and how to present data effectively. Real-World Use Cases: Provide examples of how Splunk has solved real-world challenges in various industries. Highlight specific use cases such as IT operations, cybersecurity, application monitoring, and business analytics. Best Practices and Performance Optimization: Offer insights into optimizing Splunk performance, including strategies for managing index size, search time, and resource allocation. Discuss best practices for maintaining a healthy and efficient Splunk environment. Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. Learners receive an average Salary hike of 58% with the highest being up to 400%. Conclusion We hope these Splunk scenario based interview questions help you get into the flow and prepare for your Splunk interview! If you are curious to know more about splunk and other DevOps tools, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s Executive PG Program in Full Stack Software Development Program.  
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by Kechit Goyal

24 May 2024

How to Rename Column Name in SQL
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Introduction We are surrounded by Data. We used to store information on paper in enormous file organizers. But eventually, we have come to store it online in what we call databases. This is where SQL comes into the picture.  It’s a language that speaks with databases. SQL stands for the structured query language, but it’s usually called SQL or Sequel. Essentially, it’s a language that helps us communicate with databases that store your data. On the off chance that you need to pull, alter, add data to an information base, you can utilize the language of SQL to do so. By altering data we mean, changing the table information that is created by us, like changing the row name, making change column name in SQL etc.  Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more If you’re about how it works, just think about a database as a warehouse, that’s how SQL works. Information tables act like file organizers and the actual information is like stored documents. Data is stored in this warehouse or database, and coding languages like C, C++, or Java are used to build warehouse databases. SQL is built to retrieve, manipulate, and access the data. Renaming a column name or table name is one of the most used commands on databases. SQL Server permits you to change the column whenever required. You need to rename column in SQL where the column name is meaningless or doesn’t meet its purpose. It should guarantee that ALTER permission is available on the object before you change column name in SQL. If you are wondering how to change column name in SQL server, you first need to be aware of the rules and restrictions.  Restrictions: Before you rename column in SQL, you must learn that SQL Server comes with certain restrictions. The reason is whenever you rename a column, all references to that column may not be renamed. So, you should manually change all objects belonging to the renamed column. Check out upGrad’s Java Bootcamp What is SQL?  SQL or structured query language is a programming language that stores and processes data in a relational database. This type of database is used for storing data in a tabular form, using columns and rows, representing the different data attributes as well as the different relations between the data values.  SQL statements can be used for storing, updating, removing, searching, and retrieving data from the database. This programming language can also be used for maintaining and optimizing the database performance.  Even though almost all database systems use SQL, most of these systems have additional extensions that can be only used for that particular system. However, standard commands like ‘insert’, ‘select’, ‘rename’, ‘change’, ‘drop’, ‘create’ etc can be used to accomplish several tasks.  The tables in SQL can be altered according to what you need. Among these, changing column name in SQL is a common practice. Later in this article, we will address how you can update column name in SQL with some of the keywords like ‘rename’ and ‘change’.  Let’s understand how to change column name in SQL with an example. Suppose you want to change a table’s column being referenced in a trigger. So, the trigger must be modified to show up the changes in the new column name too. Before changing the name, you can use the sys.sql_expression_dependencies to list the dependencies on the object.  RENAME is a crucial command that is one of the major parts of finding your answer to how to change the column name in SQL. Let’s get into a deeper understanding of how to use the RENAME command in SQL. Once you know about it, you will find out how to rename a column in SQL.  Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Check out upGrad: Full Stack Development Bootcamp (JS/MERN) Learn Software Development Courses online from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Creating a table in SQL  Before we learn how to change column name in a table, let us first learn how to create a table in SQL. To create a table in SQL, we must use the CREATE command. Let us see the syntax and query for it:  Syntax:  Line 1: CREATE TABLE table_name ( Line 2:    Column 1 name data_type,  Line 3:    Column 2 name data_type,  Line 4: ); Query: Line 1: CREATE TABLE Students ( Line 2:     SID INT PRIMARY KEY,  Line 3:     SName VARCHAR (20) Line 4:     Marks INT,  Line 5: ); Let’s input some data into this table using the INSERT command:  Line 1: INSERT INTO Students (SID, SName, Marks) Line 2: VALUES  Line 3: (1, ‘Harry’, ‘70’), Line 4: (2, ‘Rick’, ‘50’), Line 5: (3, ‘Martha’,’80’), Line 6: (4, ‘Gwen’, ‘60’), Line 7: (5, ‘John’, ‘75’); On executing the above query, the result is:  Table name: Students SID SName Marks  1 Harry  70 2 Rick  50 3 Martha  80 4 Gwen  60 5 John  75 How to Rename Column Name in SQL?  Without causing any alterations to the datatype, you will be able to change name of column in SQL. Altering a column name can help in maintaining consistency, improving clarity, or including new data requirements.  In order to change column name in SQL, you will have to use the ALTER TABLE command. It will allow you to modify the structure of an existing table. The specific syntax might vary according to the DBMS in use.  General steps to change column name in SQL:  Step 1: Using the correct SQL command-line interface, connect to your database. Make sure that you can perform column name change in SQL existing table structure.  Step 2: Make sure that the table and column you want to rename are present.  Step 3: The ALTER TABLE command is used to change column name in SQL. To change a column name, you need to use the appropriate command specific to your database along with ALTER TABLE.  Step 4: Use the RENAME COLUMN or CHANGE command (according to your DBMS), to notify that you want to rename column name in SQL. Specify the current name of the column and the new name that you want. Step 5: Once the statement has been created, execute it to rename the column. Make sure that the statement is free of any errors and syntactically correct.  About the RENAME command in SQL What is RENAME command in SQL?  In often situations database administrators prefer changing the name of the table to the relevant one and here comes RENAME command. If you are wondering how to change column name in SQL server, this order is utilized to change the name of a column to another column name. It is likewise used to change the name of a table to another table name. Let us see how to utilize these keywords in various databases. Let us consider the below table to understand all the examples: Renaming Column Name in SQL The syntax to rename a column name in MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, and PostgreSQL is the same. 1. Renaming a column name using the ALTER keyword. Syntax: Line 1: ALTER TABLE TableName Line 2: RENAME COLUMN OldColumnName TO NewColumnName;         For Example: Write a query to rename the column name “SID” to “StudentsID”. Line 1: ALTER TABLE Students; Line 2: RENAME COLUMN SID TO StudentsID; On executing the above query, you will see the following output: Output: StudentsID SName Marks 1 Harry 70 2 Rick 50 3 Martha 80 4 Gwen 60 5 John 75  2. Renaming a column name using the CHANGE keyword. Syntax Line 1: ALTER TABLE TableName Line 2: CHANGE COLUMN OldColumnName NewColumnName Data Type; For Example: Write a query to rename the column name “SID” to “StudentsID”. Line 1: ALTER TABLE Students; Line 2: CHANGE COLUMN SID StudentsID INT; On executing this query, you will see the output the same as the above. Must Read: SQL Project Ideas Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript The Rename Column Name in MS SQL Server The technique to rename a section name in MS SQL Server is distinctive when contrasted with different databases. In MS SQL Server, you should utilize the stored procedure methodology called sp_rename. The technique to rename a section name in MS SQL Server is distinctive when contrasted with different databases. In MS SQL Server, you should utilize the stored procedure methodology called sp_rename. The standard stored procedure known as sp_rename modifies a user-created object’s name in the existing database. If you know how to rename column name in SQL server, also note that the user-created object can be a column, table, alias data type, index, etc. Stored procedures and scripts may be broken when we alter a certain part of an object’s name. It is recommended to drop the object and reform it using the new name instead of using this statement to alter the name of user-defined functions, triggers, views, stored procedures, etc. Syntax: Line 1: sp_rename ‘TableName.OldColumnName’, ‘New ColumnName’, ‘COLUMN’; For Example: Write a query to rename the column name “SID” to “StudentsID”. Line 1:  sp_rename ‘Students.SID’, ‘StudentsID’, ‘COLUMN’; Output: StudentsID SName Marks 1 Harry 70 2 Rick 50 3 Martha 80 4 Gwen 60 5 John 75 Renaming Multiple Columns in SQL  With MYSQL, you can rename column name in SQL with a single command. This can be done with the same RENAME TABLE and the CHANGE command.  Let us see the syntax for both:  Syntax for RENAME TABLE:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name Line 2: RENAME COLUMN old_column_name1 to new_column_name1, Line 3: RENAME COLUMN old_column_name2 to new_column_name2, Line 4: RENAME COLUMN old_column_name3 to new_column_name3; Syntax for CHANGE:  Line1: ALTER TABLE table_name Line 2: CHANGE old_column_name1 to new_column_name1, Line 3: CHANGE old_column_name2 to new_column_name2, Line 4: CHANGE old_column_name3 to new_column_name3; We will see an example of the same later in the blog. Now, that you know how to rename a column name in various databases, let us also understand how renaming a table name works. You can understand the practical implementation of how to rename column name in SQL server in the below ways: In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses What is the SELECT Command? The SELECT command in SQL is used for selecting data from a pre-existing table. Let us see the syntax and an example to understand.  Syntax:  Line 1: SELECT column_name FROM table_name; If you want to return all columns on a table, without having to mention every column’s name, you can use the SELECT* command.  Rename a table name To rename a table name in MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle databases, the RENAME command can used in SQL as: Syntax: Line 1: ALTER TABLE OldTableName Line 2: RENAME TO NewTableName; For Example: Line 1: ALTER TABLE Students Line 2: RENAME TO ListOfStudents; On executing the below SELECT query, you will get the complete details of the table ListOfStudents. Query: Line 1: SELECT * FROM ListOfStudents; Output: StudentsID SName Marks 1 Harry 70 2 Rick 50 3 Martha 80 4 Gwen 60 5 John 75 Also Read: SQL Interview Questions & Answers Here are several other methods to rename column name in SQL server:  Rename a column using Object Explorer Rename a column using Table Designer iii. Rename a column using Double click on the column name  Let’s understand each of them:  Rename a column using Object Explorer: Here are the steps to rename column name in SQL server using Object Explorer:  Step-1: Open the ‘Tables’ menu from ‘Databases’ and expand it. Step-2: Choose the specific table and expand it. Step-3: Choose the columns and expand them. Step-4: Now, right-click on the column name you want to modify and choose the ‘Rename’ option. Step-5: Give a new name to your selected column. Step-6: Refresh the table or database to complete the renaming steps. Step-7: Implement the SELECT statement to confirm the changed column name.  Steps to rename a column using Table Designer Here are the steps explaining how to change column name in SQL using Table Designer:  Step-1: Open the ‘Tables’ menu from ‘Databases’ and expand it. Step-2: Choose the specific table wherein you wish to modify the column name. Now you need to open the ‘Context’ menu and choose the ‘Design’ option. You will see the table in design mode. Step-3: Choose columns whose names you want to change. Give them a new name. Step-4: Click the ‘Close’ button and then the ‘Yes’ button in the pop-up window to save the changes you did in the design window. Note: You can also save the changes done in the design window. Open the ‘File’ menu, press CTRL+S on the keyboard, or click on the ‘Save table name’. Step-5: Implement the SELECT statement to confirm the changed column name.  iii. Steps to rename a column using Double click on the column name: Here are the steps explaining how to change column name in SQL by Double click on the column name:  Step-1: Follow this path: Databases > Tables > Columns. Step-2: Choose the column name you want to change and then double-click. Step-3: Give a name to your selected column. Step-4: Refresh the table or database to complete the renaming steps. Step-5: Implement the SELECT statement to confirm the changed column name. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? blogs Exceptions/Errors when renaming a column in SQL  If you are trying to update column name in SQL, certain errors or exceptions could arise while renaming a column. Let us take a look at some of them:  Duplicate name: When changing column name in SQL you need to make sure that there isn’t a column with the same name. If there is, SQL will show an exception.  Does not exist: If you rename column name in SQL which does not exist in the table, then SQL will show a does not exist exception.  Index constraints: If the column you are trying to rename is a part of an index, then there is going to be some problem in the operation. To surpass this issue, you need to drop the index, change column name, and recreate the index.  Permission exceptions: SQL will show an exception if you try to rename a column without having modification permission on the table/database.  Foreign key constraints: If the column you are trying to rename has some foreign key constraints, then the key needs to be first dropped and only then you can perform column name change in SQL.  Other Actions With ALTER TABLE Here are some other commands that you can execute with the ALTER TABLE command.  Adding a column in SQL  To add columns to an existing table, you can use the ALTER TABLE command, the name of the table, and the datatype. The syntax for adding a column is as follows:  Syntax:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name Line 2: ADD column_name datatype;  For example:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE ListOfStudents  Line 2: ADD Age INT;  Line 3: SELECT*FROM ListOfStudents; On executing this query, the output is:  Table name: ListOfStudents  SID SName Marks  Age 1 Harry  70 2 Rick  50 3 Martha  80 4 Gwen  60 5 John  75 Adding multiple columns in SQL Using the same syntax listed above, you can add multiple columns to your existing table:  Syntax:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name Line 2: ADD column_1_name datatype Line 3: ADD column_2_name datatype; Query:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE ListOfStudents  Line 2: ADD Age INT;  Line 3: ADD PhoneNumber VARCHAR (20),  Line 4: ADD Gender VARCHAR (1), Line 5: SELECT*FROM ListOfStudents; Output:  Table name: ListOfStudents SID SName Marks  Age PhoneNumber Gender  1 Harry  70 2 Rick  50 3 Martha  80 4 Gwen  60 5 John  75 Deleting columns in SQL  Now that you know how to add a column in SQL, you should also know how to delete any particular column. This is done with the help of the ALTER TABLE command and the DROP command. Let us understand the syntax:  Syntax:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name;  Line 2: DROP column_name;  Query:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE ListOfStudents Line 2: DROP COLUMN PhoneNumber Line 3: SELECT*FROM ListOfStudents; On executing this query, the output is as follows:  Output:  Table name: ListOfStudents SID SName Marks  Age Gender  1 Harry  70 2 Rick  50 3 Martha  80 4 Gwen  60 5 John  75 Alter the datatype in SQL  Apart from changing column name in SQL, you can also change the pre-existing datatype of a column in a table. Let us see the syntax to understand better:  Syntax:  For MS Access/SQL Server:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name  Line 2: ALTER COLUMN name_of_column datatype;  For Oracle (before 10G version)/My SQL:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name  Line 2: MODIFY COLUMN name_of_column datatype;  For Oracle 10G and next versions: Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name  Line 2: MODIFY name_of_column datatype;  Change Column Name in PostgreSQL  Just like you change name of column in SQL, in PostgreSQL, you need to do the same thing. For understanding, let us take another table for example:  Table name: Employees  Employee_ID  Name Age Gender Phone_Number 1 John  35 Male  1111111111 2 Luke  27 Male  2222222222 3 Sarah  31 Female  3333333333 4 Jennifer  25 Female  4444444444 5 Joe  39 Male  5555555555 6 Caroline 32 Female  6666666666 7  Teddy  29 Male 7777777777 Syntax:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE table_name  Line 2: RENAME COLUMN old_column_name to new_column_name  Query:  Line 1: ALTER TABLE Employees  Line 2: RENAME COLUMN Name TO Employee_Name  Line 3: SELECT*FROM Employee; On executing this query, the output is:  Table name: Employees  Employee_ID  Employee_Name Age Gender Phone_Number 1 John  35 Male  1111111111 2 Luke  27 Male  2222222222 3 Sarah  31 Female  3333333333 4 Jennifer  25 Female  4444444444 5 Joe  39 Male  5555555555 6 Caroline 32 Female  6666666666 7  Teddy  29 Male 7777777777 Conclusion With that, we conclude this article on the renaming of a column name in SQL. You will find these methods much more useful and simpler after more hands-on practice. If you wish to study MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, and PostgreSQL become more acquainted with this open-source social information base, take a look at upGrad courses that accompany genuine task insight. It will assist you with learning inside and out and help you master the subject. All in all, learning and getting hands-on practice on all the databases mentioned in this article will add to your experience. Go through the course overview, learning, and job opportunities involved with it—platforms like upGrad offer power-packed courses designed by the highly reputed institutes like IIIT-B in Full Stack Development. You get to be a part of an extensive network and meet a lot of people working in the same domain. Also, you are mentored by industry experts who resolve your doubts and support you every time. And one of the unique things you get is that at upGrad, you can opt for a No Cost EMI option and go easy on your pockets.
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by Rohan Vats

22 May 2024

Types of Views in SQL | Views in SQL [2024]
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Writing complex SQL queries and securing database access are the challenges that Database Administrators and Users always face, and these queries can become very complicated. Using a proxy over the original table helps in simplifying such queries. Also, there are cases in which the administrator wants to limit direct access to the database. For both these circumstances, views can be used. Here is a look into understanding what a view is in terms of SQL and also elaborating on the varied kinds and formats. Check out Advanced Certification in Cloud Computing What is a View? SQL has a special version of tables called View, which is a virtual table that is compiled in runtime. A View is just an SQL statement, and the data associated with it is not physically stored in the view but is stored in the base tables of it. Also, check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. Learn to build applications like Swiggy, Quora, IMDB and more It can contain all the rows and columns of a table or only a few selected rows and columns if there is a need to restrict the access. Depending on the written SQL query used to create the view, it can be created from one or many tables. Views can be used to structure data in ways for users to find it natural, simplify complex queries, restrict access to data, and summarize data from several tables to create reports. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Check out Full Stack Development Bootcamp In order to understand the 4 views used in database, it is essential to clarify what a database view is. The database view is a type of database subset based on any query running on a single or multiple database tables. All of the 4 views used in database get saved in a database, as are the named queries. These 4 views used in database are used for saving frequently used as well as complex queries. Understanding Broad Types Of Views There are two types of views for a database. These are called dynamic and static views. The form view types contain data from a single or two tables at the most. This automatically includes all columns from a specific table or from several tables. The dynamic views from the types of views get updated in an automated manner when the related objects or the extended objects get created or changed. This is a classic characteristic. These views can contain data from multiple tables, and all required column from such tables needs to be specified in SELECT as well as under the WHERE clauses of the static view. These static views need to be manually updated on creation or change in the related objects or the extended objects. Read: Rename Column Name in SQL Managing Views There are different aspects related to managing views, which are defined here. Creating view: Views can be created using the “create view” statement. The view is defined by a query that references materialized views, tables, or other views. Renaming view: Views can be renamed, and it should be ensured that all objects that reference the old name of the view now should have a new name. Listing views: All the views in the SQL Server Database can be listed by querying the system catalog view. Removing view: Using the “drop view” statement, an existing view can be removed. Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses Read: SQL vs PlSQL Enrol in Online Software Development Courses from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. Types of Views in SQL Learning about view and its types in DBMS is essential for any database administrator or backend developer. Once you learn how many types of views are there in DBMS and are able to use SQL to effectively manage your data for various operations, you will become get one step closer to to becoming an expert in database management. There are two types of views in the SQL Server, namely System Defined Views and User Defined Views. This section contains a description of these two types. The two types of views in SQL server offer many essential views that fall under them with unique features. System Defined Views, provided by the database system, offer insights into database structure and system performance. User Defined Views, created by users or administrators, allow for customized virtual representations of data, enhancing query simplicity and security. Both types contribute to the flexibility and usability of SQL Server databases, empowering users with a range of tools for data exploration and management. Let us learn about these two types of views in SQL server in more detail. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses System Defined Views The System Defined Views are predefined views that already exist in the SQL Server database, such as Tempdb, Master, and temp. Each of the databases has its own properties and functions. The template database for all User Defined views is from the Master database. It contains many predefined views that are templates for tables and other databases. It contains nearly 230 of the predefined views. System Defined Views will be automatically attached to all User Defined databases. And these provide information about the database, tables, and all the properties of the database and tables. There are three types of System defined views, Information Schema, Catalog View, and Dynamic Management View. Information Schema There are twenty different schema views in the SQL server. They are used to display the physical information of the database, such as tables, constraints, columns, and views. This view starts with INFORMATION_SCHEMA and followed by the View Name. INFORMATION_SCHEMA.CHECK_CONSTRAINTS is used to receive information about any constraint available in the database. A constraint is used on a particular column in a table to ensure that certain data rules are followed for the column. INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS is used to receive information about the table columns such as table name, column name, the position of the column, default value, etc. To return the views present in the current database, INFORMATION_SCHEMA.VIEWS is used. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES view is employed to obtain information about tables within the current database. It includes details such as the table name, table type (base table or view), and the schema to which the table belongs. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_CONSTRAINTS view is utilized for retrieving information about constraints applied to tables. It presents details such as the constraint name, constraint type (e.g., primary key, foreign key), and the associated table. For insights into columns that are part of key constraints, the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE view provides information about the constraint name, table name, and the column included in the constraint. Focused on relationships between tables, the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS view delivers information about referential constraints. It includes details about the foreign key and primary key involved in the relationship. For stored procedures, functions, and triggers, the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.ROUTINES view supplies information such as the routine name, routine type, and the schema to which the routine belongs. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARAMETERS view is utilized to gather information about parameters associated with stored procedures and functions. It includes details such as parameter name, data type, and the routine to which the parameter belongs. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Catalog View These are used to return information used by the SQL server. Catalog views provide an efficient way to obtain, present, and transform custom forms of information. But they do not include any information about backup, replication, or maintenance plans, etc. These views are used to access metadata of databases, and the names and column names are descriptive, helping a user to query what is expected. Catalog views in SQL Server serve as a vital component for database administrators, developers, and analysts, offering a structured and user-friendly approach to accessing essential metadata. Unlike Dynamic Management Views (DMVs), which focus on runtime server statistics, catalog views concentrate on providing a static snapshot of the database’s structure and characteristics. One notable advantage of catalog views is their efficiency in delivering information. They provide a reliable means of obtaining and presenting custom forms of data without the need for complex queries or extensive parsing. This efficiency is particularly valuable when users need to explore the database schema, understand object dependencies, or analyze the underlying structure of the data. Despite their usefulness, it’s important to recognize that catalog views have specific limitations. Notably, they do not cover information related to administrative aspects such as backup history, replication status, or maintenance plans. Administrators seeking insights into these areas will need to turn to other system views and tools dedicated to administrative tasks. The user-friendly nature of catalog views stems from their descriptive naming conventions and column names. This feature significantly enhances the usability of these views, as users can intuitively understand the purpose of each view and the information it provides. For instance, sys.objects is a commonly used catalog view that provides details about all objects in the database, including tables, views, and procedures. Dynamic Management View These were introduced in the SQL server in 2005. The administer can get information about the server state to diagnose problems, monitor the health of the server instance, and tune performance through these views. The Server-scoped Dynamic Management View is only stored in the Master database, whereas the Database-scoped Dynamic Management View is stored in each database. Dynamic Management Views (DMVs) play a crucial role in providing administrators with valuable insights into the internal workings of SQL Server. These views offer a dynamic and real-time perspective on server and database activities, allowing administrators to make informed decisions for performance tuning, monitoring, and problem diagnosis. Server-scoped DMVs are stored exclusively in the Master database. These views provide a comprehensive overview of the entire SQL Server instance, including system-wide performance metrics, resource utilization, and current server state. On the other hand, Database-scoped DMVs are stored in each individual database. These views focus on the specific activities and performance metrics within a particular database, offering insights into query execution, index usage, and other database-specific details.  DBAs (Database Administrators) leverage DMVs for various purposes, such as identifying performance bottlenecks, troubleshooting issues, and optimizing query execution plans. For instance, sys.dm_exec_query_stats provides statistics on the execution of queries, helping administrators pinpoint inefficient queries and optimize them for better performance. DMVs are read-only and do not impact the system’s performance. However, users must have the necessary permissions to query these views. Additionally, as SQL Server evolves with each version, new DMVs may be introduced, offering enhanced capabilities and insights. User Defined Views These are the types of views that are defined by the users. There are two types under User Defined views, Simple View and Complex View. Simple View These views can only contain a single base table or can be created only from one table. Group functions such as MAX(), COUNT(), etc., cannot be used here, and it does not contain groups of data. By using Simple View, DML operations can be performed. Insert, delete, and update are directly possible, but Simple View does not contain group by, pseudocolumn like rownum, distinct, columns defined by expressions. Simple view also does not include NOT NULL columns from the base tables. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Simple Views lack the capability to include a GROUP BY clause. This means that the data presented in the view is not organized into groups based on specific column values. Any grouping or aggregation must be handled at the level of the base table. Pseudocolumns such as ROWNUM, which are often used for row identification or filtering, cannot be directly included in a Simple View. Any requirements for such pseudocolumns need to be addressed at the level of the base table or through other means. The DISTINCT keyword, commonly used to retrieve unique values from a result set, is not applicable within a Simple View. If distinct values are needed, alternative approaches or more complex views may be necessary. Simple Views do not support the inclusion of columns defined by expressions. Columns that involve calculations or complex expressions need to be derived from the base table itself, as they cannot be directly incorporated into the view definition. While Simple Views provide a convenient way to interact with data, they do not consider the NOT NULL constraints of columns in the base table. Users must be aware that NULL values might be present in the view, even for columns that are designated as NOT NULL in the original table. The primary advantage of Simple Views lies in their simplicity and direct representation of data from a single table. This makes them suitable for scenarios where straightforward access to the underlying data is essential, and the absence of complex features is not a limitation. Simple Views are particularly useful in scenarios where users require direct access to the data for basic operations like data entry, modification, or retrieval. They are well-suited for applications and interfaces that demand a clear and uncomplicated representation of the underlying information. Simple Views, being based on a single table, may offer better performance in certain situations compared to complex views involving multiple tables. This simplicity can be advantageous, especially when dealing with large datasets and frequent data manipulation operations. Complex View These views can contain more than one base table or can be constructed on more than one base table, and they contain a group by clause, join conditions, an order by clause. Group functions can be used here, and it contains groups of data. Complex views cannot always be used to perform DML operations. Insert, delete, and update cannot be applied directly on complex views. But unlike Simple Views, Complex Views can contain group by, pseudocolumn like rownum, distinct, columns defined by expressions. NOT NULL columns can be included in complex views while they are not selected by the Simple View.  There are other views, such as Inline View and Materialized View. The inline view is based on a subquery in FROM clause, the subquery creates a temporary table, and this simplifies the complex query. These views are used to write complex SQL queries without the join and subqueries operations. The materialized view stores the definition and even the data. Replicas of data are created by storing it physically. This view reduces the processing time for regenerating the whole data. Unlike Simple Views, Complex Views can involve more than one base table. This allows for the integration of data from different sources, providing a more comprehensive view for analytical purposes. Complex View in SQL supports the use of the GROUP BY clause and join conditions. This enables the aggregation of data based on specified criteria and the ability to combine information from multiple tables using various types of joins. The ORDER BY clause can be utilized in Complex Views to sort the result set based on specified columns and sorting orders. This adds flexibility to how the data is presented to users. Group functions such as MAX(), COUNT(), and others can be applied within Complex Views. This facilitates the analysis and summarization of data, providing valuable insights into the information presented by the view. While Complex Views offer powerful analytical capabilities, direct Insert, Delete, and Update operations may not always be applicable. This limitation is due to the complexity introduced by involving multiple tables and potentially complex join conditions. Unlike Simple Views, Complex Views can include advanced features such as GROUP BY, pseudocolumns like ROWNUM, DISTINCT, and columns defined by expressions. This makes them suitable for scenarios requiring sophisticated data manipulation and analysis. Complex Views can include NOT NULL columns from the base tables. This provides a more accurate representation of the underlying data by respecting the constraints defined in the original tables. Read: Exciting SQL Project Ideas & Topics More Details On View In SQL When you are in the process of creating any dynamic view using data from a couple of tables, you need to ensure that these tables have the same PRIMARYKEYCOLSEQ column or at least contain unique indexes using the same column name in the same order. This is important in understanding how view in SQL works. Another thing about the view in SQL is that for a multitenancy environment, a global administrator generally creates the initial database views. These views in SQL stand as a part of default data provided to the tenants. This tenant ID needs to get added to SELECT and the WHERE clauses for static views in SQL. This is done to ensure that all tenant-specific views used in database are created. For the dynamic views used in database, the same needs usage for creating tenant-specific views used in database for the tenants having extended attributes. The views that are static don’t support extended attributes. Additional Tips for Creating Views in SQL Here are some essential tips for using the different types of views in SQL: Utilize CREATE VIEW SQL Server to define virtual tables for simplified query execution and enhanced data accessibility. Explore the efficiency gains of a materialized view in Snowflake (traditional database view), which stores precomputed results for optimized query performance. Enhance query efficiency in SQL Server by employing materialized view SQL Server through the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement. Adapt existing views seamlessly with ALTER VIEW in SQL, ensuring flexibility in response to evolving data requirements. Leverage the strategic advantage that you gain when you create materialized view SQL to build optimized views that store and deliver precomputed results. Conclusion This article describes the types of views in SQL. A View in SQL is defined and explained in detail, and the different ways in which Views are managed is also defined. The different types of views in SQL, such as System Defined Views and User Defined Views, are described in detail along with the various subtypes under each type. So if you were wondering “SQL server has mainly how many types of views?”, this article should have given you some more closure. If you’re interested to learn more about full-stack software development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Program in Full-stack Software Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects, and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.
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by Rohan Vats

21 May 2024