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What Is SQL Injection & How To Prevent It?
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With the rapid evolution of technology, the world is seeing a subsequent shift to online for everything. The Internet is the one-stop solution for everything from storing relevant documents to conducting financial transactions. However, this also means increased threats to cyberspace through hacking, identity theft, etc. Web hacking generally targets the areas that can destroy your important applications. SQL injection is a common approach to harming data-driven applications. SQL injection attacks are generally performed through any application input or web page. Attackers search for vulnerabilities and loopholes in a web page or application to execute malicious commands. This blog will comprehensively answer ‘What is SQL injection and how to prevent it’.  What Is SQL Injection? SQL injection is a web security attack and vulnerability performed by executing malicious codes. The attacker gains access to the application of a database and damages sensitive data by either making changes to it or stealing it. Injection attackers incorporate SQL queries to change, modify, update, or delete sensitive information from the database. Recent years have seen an alarming increase in SQL injection attacks and security breaches.  These attacks may also affect the server or back-end infrastructure, sometimes escalating to DDoS attacks.  The Intention Behind an SQL Injection The most prevalent question when discussing SQL injection is, ‘What is the purpose of an SQL injection?’ The main motive of SQL injection attackers is to access sensitive information in a database.  The purpose of an SQL injection is to exploit vulnerabilities in a software application’s security by manipulating the input fields or parameters that interact with a database using Structured Query Language (SQL). This process aims to damage sensitive data such as updating, modifying, deleting, or stealing it with malicious intentions. This exploitation can have various malicious intentions, and it seriously threatens the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data within a database.  SQL Injection Types SQL injection is a widespread cybersecurity threat that comes in various forms, each with its own methods and goals. Depending on their potential to damage sensitive data, it can be classified into three broad categories as described below: 1. In-band SQL Injection In this type of SQL injection, the attacker launches malicious commands on the same communication channel used for deriving information. It is one of the most effective and straightforward SQL injection attacks, thus making it one of the most used.  In-band SQL injection can be divided into the following sub-categories: Error-based SQL injection: This is the type of SQL injection where an attacker attacks in a way that produces error messages in the database. People with the affected database will see the error messages, and the attacker will gain access to sensitive information about the features and structure of the database. Union-based SQL injection: Attackers use the UNION SQL operator to combine their malicious query with a legitimate one in the application’s database. This can allow them to extract data from other tables or manipulate the query’s result.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. 2. Inferential (Blind) SQL Injection In Inferential SQL injection, the attacker does not mess with the immediate web page but proceeds in a way that sends data payloads to the main server. This process is also known as blind SQL injection. Attackers use this technique when they can’t view the application’s responses directly. They infer the data’s existence or values by observing how the application responds to their queries over time. Blind SQL injections are difficult and slower to execute but can be dangerous as they identify the behavioural patterns of the server. Inferential SQL injection can also be divided into two sub-categories, as illustrated below: Boolean-based SQL injection: Here, the attacker writes an SQL command as a query and sends it to the database, asking the application to return a response. The response depends upon the query being true or false. The HTTP results of the query may portray some changes or can remain the same. The attacker then analyses whether the message is true or false.  Time-based SQL injection: The attacker initiates a SQL query to the database, prompting the system to wait briefly before responding, usually for a few seconds. The time period of the response from the database allows the attacker to evaluate the legitimacy of the query in terms of true or false. Based on the query results, an HTTP result will be generated immediately or after some time. The attacker can then evaluate whether the status of the message is true or false even without accessing the information of the database. 3. Out-of-bound SQL injection Out-of-bound SQL injection cannot be performed when certain database features are missing. This is an infamous type of SQL injection that depends upon the functionalities of a database server. The attacker cannot launch this attack if certain functionalities are not enabled. While configuring, it may look like a database administrator issue. This injection attack is used when the attacker cannot use the same communication channel to launch an attack as in the case of in-band SQL injection. The attacker can carry out this attack even if the database server is unstable and slow. This method is based on the ability of the server to forward HTTP or DNS requests to pass on sensitive data to the attacker. Executing a SQL Injection Attack To know ‘what is SQL injection attack‘ is, one must also understand how an SQL injection attack is conducted. To launch an SQL injection attack, the attacker locates the vulnerable user inputs in a web application or page. The attacker creates harmful input content through malicious payloads and sends it as user input, followed by executing malicious SQL commands in the database containing important data. SQL is a programming language that writes queries and commands to manage the data stored in relational databases. It is generally used to update, modify, access, or delete data. Organisations largely store their sensitive data in SQL databases. SQL commands are sometimes applied to execute the operating system’s commands. Therefore, a successful SQL injection attack may result in very serious outcomes. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript What Are Some Examples of SQL Injection? Here are some of the most common examples of SQL injection attacks that will help you better understand the concept along with the commands: Example 1: The first example depicts how an attacker uses SQL commands to gain access to a database and act as an administrator. The attacker writes commands on a web server to authenticate with a username and password.   In the following example, the table name is ‘users’, and the requested column names are ‘username’ and ‘password’. # Define POST variables uname = request.POST[‘username’] passwd = request.POST[‘password’] # SQL query vulnerable to SQLi sql = “SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = ”’ + uname + “’ AND password=”’ + passwd + “”’ # Execute the SQL statement database.execute(sql) These SQL commands are vulnerable inputs, and the attacker can easily alter or modify any user input. For instance, the attacker can alter the password field and set it to: password' OR 1=1 Therefore, in this case, the database will execute the following SQL command: SELECT id FROM users WHERE username='username' AND password='password' OR 1=1'   Because of the command mentioned above, the ‘where’ clause will return the result of the first ID, and the value of the username and password is immaterial. In this way, an attacker gains unauthorised access to the database and also gets the privileges of an administrator. The attacker can further manipulate the database by executing the following query: MySQL, MSSQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, SQLite ‘ OR ‘1’=’1’ -- ‘ OR ‘1’=’1’ /* – MySQL ‘ OR ‘1’=’1’ # – Access (using null characters) ‘ OR ‘1’=’1’ %00 ‘ OR ‘1’=’1’ %16 Example 2: Union-based SQL injection example The union operator is the main feature of launching an SQL injection attack here. In this type of attack, the attackers can combine the outcomes of two select statements to return a single result.  Like a legitimate user, the attacker sends an HTTP request to a vulnerable web page. The payload sent by the attacker can alter and modify the query using the union operator that is generally attached to the malicious SQL command. The result of the chosen statement will show the outcome of the original query combined with that of the malicious query.  The following SQL commands show the example of union-based SQL injection: GET http://testphp.vulnweb.com/artists.php?artist=1 HTTP/1.1 Host: testphp.vulnweb.com   GET http://testphp.vulnweb.com/artists.php?artist=-1 UNION SELECT 1,2,3 HTTP/1.1 Host: testphp.vulnweb.com   GET http://testphp.vulnweb.com/artists.php?artist=-1 UNION SELECT 1,pass,cc FROM users WHERE uname=’test’ HTTP/1.1 Host: testphp.vulnweb.com   SQL Injection Attack: Preventive Measures Now that we have covered the what and how of SQL injection attacks, the next question is, ‘What are the solutions for injection attacks?’ Preventing injection attacks is not easy. Implement the following preventive techniques to protect your data from SQL injection attacks: Implement parameterised queries and prepared statements: You may use parameterised queries, which help analyse and treat the SQL statements securely. Only those SQL commands parameterised with safety features will be executed in this case. It allows the database to record only prepared statements and eliminate fake commands. Object-oriented mapping: This is a great way of securing your data from SQL injection attacks. Companies nowadays use object-oriented relational mapping frameworks over traditional mapping tools. Object-oriented mapping offers seamless conversion of SQL results into codes. It helps developers keep the data safe against SQL mapping. To answer ‘what is SQLmap used for’, it tests the vulnerabilities in web applications and web pages so the attacker can easily access the database.  Escaping inputs: This is a new way of protecting your data from SQL injection attacks, where many programming languages have some standard functions for data protection. One should be alert while applying escape characters in the SQL statements and commands. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion Web hacking using SQL injection can take advantage of a company’s database and damage it. These attacks can manipulate the database server in charge of the company’s web applications. Any company that uses an SQL database is vulnerable to SQL injection attacks. These attacks can cause irreversible damage to databases and servers, resulting in far-reaching losses in terms of finance and reputation.  Understanding these attacks is crucial for developers and security professionals to protect applications and databases from such vulnerabilities. Proper input validation, parameterised queries, and regular security assessments are essential in preventing SQL injection attacks. Enrol in an online cybersecurity course to gain in-depth knowledge on ‘what is SQL injection in cybersecurity’ and the various kinds of SQL injection. 
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by Pavan Vadapalli

04 Oct 2023

How to Become an Ethical Hacker in 2024?
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Cybersecurity has never been more critical than now. With the ever-present threat of cyberattacks, there’s a growing demand for skilled professionals who can protect systems and data from malicious hackers. The term ‘hacker’ originally referred to a skilled programmer proficient in computer operating systems and machine code. However, the term has now evolved to refer to someone active in hacking operations. To counter the attacks of black hat hackers came into existence ethical hackers. Ethical hackers are positioned at the front line of defence owing to their knowledge to improve the system’s vulnerability of business organisations.  This blog presents the nitty-gritty of ethical hacker requirements, answering the pertinent question, ‘How to become a certified ethical hacker?’.  Understanding Ethical Hacking Before learning how to learn ethical hacking step by step, it is important to understand the basic concept of ethical hacking. Computer systems employ a range of security measures to protect stored data. Ethical hacking is a process of testing the strength of these security implementations. Ethical hackers simulate real-world hacking scenarios to detect underlying security flaws and fix those vulnerabilities in time. If not fixed, these vulnerabilities remain exposed to malicious hackers exposing confidential data, thus putting the company’s resources and reputation at stake.  A few alternative ethical hacking names are security and white hat hacking. Ethical hacking is integral to keeping security intact in computer systems or networks. Business organisations persistently check for vulnerabilities to protect their systems and networks by seeking ethical hackers’ services. Definition of an Ethical Hacker Ethical hackers are cybersecurity professionals who use hacking skills to protect computer systems and networks against cyberattacks. Ethical hackers differ from criminal hackers as they are authorised to test the vulnerabilities of computer systems by simulating an actual attack. Ethical hackers follow similar methods and use the same tools as criminal hackers to carry out hacking. Ethical hackers have greater insight into computer networking, cryptography, and programming. The skills required for an ethical hacker are typically approved by CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker) certification. Role of Ethical Hacker Before diving into “How to become an ethical hacker from scratch?”, learning what the role entails is essential. Ethical hacking is an authorised process of discovering potential cybersecurity threats and data breaches. Business organisations hire ethical hackers for their expertise in strengthening security systems. Their primary role is to look for ways criminal hackers can exploit security flaws to exploit confidential data maliciously.  Ethical hackers must be well acquainted with the working model of the system to which they provide protection. To fix security vulnerabilities, they need to look for different attacking methods that will possibly expose the data to malicious hackers. Additionally, ethical hackers must have a knack for continuous learning to keep themselves updated with the rapidly evolving hacking techniques. How To Become an Ethical Hacker Step-by-Step in 2024? Below are the steps prospective candidates must follow to become a hacker ethically: Step 1: Gain hands-on experience in LINUX/UNIX LINUX/UNIX is an open-source operating system that ascertains superior security for computer systems. It is one of the classic, widely used operating systems. Hence, being familiar with LINUX is important to become an ethical hacker.  Step 2: Master the mother programming language along with others C is referred to as the mother of all programming languages due to its primitive origin. C is used to write LINUX/UNIX completely. Hence, as an ethical hacker, it is important to be well-versed in a programming language that gives them the power to use the open-source LINUX operating system according to their wish.  Learning multiple programming languages eases operating a piece of code. Python, JavaScript, PHP, C++, and SQL are a few programming languages that are best for hackers to learn.   Step 3: Become adept at being anonymous The most significant step to follow in ethical hacking is to hide one’s identity. Ethical hackers must learn to master the skill of being anonymous to eliminate their traces online. They can use Anonsurf, MacChanger, and Proxychains to camouflage their identities.  Step 4: Learn about networking concepts in detail A good grasp of knowledge in networks and protocols aids in vulnerability exploitation. Gaining insights into various networking tools like Wireshark, Nmap, etc., helps execute smooth operations.  Step 5: Travel across the dark web The dark web refers to the hidden part of the web that remains invisible to search engines. Special software access and authorisation are required to penetrate it. Knowing the technology of the dark web is imperative for ethical hackers.  Step 6: Learn cryptography The encryption and decryption involved in cryptography are used in various aspects of information security, like data integrity, authentication, confidentiality, etc. An ethical hacker must learn to identify and break the encryption when required.  Step 7: Dig deeper into hacking Covering hacking topics like penetration testing, SQL injections, vulnerability assessments, and others is rewarding. An ethical hacker should know the latest security changes and system security tools.  Step 8: Always look for vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities in a system are loopholes leading to security breaches. An ethical hacker must identify and use these loopholes to exploit the system. A few vulnerability identification tools are OpenVAS Vulnerability Scanner, Nmap Vulnerability Scanner, Nessus Vulnerability Scanner, and Wapiti Vulnerability Scanner.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. How to Become an Ethical Hacker? – Skills Required Students often wonder how to become an ethical hacker after 12th. Anyone with the below-listed skills can become an ethical hacker:  A good command of programming languages  In-depth knowledge of networking  Proficiency in scripting  Ability to operate multiple operating systems Expertise in the backend database Exposure to servers and search engines Proficient in using the available tools in the market Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Career Stages in Ethical Hacking Patience is the key to establishing a career in ethical hacking. The field provides high-ranking job profiles to the aspirants in due course of time. Nevertheless, a great career start is also achievable within a short time.  1. Kick-starting  Aspirants who wonder how to become a certified ethical hacker can kick-start their careers by acquiring a degree in computer science. Alternatively, candidates can take up the CompTIA certification, comprising a two-part exam.  2. Network Supporting  The various activities involved in this stage are installing security programs, monitoring and updating, testing vulnerabilities, etc. This stage allows hackers to gain practical experience that will help to upscale their skills for future reference.  3. Network Engineering  Once the hackers gain experience in network support, they can escalate into network engineering. It offers a well-paid job profile with the authority of designing networks. This stage marks the beginning of becoming a security expert. Hence, obtaining certain security certifications, such as CISSP, Security+, etc., is mandatory.  4. Working as an expert in Information Security In this crucial stage as an ethical hacker, you will be introduced to information security for the first time. As an information analyst, the hackers will examine the system and strengthen the network’s security through firewalls and other relevant software. Ethical hackers must be well-versed in penetration testing and know tools like Tufin, AlgoSec, RedSeal, etc.  In this stage, ethical hackers can opt for CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker) certification as the course will help them to evolve into efficient ethical hackers.  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Why Becoming an Ethical Hacker Is Beneficial? A few benefits of becoming an ethical hacker are:  Introduces the hidden aspects  Ethical hackers implement new techniques and discover new security breaches that remain unknown to the organisation. Ethical hacking introduces concepts like web application security that help establish an excellent career.  Makes the hackers’ mindset easy to understand Sound knowledge of ethical hacking enables white hat hackers to comprehend how black hat hackers think. This is of utmost importance when searching for security vulnerabilities. Offers high-paying jobs  A certified ethical hacker is better suited to land a high-paying job at a reputable corporation. With the demand for certified cybersecurity experts rising daily, the supply is still lagging. Hence, this is a lucrative career opportunity with a great future outlook. Gives liberty in picking out your field of work Once you become an ethical hacker, you can choose the field you want to work in based on your goals and passion. You can work in a multinational company or own a small start-up.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Salary Details for Certified Ethical Hackers: Top 5 Countries With the rapid growth of cyber threats, the need for proficient ethical hackers has risen multifold, and demand will likely rise in the coming years. This, combined with the development of AI and ML, positions ethical hackers attractively in the market. The tables below show the salary ranges for a few job roles, including India, in ethical hacking based in different countries:  Canada  Average annual salary- C$88,000 Job Title Average annual salary range Security Analyst C$50,000 – C$1.01 lakh Information Security Analyst C$57,000 – C$1.05 lakh Cyber Security Manager C$1.04 lakh – C$1.57 lakh Senior Security Consultant C$87,000 – C$1.16 lakh Security Engineer C$86,000 – C$1.33 lakh   Australia  Average annual salary- AU$1 lakh Job Title Average annual salary range Cyber Security Analyst AU$60,000 – AU$1.29 lakh Security Engineer AU$77,000 – AU$1.11 lakh Penetration Tester AU$58,000 – AU$1.38 lakh  Security Architect, IT AU$1.35 lakh – AU$1.76 lakh Chief Information Security Officer AU$1.42 lakh – AU$2.41 lakh   Singapore Average annual salary- S$69,000  Job Title Average annual salary range Cyber Security Engineer S$6000 – S$1.47 lakh Security Engineer S$33,000 – S$1.05 lakh Penetration Tester S$5000 – S$1.13 lakh Information Security Analyst S$54,000 – S$1.03 lakh Information Security Manager S$78,000 – S$1.5 lakh   UAE Average annual salary- AED 1.58 lakh Job Title Average annual salary range Cyber Security Engineer AED 14,000 – AED 5.49 lakh Security Engineer AED 49,000 – AED 2.36 lakh Penetration Tester AED 15,000 – AED 1.71 lakh Security Analyst AED 1.02 lakh – AED 2.92 lakh Chief Information Security Officer AED 2.95 lakh – AED5.60 lakh   India Average annual salary- INR 7.26 lakh    Job Title Average annual salary range Security Engineer  INR 2.96 lakh – INR 2m Penetration Tester INR 1.98 lakh – INR 2m Security Analyst INR 2.65 lakh – INR 9.95 lakh Information Security Analyst INR 2.43 lakh – INR 1m Certified Ethical Hacker INR 1.99 lakh – INR 5m Conclusion  Given the job opportunities, ethical hacking is an excellent career choice in the current market. The field holds immense opportunities for cybersecurity aspirants. The certified courses shape the students to fit their job roles with industry-relevant skills. Explore this lucrative career by enrolling in a cybersecurity course online and enhancing marketability.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

29 Sep 2023

A Guide for Understanding the Networking Commands
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With technology assuming an integral part of our everyday lives, being aware of the basic networking commands can go a long way in improving productivity and efficiency. This blog is a quick guide to the commonly used computer networking commands that can substantially streamline your experience using operating systems such as Windows and Linux. The troubleshooter tools listed here can considerably improve your networking application and help you better appreciate the digital interactions that have become a part of our daily lives in recent years.  Understanding Networking Commands Operating systems, such as Windows, MacOS, Ubuntu, or Linux, used for running computer systems can be described as complex frameworks designed with executable programs that allow users to perform various tasks and are connected together by various networking systems. Complex as networking systems are, they can run into system errors occasionally, affecting the computer’s overall performance.  The basic networking commands are specifically designed for resolving such networking errors. Operating systems are provided with command prompt tools that allow users to manually troubleshoot the operating system to diagnose networking errors and solve them with minimum complexity.  Most networking command prompts in operating systems can be run in a text-based interface to perform executable tasks as the user requests. Here are some ways that can allow users to trigger network command prompts. Network commands can be activated from the Command Prompt option in the Windows Start Menu’s Windows System Folder. The Windows Key + R key allows users to enter the cmd function in the Run Box manually. Network commands are also available under the Command Prompt and Command Prompt (Admin) options of the Quick Link Menu and can be brought up using the Windows Key + X key. Windows users can also run network command prompts in Windows Powershell, present in the Windows Start Menu. Advanced users can also toggle between Windows Powershell, Command Prompt, Azure Cloud Shell, and more using the Windows Terminal, preinstalled on computers with the Windows 10 OS and above. Reasons for Using Networking Commands Network configuration commands have grown immensely popular due to their simplicity and efficiency in resolving networking errors and can be easily operated by beginners. Networking commands are based on executable command-line interfaces, where networking command prompts can be typed in to trigger the desired responses. The command prompts serve as executable CLI programs and are used for the following reasons:  As CLI text-based programs, networking command prompts are easier to understand and use. Additionally, networking commands are faster and can be efficiently used for troubleshooting and executing repetitive tasks.  Networking commands are popularly used because of their immense flexibility. They are stable and consistent and can process complex operations with ease. Networking commands for troubleshooting occupy substantially less memory and can process large-scale operations with minimum CPU consumption.  The high precision and versatility make networking commands so popular among computer users. Networking commands can be carried out with low resources without compromising their application.  Given the complexity of system functions, a data engineer or IT admin can use networking commands to execute troubleshooting tasks efficiently, access website records, or check the status of networking servers.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. 10 Popular Networking Commands Here are the top 10 networking commands that are popularly used for troubleshooting networking issues and gathering system information:  1. IPCONFIG Source  ipconfig is undoubtedly one of the fundamental network commands used by data engineers and IT admins and has remained one of the most efficient ways of troubleshooting network connectivity problems in Windows. Ipconfig’s unparalleled simplicity in troubleshooting, analysing and configuring Window’s network connectivity issues makes it a popular choice among system engineers.  Additionally, ipconfig can be seamlessly learnt by beginners, and its easy application is beneficial and can be carried out without having to look up GUI (graphical user interface)-based guidelines, which can vary depending on the version of Windows OS used. Mentioned below are some ways following which ipconfig can successfully be used at home, as well as on business computers: As one of the essential ipconfig commands, ipconfig /all is a prominently used network prompt that displays all information associated with the network adapter’s configuration. Using the ipconfig /displaydns prompt is helpful when bringing up the DNS resolver cache that contains information on the IP addresses of websites already visited. ipconfig /flushdns is an efficient prompt that allows users to remove obsolete DNS records from the DNS resolver cache.  2. NSLOOKUP Source Data engineers require frequent access to DNS (Domain Name System) troubleshooters and rely heavily on the nslookup command for support. Although the nslookup command has limited use, it is convenient and efficient in accessing domain-specific data, such as website records, web servers and IP address information.  nslookup comes with a straightforward interface and, in addition to Windows, is available for operating systems like Ubuntu, Linux distros and MacOS. While most operating systems offer a preinstalled version of the nslookup command, users can manually install the nslookup command as long as they are authorised as a sudo user. Here are some of the frequent uses of nslookup Linux networking commands: NSLOOKUP allows users to find and access domain and website-specific records with the $ nslookup -type=ns [domain-name] command. Start of Authority (SOA) domain information can be brought up using the $ nslookup -type=soa [domain-name] command. The $ nslookup -query=mx [domain-name] command allows users to check email servers and browse their MX records. 3. HOSTNAME Source For Linux users, hostname is a commonly used networking command in cmd that helps set and view the hostname registered to a system. The hostname of a system is set permanently while installing the OS to a computer, connected over a network, and can uniquely identify the system from others. While only users with root authority can set a hostname to a system, it can still be accessed without using specific IP addresses. The hostname command prompt network command offers the following prompts to its users: The -a or –alias prompt allows users to display the host’s name as defined in the system.  -b or –boot prompts allow users with root authority to set a permanent hostname. The hostname is set to localhost by default unless changed. -d or –domain prompts can bring up the DNS domain name. -F and –filename are used to list the hostname present in a file. -I and -all-ip-addresses prompts can list all configured network addresses available on all host interfaces, and the -v or –version command prompt displays information about the installed version.  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. 4. PING Source The ping command is a frequently used basic network command that allows users to test the network connectivity of a system. The ping command is widely used to send a data packet to a specified IP address or a URL and calculate the time taken for a response. Considering the streamlined yet effective application of the ping network command, it has remained a popular troubleshooting tool used to measure network connectivity between the host system and specified IP addresses. Ping network configuration commands are versatile and can detect connectivity in Windows, Linux and MacOS systems. 5. TRACERT The tracert network command has grown popular among Windows OS users owing to its simple yet effective application. One of the easiest networking commands in Windows, it can easily check a computer’s hostname and IP route. The tracert command sends a data packet with the source and destination addresses, evaluating the network status accordingly. Currently, the tracert command serves as a diagnostic software that comes pre-installed in computers and is predominantly used by network administrators. The prompt $ tracert domain.com launches the tracert network command in Windows. Source 6. NETSTAT Source As one of the most commonly used network commands, the netstat command evaluates and displays the network status. It is most commonly used as a basic network command and is majorly used for determining network issues rather than just checking the network status. Additionally, as netstat command prompt network commands can count data packets that have been transmitted, it is an efficient way of supervising network traffic and can determine if there is any network congestion that can lead to slower performance.  7. ARP Source ARP, or the Address Resolution Protocol, is one of the most commonly used networking commands in cmd used in a local area network for mapping a computer’s IP address to another computer’s physical MAC address. Using the arp -a command, a user can display or modify the local ARP cache. The arp prompt also allows users to track ARP cache entries for specific IP addresses.  Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 8. SYSTEMINFO Source The systeminfo network command is an easy-to-use networking command in Windows that can efficiently display system information and other Windows configurations. Systeminfo comes built-in with the Windows OS and, when launched, can bring up a list of information with operating system details, hardware and software configuration, version information, and other details, such as RAM and processor consumption, IP and MAC addresses.  9. PATHPING Source The pathping command prompt comes pre-installed in Windows OS and is an alternative to the tracert Windows network command. Although less widely known, the pathping command is an effective utility tool for evaluating network performance and latency issues. Like the ping command, pathping also uses data packets to evaluate the network performance and can trace the hops between the source and destination addresses. The pathping network command can be implemented with a simple pathping -n [domain.com] prompt. 10. GETMAC Source The Windows OS comes with the getmac network command pre-installed that allows Windows users to gather all necessary information about the Media Access Control (MAC) address of their computer. The getmac command can also display a list of all network protocols with the addresses for cards in the system, whether available through wired, optical or remote mediums. The getmac command also allows users to monitor any transmission within a network segment. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion Whether you’re a data engineer or a network administrator, having a grasp of the frequently used networking commands can go a long way in helping you gather detailed information about how your computer functions. Furthermore, network troubleshooting commands can also help you manage your network devices efficiently, enhancing your productivity in no time. Enroll in relevant programs and online courses to master networking commands and bolster your resume.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

26 Sep 2023

What is an Intrusion Detection System (IDS)? Techniques, Types & Applications
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The current digital ecosystem is highly vulnerable. Cybersecurity measures and capabilities are improving drastically, keeping pace with the sophistication and evolution of cyberattacks.  Reports suggest costs incurred due to cybercrime damage will surge by 15% annually in the coming three years, taking the expenses to almost USD 10.5 trillion in 2025.  Extensive cybersecurity setup is compulsory to protect enterprises and businesses from these threats. The intrusion detection system is integral to this setup, scouting your network for malicious threats, including ransomware, malware, and other suspicious attempts.  This blog explores intrusion detection system in cyber security in detail, along with its types and applications.  What Do You Mean by an Intrusion Detection System(IDS)? Before diving deep into IDS, you must understand the meaning of intrusion detection system. A technology solution, IDS intrusion detection system, helps monitor outbound and inbound traffic in your system network for any policy breaches or suspicious and malicious activities.    IDS detects and prevents any kind of intrusion within the IT infrastructure. This intrusion detection system also sends intrusion alerts to the concerned team/person in the organisation. Such solutions are available as intrusion detection system software applications or hardware devices.  In general, an IDS is a part of a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system. With its implementation, IDS acts as the first line of defence. It proactively detects suspicious or unusual behaviour in the shortest time. The earlier you detect a compromised or successful intrusion, the quicker you can take necessary action to secure your network.  Why Do We Need an Intrusion Detection System? The main function of an intrusion detection system is to monitor and track the various network assets in an organisation to detect inappropriate and malicious behaviour in the network. Cybercrime experts seek new technologies and techniques to hamper the system’s defence mechanism.  In most cybersecurity attacks, hackers try to obtain user credentials to access data and networks. With a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) in place, organisations get considerable network security to respond effectively to malicious traffic.  The biggest benefit of an intrusion detection system is that it sends an alert to the respective team/person when any attack occurs. Moreover, this system keeps a total check on outbound and inbound traffic in the network. It also plays a pivotal role in monitoring data and traversing the network and the system.  Functioning of an Intrusion Detection System The primary function of an intrusion detection system application is to detect anomalies so that hackers can be tracked and caught before they can successfully cause real damage to any network.  These systems are either host-based or network-based. While the network-based intrusion detection system is installed on the network, the host-based intrusion detection system runs on the client computer.  IDS functions by observing deviations or changes from the normal activities in a network. They look for signs of familiar attacks. The system pushes up these anomalies or deviations up the stack in the system. These anomalies are then thoroughly examined and studied at the application and protocol layer. An alert is sent to the system administrator for proper and prompt action.  Domain Name System (DNS) poisoning and Christmas tree scans are the most common events these systems detect and analyse.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Types of Intrusion Detection Systems System administrators install various intrusion detection systems to protect computer networks adequately. Here are some of the most well-known and popular systems: Protocol-based IDS (PIDS) The protocol-based intrusion detection system, or PIDS, is an agent or system present consistently at the server’s front end for controlling and interpreting the protocol between the server and the user. PIDS monitors the HTTPS protocol stream and secures the web server. This system focuses on the protocol and augments the cybersecurity solution.  Host intrusion detection system (HIDS) This system runs on independent devices or hosts on the network. The function of HIDS is to monitor the outgoing and incoming packets from the device. The administrator gets an alert immediately if any malicious or suspicious activity is detected.  HIDS takes a picture of the current system files and compares it with the previous snapshot. If the analytical system files are deleted or edited, the administrator gets an alert for investigation.  Network intrusion detection system (NIDS) NIDS are deployed at various strategic points within the system network for monitoring and examining inbound and outbound traffic to and from all the connected devices on the network. The system observes the traffic passing on the whole subnet and tries to match the traffic to the known attacks.  The administrator gets an immediate alert if the system identifies any abnormal behaviour or attack.  Application protocol-based IDS (APIDS) This kind of IDS specialises in software application security. APIDSs are closely associated with host-based intrusion detection systems (HIDS). These systems monitor communications between the server and the various applications. APIDSs are generally deployed on groups of servers.  Understanding Different Intrusion Detection System Methods Your security solution is based on the kind of IDS you choose. Here are some of the most prominent and effective methods: Anomaly-based intrusion detection system Introducing an anomaly-based IDS mainly aims to detect unknown and new malware attacks. This method uses machine learning to develop and create an activity model. Any inbound or outbound traffic that does not match the model is declared suspicious and malicious. This ML-based method has a great generalised property and helps detect novel threats.  Signature-based intrusion detection system In a signature-based IDS, there is the use of fingerprints of known malicious threats so that the system can keep a close check on them. The IDS generates a signature on detecting malicious packets or traffic.  The incoming traffic is scanned thoroughly to detect any known suspicious or malicious patterns. This system can only detect threats or attacks with patterns already present. However, it cannot detect unknown or new malicious attacks and threats from the network traffic.  Hybrid intrusion detection system You will get the best of both IDS in a hybrid intrusion detection system. This system checks the existing patterns as well as one-off events. As a result, it can flag existing and new intrusion strategies.  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Intrusion Detection System Features Let us take a look at some of the noteworthy capabilities of an intrusion detection system: Monitoring the working and operations of firewalls, routers and the main management servers and files, which other security controls need for preventing cyberattacks. Offering a user-friendly interface for all staff members to manage system security. Providing ways to administrators for organising and understanding various logs and OS audit trails, which are difficult to parse or track. Immediate reporting when intrusion detection systems detect alterations in data files. Including a comprehensive attack signature database as a reference against which incoming or outgoing system information can be matched. Blocking the server or blocking the intruders. Generating an alert instantly along with sending a notification of a security breach Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Advantages of Having Smart Intrusion Detection Systems in Organisations IDS not only detects threats for systems and sends alarms and alerts to administrators but also serves many other benefits. Some of the prominent ones are as follows: Provides useful insights into traffic network With an intrusion detection system, you will have valuable insights into the traffic network. This is a great scope for identifying if there are any weaknesses in the system and working on network security.  Helps detect malicious and suspicious activity The primary benefit of an IDS is detecting any kind of suspicious activity in the system network. In case of detection of any malicious attack, the IDS immediately sends an alert to the system administrator so that necessary precautions are taken before any significant damage.  Helps prepare for better security systems Both wired and wireless intrusion detection systems can analyse the types and quantity of attacks. This information is crucial for any organisation to change or update its security system or implement better and more effective controls. The system also helps organisations identify problems or bugs in their network device configuration. Businesses can assess future risks with this system in place.  Helps improve network performance Performance issues are not uncommon in a network. IDS helps identify these issues easily. Once identified and detected, the issues can be addressed to improve network performance.  Helps attain regulatory compliance IDS provides greater visibility to an organisation across its network. It thus becomes easy to meet various security regulations. Also, organisations can use the IDS logs as evidence that they abide by certain compliance regulations.  Drawbacks of Intrusion Detection Systems Intrusion detection systems come with a set of challenges. Some of them are: False alarms (false positives) IDSs often generate false alarms. Organisations must fine-tune the various IDS products while installing them. The IDS should be properly configured to recognise and analyse the normal traffic on the network and understand when there is any suspicious activity.  False-negative A serious IDS challenge is a false negative. In this situation, the intrusion detection system fails to identify a threat and considers it legitimate traffic. As no alert is sent to the administrator, there is no indication of an attack. Only after the network is compromised in some way organisations can detect any malicious activity.  Popular Courses & Articles on Software Engineering Popular Programs Executive PG Program in Software Development - IIIT B Blockchain Certificate Program - PURDUE Cybersecurity Certificate Program - PURDUE MSC in Computer Science - IIIT B Other Popular Articles Cloud Engineer Salary in the US AWS Solution Architect Salary in US Backend Developer Salary in the US Front End Developer Salary in US Web developer Salary in USA Scrum Master Interview Questions How to Start a Career in Cyber Security Career Options in the US for Engineering Students .wpdt-fs-000020 { font-size: 20px !important;} Difference Between IDS and IPS While some organisations have IDS or intrusion prevention systems (IPS), others have both. The intrusion prevention system has similarities to the intrusion detection system, but the latter can take preventive action in case of any suspicious and malicious activity in the network. It can stop threats without involving the system administrator. The IDS, conversely, only alerts of the malicious activity but doesn’t prevent it.  The location of the IPS is between an organisation’s firewall and the rest of the network. It can stop malicious traffic from getting into the network. This system can catch intruders actively in real-time, which antivirus software or firewall might miss.  A problem with IPS is that it is prone to false positives. This false positive is more serious than IDS false positive. In such a situation, IPS doesn’t even allow legitimate traffic.  The Best Way to Select an IDS Solution Selecting the right intrusion detection system is essential for the proper functioning of the cybersecurity setup in your organisation. Here are the steps you need to follow to select the right IDS solution: Understanding the baseline You must set a baseline to see that your IDS works efficiently. Since networks tend to carry extra traffic, the preset baseline prevents false negatives. An IDS protects the network from firewalls.  Defining deployment Place the IDS behind the firewall or at the edge. In case of heavy traffic, install multiple IDSs.  Testing the IDS Make sure that you test the system if it can detect malicious threats and respond properly to threats. Security professionals can do a pen test or use test datasets.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion With the need for cybersecurity systems surging, various innovative technologies are gradually emerging. An intrusion detection system is one of them. As cybersecurity requirements vary from one organisation to the other, so do the IDSs.  A multi-layered approach is the best, as it offers comprehensive coverage against potential threats and malicious attacks. Along with identifying threats and sending alerts, these systems add to the security infrastructure and improve network performance. 
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by Pavan Vadapalli

24 Sep 2023

What Is White Hat Ethical Hacking? How Does It Work?
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The digital landscape, the by-product of technological advancement, is an evolving field with innovative ideas emerging daily. However, as we know, with pros comes its fair share of cons. Similarly, technological advancements brought the dark world of cyber threats that strive to exploit the fabric of our interconnected society. Thus, the need for an ethical guardian to safeguard our digital domains from malicious hackers was felt. As a result, white hat hacking came into the picture.  As the name suggests, white hat ethical hackers stay on the right side of the law and use their hacking abilities for defensive purposes. They find security flaws in devices, networks, and programs only when legally permitted.  This blog will unravel and dive deep into the fascinating world of white hat ethical hacking.  Who Is a White Hat Hacker?  The job of a white hat hacker perfectly illustrates the old saying, “It takes a thief to catch a thief.” Someone who understands a thief’s tactics and thought processes is best equipped to catch them. That’s why the best line of defence against black hat hackers is an army of white hat hackers.  Governments and organisations hire white hat hackers to find flaws in their defence systems and patch them up before black hat hackers can exploit them to their advantage. The term “white hat” in their name indicates their role as protectors working within ethical boundaries.  White hat hackers use their hacking skills to identify vulnerabilities in software, hardware, or networks by conducting attacks with prior permission from their employers. They can work under roles like cybersecurity analyst, IT engineer, penetration tester, etc.  Understanding White Hat Hacking  Ethical hacking involves a systematic approach to identifying vulnerabilities in a system before malicious hackers spot them. The entire process, from planning to analysing and reassessing the software, ensures that no malicious attacker can exploit it.  This lawful process starts with gathering the required information about the target organisation. To identify open ports and services, security experts then perform vulnerability assessments, including exploitation, to gauge the impact of the weaknesses. The process concludes with a comprehensive report detailing all findings, including vulnerability descriptions and recommendations for mitigation.  Organisations then remediate identified issues by applying patches or reconfiguring systems. Ethical hackers often perform follow-up assessments to confirm successful remediation and enhance the cycle of adaptability to evolving threats. White hat hackers adhere to strict ethical and legal guidelines throughout this process.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. White Hat Hackers vs. Black Hat Hackers vs. Grey Hat Hackers: A Comparative Study In the world of hacking, there are predominantly three types of hackers. Although they have similar skills, what separates them is their intention. Apart from white and black hat hackers, there are also grey hat hackers. Let us know about the three of them through the table given below.  Aspect White Hat Hacker Black Hat Hacker Gray Hat Hacker Intention Defensive, Aim to identify and fix vulnerabilities Offensive, Exploit vulnerabilities for personal gain Variable, Intentions shift between ethical and unethical Permission Authorised by the organisation for whom they work. Unauthorised, Mainly work for their own good. May or may not have consent, Action falls in a legal grey area Legality Operates within the rules of law Often engages in illegal activities Mainly operates in a legally ambiguous manner Tools and Techniques Use tools to identify and mitigate vulnerabilities of a network Employs hacking tools to exploit vulnerabilities  Use hacking tools but may dispose of findings responsibly Ethical Guidelines Follow strict ethical guidelines  Disregard ethical principles Have a mixed ethical stance Outcome  Enhance cybersecurity system and protection against threats Disrupt systems by inflicting harm and stealing data Outcomes vary depending upon the intention of the hacker Community Perception Highly respected for their body of work Condemned by everyone, including the law enforcement Mixed perception  Tools and Techniques Used by White Hat Ethical Hackers White hat hacking employs several tools and techniques, resembling black hat hacking, but only to enhance the organisation’s security posture.  1. Penetration Testing Through this testing, ethical hackers simulate real-world attacks to identify and exploit vulnerabilities. They then try to penetrate the organisation’s exposed network.  Hackers use tools like Metasploit to execute known exploits, Nmap for network scanning, and Wireshark for packet analysis to run such tests.  2. Email Phishing  Phishing attacks are a trap that aims to lure targets into divulging sensitive information just by clicking on malicious links. However, to protect an organisation from such an attack, white hat hackers automate email phishing campaigns with the help of tools like SET (Social-Engineer Toolkit). 3. Denial-of-Service Attack A denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a system can temporarily disrupt its performance, rendering it unavailable to users. This is done by flooding a system with excessive traffic or requests. However, a response plan prepared to deal with such attacks can protect the organisation from greater losses. A white hat hacker simulates this attack to help the organisation develop a DoS response plan. White hat hacking tools, like intrusion detection/ prevention systems, can also be used.  4. Social Engineering White hat hackers tailor social engineering exercises that use behavioural techniques to assess the organisation’s level of security awareness. Tests like these help prevent an actual attack by educating the organisation’s employees on attack strategies.  5. Security Scanning Identifying vulnerabilities is one of the key roles of white hat hackers. Ethical hackers use tools like Nessus and OpenVAS to perform complex vulnerability scans. They also use Nikto, which focuses on web server security. Identifying weaknesses in a system helps resolve the issue before it can cause a large-scale impact.  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Guide To Become a White Hat Hacker To become a white hat hacker, one must be technically sound with hands-on experience in cybersecurity. However, not all businesses demand the same educational requirements. Here’s a comprehensive roadmap to being a white hat hacker.  Education Start with a strong education foundation, especially in computer science, networking fundamentals, and information technology. Obtaining a bachelor’s degree in a related field like cybersecurity from a reputed institution can be more fruitful.  Cybersecurity Training Acquire specialised training or opt for a white hat hacker course in cybersecurity. Get familiar with network protocols, IP addressing, and cryptography, and learn ethical hacking techniques. Additionally, learn programming languages like Python, C/C++, Java, and other scripting languages. Hands-on Experience Earning quality experience by working under reputed organisations can be beneficial, even leading to employment opportunities. However, interning with notable companies might be challenging, so practise your skills in a controlled environment like virtual labs. Also, engaging in such practices with tools and techniques can sharpen your skills for real-world scenarios.  Legal and Ethical Understanding Understanding the legalities they work in is of utmost importance for white hat hackers. Awareness of the legal boundaries, seeking authorisation for testing, and prioritising the responsible disclosure of vulnerabilities is paramount. It is also the job of ethical hackers to adhere to a strict code of conduct while serving their duty. Thus, maintaining the highest ethical standards while working is mandatory for this job.  Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Some Renowned White Hat Hackers Around the World Several well-known white hat hackers have made a name in history through their remarkable contributions to cybersecurity. Below are some of the notable figures who can inspire you to pursue a career in white hat hacking.  Kevin Mitnick Mitnick has greatly transformed his life from being a notorious black hat hacker to a white hat consultant. His extensive experience in social engineering and security led him to become a respected consultant and author of several notable cybersecurity books.  Dan Kaminsky In his 42 years, Kaminsky has co-founded a computer security company and is also well known for discovering critical DNS vulnerabilities. He was and continues to be a respected figure in the cybersecurity community.  Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek These security researchers shook the automotive industry in 2015 by remotely hacking a Jeep Cherokee’s system, leading to a massive vehicle recall. Now, they work in the automotive security industry.  Mikko Hyppönen Hyppönen is a Finnish computer security expert widely known for his work on analysing and combating malware and cyber threats. He is also known for the Hyppönen law for IoT security, which refers to the fact that whenever an appliance is described as “smart”, it is vulnerable. Keren Elazari She is a cybersecurity analyst, writer, and global speaker on platforms like TED Talk. Elazari’s area of research includes cyberwarfare and politics. Also, her speeches reflect her keen interest in engaging hackers to improve cybersecurity. Jeff Moss When discussing the greatest white hat hackers, we cannot forget to name Moss, the founder of DEF CON, a popular computer security conference. He is mainly known as Dark Tangent in the computer world.  Legalities and Limitations of White Hat Hacking Despite its ethical purpose, white hat hacking is also subject to legal considerations and limitations. Some of them are listed below. Authorisation Ethical hackers must obtain explicit permission before securing their target organisation. Unauthorised hacking can lead to criminal charges and other legal consequences as well.  Data Protection Laws Obeying the data protection laws is foremost for white hat hackers as serious legal penalties exist for not following them. Laws like GDPR or HIPAA are crucial when running security assessments. Scope Before conducting any scanning, the testing scope should be clearly defined. Ethical hackers should not go beyond the agreed boundaries to avoid legal complications.  Contractual Agreements In any job involving the interests of two parties, it is important to have a contractual agreement between them. Therefore, a non-disclosure agreement or terms of engagement should be in place beforehand to protect both ethical hackers and the organisation.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion In today’s digital landscape, white hat hackers are sentinels against cyber threats. They use hacking skills ethically to uncover vulnerabilities legally with explicit permission. They follow a structured process, using tools and white hat hacking techniques to identify a network or system’s weaknesses.  All in all, these ethical guardians protect our digital world with their expertise and commitment to cybersecurity. They stand as the white hat heroes against malicious forces, ensuring a safer digital space for all.  You can become a part of this exciting world by registering for a cybersecurity course, ensuring innovation can thrive securely. 
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by Pavan Vadapalli

20 Sep 2023

Ethical Hacking Course: Subjects and Syllabus
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With the world increasingly foraying into the digital realm, cybersecurity has become a priority for all, from businesses, organisations, and governments to individuals. Among the many arenas within cybersecurity, ethical hacking has emerged as one of the fastest-growing sectors in the IT industry, thus making it one of the most sought-after careers. At such a juncture, ethical hacking courses give you the boost needed to start your career as an ethical hacker.  Ethical hacking students delve into identifying vulnerabilities, curating defences, and apprehending potential breaches. With the help of hands-on practice, ethical hacking courses foster a new generation of experts adept at countering cyber security threats.  If you, too, want to pursue ethical hacking courses and kickstart your career but are unsure where to start, you are at the right place. This blog offers a roadmap into the what and how of ethical hacking courses perfect for beginners.  What Does Ethical Hacking Mean? Ethical hacking is a technology-focused course that educates students about systematically probing computer systems with authorisation. It delves into exploiting system vulnerabilities for constructive purposes. Esteemed firms often seek ethical hackers to enhance security and access sensitive data.  Aspiring ethical hackers can pursue B.Tech., M.Tech, B.Sc., and M.Sc. degrees. Both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes are available. Bachelor’s entry usually requires a 10+2 qualification, with admission depending upon the entrance exam performance. Postgraduate studies require a prior bachelor’s degree.  Key Features of Ethical Hacking Courses Here are the key features of an ethical hacking course: Degrees conferred B.Sc., B.Tech., M.Sc., M.Tech. Eligibility Undergraduate, 10+2 Postgraduation, Undergraduate degree Admission procedure Undergraduate, Entrance Exam/ Cut-off Postgraduation, Entrance Exam/ Cut-off Noteworthy exams to take Undergraduate: KIITEE UPESEAT HITSEE VITEEE Postgraduate: GATE VITMEE IPUCET Career prospects  Ethical Hacker, Information Security Analyst, Information Security Manager, Security Consultant Average annual salary INR 7.29 LPA Courses with Specialised Focus Numerous programmes provide comprehensive training in ethical hacking, assuring students a promising future with ample opportunities. Prospective applicants should carefully assess the ethical hacking eligibility criteria. Some specialised courses include: B.Tech in Cybersecurity B.Sc. in Networking B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) B.Sc. in Cybersecurity M.Sc. in Cybersecurity M.Tech in Network & Information Security M.Tech in Information Security M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Duration and Fees of Ethical Hacking Courses The duration of different ethical hacking courses varies across universities, platforms, and enrollment modes. Courses can range from as short as a few weeks to as long as two to four years. These courses are offered at various levels by different platforms. The ethical hacking course fees also depend on the universities, modes, platforms and areas covered.  Here’s a breakdown of the average ethical hacking course duration across different levels: Course Duration Certificate in Ethical Hacking Up to a few weeks Online Ethical Hacking Courses A few weeks – 1 year Ethical Hacking Diploma 1 – 2 years Undergraduate Courses 3 – 4 years Postgraduate Courses 2 years These durations and fees provide a flexible range of options for individuals pursuing ethical hacking education, catering to both short-term skill acquisition and comprehensive academic pathways. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Eligibility Criteria for Ethical Hacking Programmes Universities adhere to diverse admission criteria when admitting students. Below are the eligibility criteria for undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) ethical hacking degree programmes. Eligibility Criteria for Undergraduate Courses To pursue an undergraduate (UG) cyber ethical hacking course, candidates must hold a 10+2 qualification from a recognised board. However, entrance examinations are taken for UG-level ethical hacking programmes.  Top Entrance Exams for Undergraduate Courses Here is a list of some notable entrance exams for undergraduate courses: KIITEE (Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology Entrance Examination):  KIITEE is the entrance exam organised by the Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology. The comprehensive test facilitates admission to various science and technology programs such as M.Sc, B.Tech, M.Tech, B.Arch,  computer applications (BCA), and Mass Communication. The exam evaluates candidates’ knowledge and aptitude in different fields, enabling them to access multiple educational avenues. HITSEEE (Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science Engineering Entrance Examination):  HITSEEE is the annual entrance exam organised by the Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science. It is tailored for engineering aspirants aiming to secure a seat in the institute’s various engineering courses.  The test assesses candidates’ knowledge in mathematics, physics, and chemistry. HITSEEE allows students to become part of the Hindustan Institute’s academic community and embark on their engineering journey. VITEEE (VIT Engineering Entrance Exam) conducted by the Vellore Institute of Technology):  VITEEE is a prominent university-level entrance exam. It offers admission to diverse engineering programmes at the Vellore Institute of Technology. The exam covers subjects like physics, chemistry, mathematics, and English. VITEEE is a platform for students to compete for seats in one of India’s most prestigious technical institutions.  Eligibility Criteria for Postgraduate Courses Prospective candidates aspiring to secure admission to a postgraduate ethical hacking course must hold a bachelor’s degree from a recognised university. This requirement is a fundamental prerequisite. Additionally, candidates must participate in common entrance examinations essential to the admission process. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Top Entrance Exams for Postgraduate Courses Here are three noteworthy postgraduate (PG) entrance exams, along with their associated details: GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering):  Conducted by the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, GATE is a national-level examination held annually. It provides a pathway for students interested in pursuing engineering courses at the postgraduate level.  Candidates can apply for the GATE examination as early as the third year of their bachelor’s degree. This enables students to plan their academic trajectories well, aligning their aspirations with this prestigious examination. VITMEE (VIT Master’s Entrance Examination):  Conducted by the Vellore Institute of Technology, VITMEE is an exclusive entrance test for those eyeing postgraduate courses. Conducted once a year, this examination unlocks entry to programs such as M.Tech (Master of Technology), MCA (Master of Computer Applications), and Integrated PhD. The diverse courses offered through VITMEE empowers students to specialise in technical domains and contribute meaningfully to the industry. IPUCET (Indraprastha University Common Entrance Test):  IPUCET is a university-level examination conducted by Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University. This exam provides admission opportunities to various undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) courses.  Candidates must check the examination’s eligibility criteria before registering. IPUCET is a gateway for students to access many programs, enhancing their educational and career prospects. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Ethical Hacking Subjects Due to a growing concern for internet security, ethical hacking has emerged as a sought-after field of study. An ethical hacking full course delves into the tools and methods hackers employ to identify vulnerabilities within defensive systems. The curriculum for ethical hacking is diverse across various courses. Here are some prevalent ethical hacking subjects typically incorporated in ethical hacking course syllabus: Introduction to Hacking and Cyber-Ethics Information Gathering Techniques Scanning and Network Reconnaissance Exploring the Google Hacking Database Analysis of Viruses and Worms Understanding Trojans and Backdoors Sniffers and Keyloggers: Functions and Prevention Unveiling Social Engineering Tactics Addressing Email, DNS, and IP Spoofing Enhancing System Security and Countermeasures Exploration of HoneyPots for Threat Detection Future Prospects of Ethical Hacking Upon completing any of the abovementioned courses, a wide spectrum of job opportunities opens up, catering to undergraduates and postgraduate students. The type of job one can secure hinges upon an individual’s skills and expertise. Here are some promising career avenues: Ethical Hacker Ethical hackers play a crucial role in strengthening cybersecurity. They are often called white hat hackers. They apply their knowledge of hacking techniques to assess and identify vulnerabilities in computer systems, networks, and applications.  Simulating real-world attacks helps organisations identify weak points and develop robust defence strategies. Ethical hackers often work for government agencies, financial institutions, tech companies, and cybersecurity firms, ensuring that sensitive data remains secure and safeguarded against potential threats. Information Security Analyst Information security analysts are at the forefront of safeguarding an organisation’s digital assets. They analyse an organisation’s IT infrastructure, identify vulnerabilities, and implement security measures to mitigate risks. They monitor network traffic, conduct security audits, and respond to incidents promptly.  They proactively protect against cyberattacks, data breaches, and unauthorised access by staying updated on the latest cybersecurity threats and solutions. Information security analysts are pivotal in maintaining the integrity and confidentiality of sensitive information. Information Security Manager Information security managers oversee an organisation’s entire cybersecurity strategy. They formulate and implement security policies, educate employees on best practices, and ensure compliance with industry regulations.  Information security managers collaborate with various departments to establish a comprehensive security framework, manage security budgets, and lead incident response teams in the event of a breach. Their role is crucial in adapting to evolving cyber threats. Security Consultant Security consultants provide expert guidance to organisations seeking to enhance their security position. They assess existing security systems, conduct risk assessments, and recommend tailored solutions to address vulnerabilities.  Security consultants work with clients to design and implement security measures, from access controls to encryption protocols. Their expertise helps organisations stay ahead of potential threats, minimise risks, and build resilient defence mechanisms against cyberattacks. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion The digital landscape of today’s time has boosted the importance of ethical hackers. As technology continues to advance, its potential risks and vulnerabilities, too, continue to evolve and rise. The field of information security analysts is set to experience a substantial growth of 35% by 2031. Ethical hackers, thus, play a pivotal role in safeguarding sensitive information, digital infrastructure, and privacy by proactively identifying and rectifying security loopholes. Thus, the market for ethical hackers will only broaden in the future.  Looking for the best hacking course for beginners? If you want to choose ethical hacking as your career, consider pursuing an ethical hacking course online or offline, depending on what suits you the best.  
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by Pavan Vadapalli

14 Sep 2023

Ethical Hacking for Beginners: Everything You Need to Know
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In today’s digital age, where technology is used extensively, keeping our digital items safe is crucial. That’s where ethical hacking comes in – it’s like a digital superhero that defends us against cybercrime. It checks computers, networks, and applications to uncover weak spots before hackers can exploit them. Exploring the world of cybersecurity becomes accessible with an ethical hacking course for beginners. Define Ethical Hacking Ethical hacking, often known as penetration testing, is lawfully breaking into a computer system, application, or network to find vulnerabilities and security shortcomings. It includes replicating the techniques and behaviours of malicious attackers to find possible security flaws before they can be exploited.  Ethical hackers, often known as white hat hackers, are security specialists who conduct these evaluations with the authority of the system owners. Ethical hacking is a blend of technical expertise, creativity, and problem-solving skills, all aimed at keeping our digital world safe and secure. Fundamentals of Ethical Hacking Here are some basics of ethical hacking: An ethical hacker must obtain written permission from the proprietor of the computer system they are testing. Ethical hackers should protect the privacy of the agency being hacked. They perform protection assessments and penetration checking to improve an enterprise’s protection posture. Ethical hacking includes mimicking the movements of malicious attackers to perceive vulnerabilities that can be resolved. Ethical hackers use numerous tools and techniques to experiment with vulnerabilities, take advantage of them, and provide remediation recommendations. Continuous learning and staying updated with modern-day hacking methods and security technologies are essential for ethical hackers. Syllabus of Ethical Hacking Courses Ethical hacking for beginners courses predominantly teach the tools and techniques used by hackers and penetration testers, and they cover three major topics in general — ethical hacking, penetration testing, and cyber forensics. The length and cost of the course vary depending on the institution and subject. Introduction The syllabus for the best hacking course for beginners changes from online platforms to institutions. However, specific themes are covered by all universities/colleges. Some of the common topics include hacking concepts, ethical hacking concepts, information security controls, penetration testing concepts, cyber ethics-hacking introduction, information gathering, scanning, Google hacking database, trojans and backdoors, sniffers and keyloggers, virus and virus analysis, DNS, IP spoofing, HoneyPots, system hacking and security, website hacking and security, and mobile and wireless security.  Ethical Hacking Techniques Here are some ethical hacking techniques covered by all ethical hacking courses: Penetration testing: This entails simulating an assault on a system or network to uncover vulnerabilities that hostile attackers might exploit. Vulnerability scanning: This involves using automated technologies to scan a system or network for known flaws. Wireless network testing: Here, the security of wireless networks is assessed to find flaws that attackers might exploit. Password cracking: This entails attempting to crack passwords to gain unauthorised access to a system or network. Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Ethical Hacking Tools Here are some of the top ethical hacking tools that security professionals use to test the security of computer systems and networks: Nmap: A network mapping tool that helps find hosts and services on a network. Wireshark: A network protocol analyser that collects and looks at network facts. Metasploit: A penetration checking out device that assists in checking the security of computer structures and networks. Aircrack-ng: A package of equipment that may be used to check the safety of wireless networks. Burp Suite: A web software-safety testing device that can be used to check the security of online apps. Nessus: A vulnerability checker that can scan computer structures and networks for flaws. John the Ripper: It is an open-source password security auditing and password recovery tool available for many operating systems. SQLMap: A tool that checks the security of SQL databases. NetBIOS: A device that can accumulate information about a goal community or device. Nikto: A web server checker that tests the safety of internet websites. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Must-Have Skills for Ethical Hackers Here are some of the key skills an ethical hacker must possess: Technical competence: Ethical hackers must be technically adept and have in-depth knowledge of computer interaction. They should possess at least a fundamental grasp of coding abilities in several common languages. Networking skills: One of the most critical talents to become an ethical hacker is networking skills. The computer network is a web of connected devices, commonly defined as hosts, linked using multiple channels to send/receive data or media. Scripting and programming: White hat hackers should have solid hands-on programming abilities and be specialists in scripting. They should be exposed to different operating systems, including Windows and Linux, and understand the backend database. In-depth understanding of security: An extensive understanding of the various risks and weaknesses that can breach organisational systems is essential. They should be aware of the many networking security and safety protocols available. Passion: Ethical hackers must have a passion for problem-solving and remain within the limits of the engagement. Tenacity: They should be tenacious with a passion for continuous learning. Attention to detail: Ethical hackers must pay meticulous attention to detail and be able to spot even the tiniest weaknesses in a system. Analytical skills: White hat hackers should have good analytical skills and be able to think critically to detect potential security concerns. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Significance of Ethical Hacking Ethical hacking is an essential aspect of cybersecurity and has several key benefits: Identifying vulnerabilities: Ethical hackers use their expertise and skills to find possible holes in a system before hostile attackers may exploit them. Preventing data breaches: Ethical hacking helps prevent data breaches by finding and correcting security flaws in a system. Enhancing security measures: It helps firms examine the efficiency of their existing security measures. Staying ahead of cyber risks: The cybersecurity landscape is constantly evolving, with new threats and attack strategies appearing daily. Ethical hacking helps firms avoid these threats by regularly testing and updating their security solutions. Ethical Hacking Types Black Box Penetration Testing: This hacking involves simulating an attack from an external source without prior knowledge of the system being tested. The ethical hacker cannot access internal information and must rely on external reconnaissance tactics to uncover flaws. Gray Box Penetration Testing: The ethical hacker has little knowledge of the system being evaluated in this testing. They may have access to some internal information, such as network diagrams or user passwords, which might aid them in discovering vulnerabilities. White Box Penetration Testing: Also known as clear box or glass box testing, the ethical hacker has full information and access to the system being examined in this testing. They have access to internal documentation, source code, and other sensitive information, allowing them to examine and detect vulnerabilities extensively. Network Penetration Testing: This ethical hacking focuses on detecting weaknesses in a network architecture. It entails analysing the security of routers, switches, firewalls, and other network devices to verify that they are correctly set and secured against potential threats. Web Application Penetration Testing: Online application penetration testing entails examining the security of web applications, such as websites or online-based software. Ethical hackers study the application’s code, configuration, and server architecture to uncover vulnerabilities that attackers might exploit. Seven Steps of Ethical Hacking The seven stages are: Reconnaissance/Footprinting: This step involves obtaining information about the target system or business, such as IP addresses, domain names, and employee names. Scanning: In this stage, the ethical hacker uses tools to scan the target system for vulnerabilities, such as open ports, obsolete software, and weak passwords. Gaining Access: Once vulnerabilities have been found, the ethical hacker seeks to exploit them to access the target system. Maintaining Access: After getting access, the ethical hacker seeks to retain access to the system by building backdoors or installing malware. Clearing traces: In this final stage, the ethical hacker seeks to conceal their traces by erasing logs and other proof of their activity. Reporting: This stage entails documenting the vulnerabilities and exploits uncovered throughout the ethical hacking process and presenting them to the enterprise. Remediation: The last stage entails repairing the vulnerabilities uncovered during the ethical hacking process to improve the security of the system or organisation. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript How Can I Study Ethical Hacking? Here are some steps you can take to start learning ethical hacking: Understand the basics  Before getting into ethical hacking, it’s vital to have a basic grasp of computer systems and networks. This involves knowledge of networking equipment, protocols, webpages, web technologies, and other components of online infrastructures. Get certified  Obtaining an IT security certification can assist in demonstrating your knowledge and expertise in ethical hacking. Some prominent certifications are Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), and Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP). Stay up-to-date Ethical hacking is continually growing. Therefore, staying current with the newest tools, techniques, and vulnerabilities is crucial. This includes attending conferences, engaging in online forums, and following industry experts on social media. What are the Fundamental Needs for Learning Ethical Hacking? Here are some fundamental requirements for learning ethical hacking: Computer Skills: An excellent grasp of computer systems, including business systems, online, social media, and databases. Networking Skills: Knowledge of network models, internet protocols, IP addresses, routers, servers, clients, transmission media, access points, shared data, and network interface cards. Operating System Proficiency: A strong grasp of operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and macOS Programming Skills: Knowledge of programming languages like Python, C, C++, Java, and Ruby. Why Pursue a Career in Ethical Hacking? Here are some reasons why you should consider ethical hacking as a career: Plenty of opportunities: Cyber assaults are rising globally, leading to an ever-increasing demand for ethical hackers. Thus, there are lots of prospects for cybersecurity specialists. Good salary: Ethical hacking is profitable for IT experts or hopefuls with excellent salary packages. Job never gets boring: Ethical hacking is a dynamic area that demands ongoing learning and development of new talents. This guarantees that there is no monotony in the job. Greater sense of achievement: Ethical hackers are critical in safeguarding systems and data against threats and assaults. This might offer them a better sense of achievement. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion Ethical hacking is a rapidly expanding industry with various prospects for anyone interested in cybersecurity. To become a proficient ethical hacker, starting with the basics and developing a rudimentary grasp of computer networking, programming languages, and online applications is vital. It is also necessary to observe ethical rules and acquire consent from the entity that owns the system before undertaking any security evaluation.  Aspiring ethical hackers should be prepared to put in a lot of labour and dedication to uncover and exploit system flaws. With the increasing importance of online security, enrolling in the best ethical hacking course for beginners would be a wise investment.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

14 Sep 2023

Difference between Hub and Switch
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In a computer network, a network device links fax machines, printers, and other electronic devices to the network. Network devices allow quick, accurate, and reliable data transfer across one or more networks. Devices used for network connections encompass hubs and switches designed to facilitate numerous devices’ connection. Hubs operate within the physical layer and are used to forward signals to ports, while switches help manage data routing and transmission in the network web. Hubs and switches share the role of interconnecting devices in a LAN, but switches offer a more efficient and organised approach by selectively forwarding data based on MAC addresses, resulting in improved network performance. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the key points of difference between a hub and a switch to determine their roles in computer networking. This blog is a comprehensive guide to help determine which networking device is better suited to your needs by learning the key points of the hub vs. switch difference. Hub: A Brief Summary  A hub is a fundamental networking tool that joins several computers in a broadcast technique called Local Area Network (LAN). As the number of linked devices rises, this shared broadcast technique may cause network congestion and decreased effectiveness. Compared to more sophisticated devices like switches, the hubs’ shortcomings in controlling network traffic have made them obsolete. A hub’s main purpose is to broadcast and amplify data to all connected devices, but it cannot effectively manage network traffic or intelligently route data to particular recipients. Switch: A Brief Summary  A switch is an OSI data link layer-operated networking device that connects various devices inside a local area network (LAN). A switch, as opposed to a hub, is intelligent enough to recognise the MAC addresses of the devices connected to it. This improves network efficiency and performance by enabling the switch to forward data to the designated device selectively. Switches enable simultaneous data transfer without collisions and enhance overall network functionality by creating distinct collision zones for each of their ports.  Modern networks must have switches because they offer better control over data traffic and maximise the utilisation of available bandwidth. A switch works by forwarding data frames in an intelligent manner according to their MAC addresses.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Different Types of Hubs Here are the three kinds of hubs: Active Hub: An active hub, sometimes called a concentrator, has its own power source. It may clean, enhance, and relay the signal alongside the network. It serves as both a repeater and a wiring centre. They are also used as extensions for two or more nodes. Active hubs have repeating capabilities to strengthen signals in a network. They amplify both signals and noise, which can be a limitation. They can additionally accommodate multiple sets of network connections. Passive Hub: This hub gathers electricity from the active hub and wire from nodes. Passive hubs provide signals to the network without cleaning or amplifying them. It cannot be used to increase the distance between nodes. These hubs do not include any computerised elements and do not process data signals. Their main function is to connect signals from various network cable segments. All devices connected to a passive hub receive all the packets that pass through it. Intelligent Hub: An intelligent hub is an active hub type that offers extra features like network traffic monitoring and management capabilities. These hubs frequently came with fundamental administration features like remote configuration and diagnosis. Intelligent hubs are also known as smart hubs. They have special software that allows them to perform management functions in the network. This software helps in identifying and isolating network issues.  Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Features of Hub Some of the essential hub features have been elucidated below to help you discern the stark differences between hub vs. switch in networking: Compatible with broadcasting and shared bandwidth: A hub is a networking device operating at the OSI model’s physical layer. All devices linked to a hub share the same available bandwidth. When multiple devices attempt to transmit data simultaneously, they contend for access to this shared bandwidth. One broadcast domain and one collision domain: Hubs create a single broadcast domain within a network segment, allowing devices to communicate directly using broadcast packets. Furthermore, they establish a solitary collision domain.  Since all connected devices share this collision domain in a hub, collisions are more likely if multiple devices transmit data concurrently. Working at the OSI model’s physical layer: Hubs operate exclusively at the lowest layer of the OSI model, which is the physical layer. Their primary function is to facilitate the basic transmission of raw data over the physical medium, such as transmitting electrical signals over network cables. Supports half-duplex transmission mode: Hubs typically support half-duplex transmission mode, which means that devices connected to a hub can either transmit or receive data at any given time but not both simultaneously. This contrasts with full-duplex communication, where simultaneous transmission and reception are possible. Packet collisions are more common: Collisions occur when multiple devices connected to a hub attempt to transmit data simultaneously. Due to their basic broadcast-based operation and lack of traffic management capabilities, hubs are more susceptible to packet collisions when compared to network switches, which can intelligently handle and reduce collisions. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Types of Switches There are two types of switches. They have been discussed below:- Manageable switches: Manageable switches are sophisticated networking devices equipped with features that facilitate the configuration and management of a network. They typically come with a dedicated console port, which allows network administrators to establish a direct physical connection for initial setup and troubleshooting.  Additionally, manageable switches can be assigned an IP address, making it possible to manage them remotely over the network.  Unmanageable switches: Unmanageable switches, in contrast, are more straightforward devices primarily designed for plug-and-play simplicity. They lack a console port, meaning that direct physical access for configuration is impossible.  Furthermore, unmanageable switches do not support the assignment of IP addresses. As a result, they cannot be configured or managed remotely through traditional network management protocols or web interfaces.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Features of Switch  These are some key characteristics of the switch:- It is a gadget of the Data Link layer (Layer 2): A network switch operates at the OSI model’s Data Link layer (Layer 2). It examines the MAC (Media Access Control) addresses of incoming Ethernet frames to make forwarding decisions within a local network segment, enhancing efficient data transmission. It operates on a fixed bandwidth: Network switches operate on a fixed or dedicated bandwidth for each port. Each connected device can use the allocated bandwidth simultaneously, ensuring predictable and consistent network performance. It keeps a MAC address database: Switches maintain a MAC address table that records the MAC addresses of devices connected to their ports. This database efficiently forwards data frames only to the appropriate port where the destination device is located, reducing unnecessary network traffic. Enables you to set up a virtual LAN: Switches allow network administrators to configure Virtual LANs (VLANs), logical network segments created within a physical network. This feature enhances network segmentation, security, and traffic management by isolating groups of devices into separate broadcast domains. It operates like a bridge with multiple ports: A network switch can be likened to a multi-port bridge. It intelligently forwards data frames between devices within the same network segment based on MAC addresses, effectively segmenting the network and reducing collision domains. Typically, it has 24-48 ports: Network switches come in various sizes, but typical models are equipped with 24 to 48 ports, accommodating a range of devices within a local network. Larger switches with more ports are available for larger-scale networks. Half-duplex and full-duplex transmission modes are supported: Network switches support both half-duplex and full-duplex transmission modes. In half-duplex mode, devices can transmit or receive data at a given time, while in full-duplex mode, they can simultaneously transmit and receive, improving network efficiency and reducing collisions. Hub vs. Switch  Parameter  Hub Switch Layers Physical layer (Layer 1) Data link layer (Layer 2) Function Broadcasts data to all devices  Selectively forwards data to specific devices based on MAC addresses  Data Transmission Type  Half duplex Half duplex or full duplex  Device Type  Passive device Active device  Used in  (LAN, WAN, MAN) Primarily LAN Primarily LAN Table  No address table MAC address table for forwarding data Transmission mode  Shared network bandwidth Dedicated bandwidth per port Definition Basic networking device connecting devices in a LAN  Advanced networking device intelligently routing data Broadcast Domain  Single Broadcast domain for all devices  Limited to Individual switch ports Speed Typically 10/100 Mbps Can be 10/100/1000/10000 Mbps (Gigabit and beyond) Addresses Used  MAC addresses MAC addresses Necessary for internet connection No, obsolete for modern setups No, replaced by routers and more advanced networking devices  Device Category Outdated  The preferred choice for modern networks Manufacturers Limited presence due to obsolescence Widely manufactured by networking companies  Collisions  Prone to collisions due to shared bandwidth Minimises collisions with individual collision domains Spanning Tree Protocol Not applicable  Used in network loops prevention (RSTP, MSTP) Conclusion  Learning to compare hub vs. switch is pivotal, as it helps you understand the fundamental disparities between these two devices. While hubs merely broadcast data to every connected device, switches emerge as the intelligent orchestrators of data, selectively directing information to the intended recipients based on MAC addresses.  This hub vs. switch difference underscores the evolution in networking paradigms, with switches reigning as the preferred choice in contemporary setups. Their capability to minimise congestion, optimise bandwidth usage, and foster dedicated collision domains exemplifies their superiority in enhancing network performance.  As technology advances and demands grow, the transformative journey from hubs to switches becomes emblematic of the ever-evolving landscape of efficient and responsive network architectures.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

13 Sep 2023

What is Checksum & How it Works?
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Checksums are an essential component of the IP protocol, the underlying technology that enables the internet to function. The checksum method implements the checksum using bit addition and bit complement methods. Using a checksum or other error-detection approach is necessary to identify any damage to the data while it is being transported across the network channel.  This blog will explain what is checksum with examples, how it works, and the many types. Continue reading to learn how to use checksums on different operating systems. What Is Checksum? Checksum is a technique used to determine the authenticity of received data and to detect whether there was an error in transmission. It is an error detection algorithm that adjoins redundant bits in a message for detecting errors and is capable of working on any message length. Before transmission, every piece of data or file might be issued a checksum value after executing a cryptographic hash function.  Checksums function by giving the party on the receiving end information about the transmission to ensure that the complete range of data is transmitted. The checksum value is often a long string of letters and numbers that operate as a fingerprint for a file or set of files to identify the number of bits contained in the transmission.  Checksums are frequently called hash values or unique numbers generated by cryptographic techniques and work like digital data fingerprints. Creating and comparing checksums is sometimes called ‘fixity checking’. Checksums are used to test data integrity and discover data corruption problems. Checksum functions are linked to hash functions, fingerprints, randomisation, and cryptographic hash functions. Why Use Checksum? Here are the reasons to use checksum: Error detection: A checksum facilitates the identification of potential faults that could occur while transmitting data. This lets the recipient juxtapose the received data with the provided checksum value. When a disparity between the checksum and the received data exists, it indicates errors or alterations within the data. Data integrity: Checksums are crucial in preserving data’s integrity and protecting it against tampering or corruption during storage and transit. A comparison between the computed and the received checksum makes it possible to ascertain whether the data has remained unaltered. Anomaly identification: A checksum is produced and sent together with the data before transferring data. The recipient then calculates its checksum from the received data and compares it with the checksum. If they don’t match, it signals that something went wrong in the transmission. Data fidelity: Checksums confirm that the entire dataset has been correctly transferred. If any part of the data is lost or altered during transmission, the checksum will likely not match, indicating a problem. Error localisation: In some circumstances, checksums might help determine where mistakes occurred. By breaking the data into smaller chunks and calculating checksums for each chunk, faults can be traced to specific data segments. Quick verification: Checksums are generally quick and easy to calculate. This makes them efficient for checking data integrity, especially when working with enormous amounts of information. Security: In cryptographic applications, checksums are used to produce digital signatures and verify the authenticity of data. Strong cryptographic checksums provide a layer of protection against unwanted alterations. Checksum Algorithm Types Types of Checksum Algorithms Several checksum algorithms detect errors in data transmissions and verify data integrity. Here are some common types: Longitudinal Parity Check: This is the simplest checksum procedure. It splits the input into “words” with a specified amount of bits and computes the exclusive or (XOR) of all those words. The result is attached to the message as an additional word. Fletcher’s Checksum: Fletcher’s checksum technique is designed to identify flaws that affect many bits at once. It employs a mix of addition and modulo operations to generate the checksum. Adler-32: Adler-32 is a checksum method that fairly balances speed and error detection capability. It employs modular arithmetic techniques to calculate the checksum. Cyclic Redundancy Checks (CRCs): CRCs are commonly used checksum algorithms that can identify various mistakes. They employ polynomial division to calculate the checksum. Cryptographic Hash Functions: Cryptographic hash functions, for example, MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, and SHA-512, find utility in creating cryptographic checksums. These algorithms conduct multiple mathematical processes to obtain a fixed-length hash value that works as a checksum to validate the integrity of a file. Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Step-By-Step Guide to the Checksum Error-Detection Technique  The checksum approach needs a checksum generator and a checksum checker on the sender and receiver sides, respectively. The process entails splitting the data into fixed-sized segments and employing a 1’s complement to find the sum of these segments. The calculated sum is then transmitted simultaneously with the data to the addressee.  At the receiver’s end, the same operation is repeated, and if all zeroes are reached in the total, the data is legitimate. If the result is non-zero, it signals the data comprises a mistake, and the receiver rejects it.  The checksum identifies all the faults involving an odd number of bits and the mistakes involving an even number of bits. The main problem of the checksum technique is that the error goes unnoticed if one or more bits of a subunit are erroneous. The checksum error-detection method involves the following steps: Checksum generator: The sender employs a checksum generator to determine the checksum of the data to be delivered. Adding checksum to data: The checksum is attached to the data and transmitted to the recipient. Checksum checker: The receiver uses a checksum checker to confirm whether the correct data is received. Dividing data into subunits: The receiver separates the received data unit into multiple subunits of equal length. Adding subunits: The receiver adds all these subunits, including the checksum as one of the subunits. Complementing resulting bit: The resulting bit is then complemented. Error detection: The data is error-free if the complemented result is zero. If the result is non-zero, it signifies the data includes an error, and the receiver rejects it. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses Checksum on the Sender’s End [Step wise] The sender side performs the checksum procedure by dividing the original data into blocks, adding them, complementing the result, and getting the checksum. The checksum is subsequently added to the original data bit and data transmission resumes. On the sender side, the following processes are involved in the checksum error-detection approach: Divide the original data into n-bit chunks in each block. Add all k data blocks together. The addition result is supplemented by the complement of one. The data acquired is called the checksum. Combine the checksum value with the original data bit. Start the data transfer. Checksum at the Receiver End [Step wise] Here are the step-by-step instructions for checksum at the receiver side: Divide the supplied data into ‘k’ pieces. Add the checksum value to each of the ‘k’ data blocks. The addition result is supplemented by the complement of one. If the result is 0, there are no mistakes in the data received from the sender, and the receiver accepts the data. If the result is non-zero, the data includes an error, and the receiver rejects it. Detecting Checksum Errors: A Solved Example Here is an example of using checksum for error detection: Assume we wish to send the following 8-bit data: 11010011. We may employ a simple checksum approach to detect flaws in this message. Separate the data into four-bit segments 1101 and 0011. Using 1’s complement arithmetic, add the segments: 1101 + 0011 = 10000. Remove the carry bit and take the result’s 1’s complement: 0111. To generate the sent message, append the checksum to the original data: 110100110111. Divide the received message into four 4-bit segments: 1101, 0011, and 0111. Using 1’s complement arithmetic, add the segments: 1101 + 0011 + 0111 = 10011. Remove the carry bit and take the result’s 1’s complement: 0110. If the result is 0, the received frames are considered error-free. If the result is non-zero, it signifies the data includes an error, and the receiver rejects it. This example demonstrates how to use a checksum to detect problems in data transport. Upper-layer protocols employ checksums as a reliable error detection approach. Popular Courses & Articles on Software Engineering Popular Programs Executive PG Program in Software Development - IIIT B Blockchain Certificate Program - PURDUE Cybersecurity Certificate Program - PURDUE MSC in Computer Science - IIIT B Other Popular Articles Cloud Engineer Salary in the US AWS Solution Architect Salary in US Backend Developer Salary in the US Front End Developer Salary in US Web developer Salary in USA Scrum Master Interview Questions How to Start a Career in Cyber Security Career Options in the US for Engineering Students .wpdt-fs-000020 { font-size: 20px !important;} Sender End [Step wise] Here is a step-by-step example of checksum error detection at the sender side: Divide the data: Divide the original data into blocks of a specific number of bits. Add the data blocks: Combine all of the data blocks. Complement the result: Using 1’s complement, take the complement of the addition result. Obtain the checksum: The checksum is the acquired data after complementing. Let’s take an example to illustrate these steps: Suppose we have the following data to be transmitted: 10110101. Divide the data: Divide the data into blocks with a certain number of bits in each block. Let’s assume we divide it into 4-bit blocks: 1011 and 0101. Add the data blocks: Add all the data blocks together: 1011 + 0101 = 10000. Complement the result: Take the complement of the addition result using 1’s complement: 01111. Obtain the checksum: The resulting data after complementing is known as the checksum. In this situation, the checksum is 01111. The sender will then transfer the original data with the checksum to the recipient. The receiver will conduct the identical processes to produce the checksum and compare it with the received checksum to discover any flaws in the data transmission. Note: This is only a simplified example of checksum error detection stages. In practice, more advanced algorithms and error detection methods may be used. Receiver End [Step wise] Here are the in-depth directions for the receiver side of a solved checksum error detection example: Receive the sender’s data and checksum. Divide the data into equal-sized pieces. Add all of the blocks, including the checksum. Take the sum’s complement. If the complement is 0, the data is error-free and acceptable. If the complement is greater than zero, the data is incorrect and should be disregarded. Upper-layer protocols employ this form of error detection, deemed more trustworthy than other methods such as LRC, VRC, and CRC. Checksum error detection entails computing a number known as the checksum to determine whether or not the data transported from the sender to the receiver has been corrupted. The transmitter uses the checksum generator to check for mistakes, while the receiver uses the checksum checker. The checksum detects any faults involving an odd number of bits and errors involving an even number of bits. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion Checksums are vital for confirming the validity and integrity of data transmissions. They function by assigning a value to a piece of data or file that works as a form of fingerprint, which can be used to detect high-level faults inside data transmissions. Checksums are used in various applications, from software downloads to the fundamental technology that enables the internet to function.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

13 Sep 2023

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