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Ethical Hacker Salary India in 2024 [Freshers and Experienced]
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Summary: In this article, you will learn about the ethical hacker’s salary in India. Ethical Hacking Job Roles Salary per Annum Ethical Hacker 5.02 LPA to 40 LPA Network Security Engineer 2.47 LPA to 10 LPA Cyber Security Analyst 3 LPA to 10 LPA Penetration Tester 6 LPA to 20 LPA Information Security Manager 16 LPA tp 30 LPA Cyber Security Engineer 2.8 LPA to 20 LPA Security Consultant 3.1 LPA to 20 LPA Read more to know each in detail. We read and hear about cyber-attacks and hacking threats constantly. Do you ever wonder who combats these attacks and protects organisations?  The answer is ethical hackers. Unlike traditional hackers, who breach digital security systems to steal data for extorting money, ethical hackers test out the digital security systems to enhance their strength. Even though the role of ethical hackers has been in the industry for several years, demand for ethical hackers is soaring high right now. That’s because we’ve witnessed a significant increase in cyber-attacks in the past decade. What’s more is the techniques used by cybercriminals have become highly advanced and complex, with new variations of malware constantly making it to the market. Naturally, organisations need ethical hackers to mitigate such threats. While this is quite a unique field, it is also financially lucrative. Today, we’ll discuss the average certified ethical hacker salary in India to understand why now is the perfect time to pursue a career in ethical hacking.  Check out our free courses to get an edge over the competition. If you’ve ever wondered about how secure a public WiFi network is, you’ve probably also wondered about all the ways in which the data that we create on a daily basis is liable to be intercepted. And it’s not just about the data that we create or consume – different types of networks have different connections that are protected in various ways, and what would happen if some of those ways were discovered by people who had malicious intentions? Well, if these thoughts have run their course through your mind, and you’re wondering what you can do about it – well, then ethical hacking is the profession for you! But what if you’ve never heard of the term “ethical hacking” before? It’s entirely possible that you’ve only thought about hacking as the thing that people who steal from banks, or museums, or sensitive data – basically you may have only thought of hacking as something that aids criminals in stealing. Check out upGrad: Advanced Certification in Cyber Security That’s just the popular portrayal of it. In reality, hacking can also be used to find out faults with security measures, test the strength of various networks, and much more! And this is what is referred to as ethical hacking. Who is an Ethical Hacker? An ethical hacker or a white hat hacker, is a skilled computer security professional authorized to penetrate computer systems, networks, and applications to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses. The primary goal of an ethical hacker is to proactively find and fix security flaws before malicious hackers or cybercriminals can exploit them. Ethical hackers use their expertise to simulate real-world cyberattacks in a controlled and legal environment. They follow a strict code of ethics and obtain permission from the owners of the systems they are testing before conducting any penetration or security assessments. Doing so helps organizations identify and rectify vulnerabilities that could lead to data breaches, financial losses, or other cybersecurity incidents. Ethical hackers typically deeply understand various hacking techniques, programming languages, networking protocols, and operating systems. They use their knowledge to analyze and assess the security posture of systems, networks, and applications, often using the same tools and methods that malicious hackers might employ. However, their intentions are purely to improve security rather than cause harm. In addition to identifying vulnerabilities, ethical hackers provide recommendations and strategies to mitigate risks and enhance overall security. Their work is crucial in the ongoing effort to protect sensitive information, maintain the integrity of digital systems, and ensure the privacy of individuals and organizations in an increasingly interconnected and digital world. What are the responsibilities of an Ethical Hacker? The responsibilities of an ethical hacker encompass a range of tasks aimed at identifying and addressing vulnerabilities in computer systems, networks, and applications. Here are some of the key responsibilities: Security Assessments Conducting comprehensive security assessments of systems, networks, and applications to identify potential vulnerabilities and weaknesses that malicious actors could exploit. Penetration Testing Performing controlled and simulated cyberattacks to determine the effectiveness of an organization’s security measures. This involves attempting to exploit vulnerabilities in a controlled manner to assess their impact. Vulnerability Identification Identifying software and hardware vulnerabilities, misconfigurations, and other security issues that could compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of data and systems. Risk Analysis Evaluating the potential risks associated with identified vulnerabilities and ranking them based on severity and potential impact. This helps organizations prioritize which vulnerabilities to address first. Reporting Documenting findings from security assessments and penetration tests in detailed reports. These reports typically include information about the vulnerabilities discovered, the methods used to exploit them, and recommendations for remediation. Recommendations Providing actionable recommendations for improving security posture. These recommendations might involve suggesting patches, configuration changes, or best practices to mitigate identified vulnerabilities. Collaboration Working closely with IT and security teams to understand the organization’s infrastructure and systems. Ethical hackers may collaborate with other security professionals to implement security solutions and measures. Continuous Learning Stay up-to-date with the latest hacking techniques, cybersecurity trends, and threats. This continuous learning is essential for staying ahead of cybercriminals and adapting to evolving security landscapes. Legal and Ethical Compliance Ensuring that all activities are conducted within the boundaries of legal and ethical frameworks. Ethical hackers must obtain proper authorization before performing any security assessments and adhere to guidelines to protect the organization’s assets and privacy. Training and Awareness Conducting training sessions and awareness programs for employees to educate them about cybersecurity best practices. This helps organizations foster a security-conscious culture. Incident Response Assisting in incident response efforts by providing insights into the nature of cyberattacks and helping to mitigate their impact. Ethical hackers may contribute to the investigation and recovery process. Code Review Analyzing source code and software applications to identify potential security vulnerabilities and weaknesses. This proactive approach helps prevent security issues from being introduced during the development phase. Why Should you Consider Ethical Hacking? There are many compelling reasons to consider ethical hacking, and some of them may even surprise you! For instance, did you know that there are more cyberattacks occurring per second now than ever before in the history of the universe? The most recent estimate for this is somewhere between one attack every 11 to 14 seconds. This means that companies, no matter their size or strength or turnover, are always under threat of losing their precious data, as well as any industry secrets that they may be guarding closely. Needless to say, this has translated into a very specific concern when it comes to evaluating cybersecurity concerns, as well as threat vulnerability, no matter what part of the spectrum is open to being intercepted. Check Out upGrad Advanced Certification in DevOps And there’s a very logical reason behind the now increased responsibility that needs to be shouldered by ethical hackers. Think about it – data is, without doubt, one of the most important things that a company can produce, acquire, or exchange today. Therefore, it can directly impact a company’s bottom line, not to mention the top line. Ethical hackers are therefore in significant demand these days, not only because they can protect the data that companies need on a daily basis, but also because they can provide significant inputs into how to make the extant security systems better and more efficient in terms of guarding against rogue attacks and specific malware. If you like a job where you feel the pressure of performing every single day, then ethical hacking is the right career choice for you! If you’ve already accepted that one of the best ways to get noticed is by setting yourself up in do-or-die situations, then ethical hacking may be the exact fit for you! Read on to find out what kind of careers await you in the wonderful field of ethical hacking. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Why are Ethical Hackers in Demand? Considering the importance placed on ethical hacking as well as everything else that is related to it, it’s worth it to spend some more time trying to understand the demand. It comes from the fact that data breaches are ultimately not a matter of possibility but rather one of temporality. This basically means that data breaches are going to happen sooner rather than later, and it’s in the best interest of every company to keep their data in the hands and minds of people whose entire job consists of protecting this very data. Moreover, businesses that choose to invest in their cybersecurity make sure that they also have an edge over other companies simply because they go the extra mile to ensure that there are no security lapses. When it comes to stakeholders of companies – especially those who are not experts in tech, let alone cybersecurity – they understand how important it can be to maintain a competitive edge over other competitors and therefore understand the importance of this investment as well. Ethical hacking-related roles such as penetration tester, computer security, or web security and encryption can easily make the companies pay INR 5 to 9 LPA. Thus on average, the ethical hacker salary per month in India is around INR 5 LPA. However, the highest salary of ethical hacker in India can rise up to INR 30 LPA as well. Factors such as ethical hacker monthly salary in India can easily waver due to factors like experience and skillset, so make sure to strengthen your resume.  As you read this, companies across the world have widened up to the security requirements of the present age. There are now as many as 3 times the ethical hacker jobs than there are people who can do the work that these jobs entail. This basically means that vacancies are increasing at a steady rate as companies start looking to find people to fill up these roles, while the general demand for these roles increases at an alarming rate.   Some of the other reasons why cybersecurity has come into its own as a business concern is an increasing rate at which cloud computing has been taken up by companies of all sizes and belonging to all industries. This not only puts their entire business data online but also exposes them to security issues that come with inconsistent security updates. In addition to this, security spending has grown at a fast pace, and when coupled with the overall number of internet users, it only means that there is an ever-growing need to be security conscious. This being said, there is yet another factor that ties everything –  every single online threat is increasing in the type of complexity and range of impact. So, every single company out there is looking to diversify their knowledge base when it comes to cybersecurity and understanding how best to deal with the demands of security needs.  Now let’s take a look at some of the career opportunities in the field of ethical hacking in specific and cybersecurity in general. Why is the Ethical Hacker salary in India high? Ethical hackers ensure that a company remains safe from any form of data breaches. They install and incorporate the appropriate safety infrastructure, measures, and technologies to prevent system breach or violation. The looming threat of cybercrimes is ever prevalent today. According to the Government of India, cyber attacks in India rose by 300% in 2020. Be it small businesses or large corporations, government agencies or private companies – nobody is safe from hackers. A single data breach can result in a staggering financial loss for an organisation. When it comes to national security issues, the Indian government has to pay special attention to fortify the cybersecurity infrastructure. Just a few months ago, the data of 2 crores Bigbasket users, a popular grocery delivery platform, was compromised. Similarly, unknown hackers made a ransomware attack on Haldiram and demanded $7,50,000 from the namkeen manufacturer. These stats and instances show how crucial it is for organisations of all shapes and sizes to invest in cybersecurity and hire the right professionals for it. Since cybersecurity is a complex and highly specialised field, the average ethical hacker salary in India is pretty high. Another reason why ethical hackers’ salary is high is that there’s a lack of talent in this domain. Even though there’s a huge demand for ethical hackers and cybersecurity professionals in India, the supply is quite limited. Hence, companies pay handsomely for these roles to attract the best talent.  Many companies have started adopting cloud computing technologies to store their data. While cloud computing solutions promise efficiency, speed, and reduced costs to their users, they make the data more vulnerable to ransomware and malware attacks. This has also caused an uptick in demand for ethical hackers. Global spending on cybersecurity is also expected to exceed $1 trillion by 2022. Most importantly, government associations such as CBI, and ICERT under DeitY (Department of Electronica and Information Technology), recruit cyber security experts. In such a way, one can get a reliable source of income, and for such cases, a mid-level ethical hacker monthly salary in India may range anywhere from 40K to 60K. Hacker jobs in CBI salary can be estimated near this figure as not much is known about it. However, considering the importance of this role, Hacker jobs in CBI salary would be significantly higher than generic hacker jobs.  Ethical Hacking Career Opportunities, Salaries, and Progression The ethical hacker salary in India ranges from INR 1.77 lakh per annum and goes up to INR 40 lakh per annum. Bonus for this role ranges from INR 5,000 to INR 2 lakh, whereas shared profits go up to INR 5.11 lakh.  The certified ethical hacker ranges so vastly because it depends on many factors, including your experience, company reputation, skills, location, company’s pay structure, etc.  Many ethical hackers choose to become self-employed and launch their own business. This is an ideal pathway for those who want to freelance. If you have a knack for entrepreneurship, you can even launch your cybersecurity firm. However, it would be best to gain some experience in the field before you start your business.  Becoming a successful ethical career doesn’t require one and only path – it is a multifaceted role, and therefore has multiple points of entry, as well as unique growth opportunities that can take you in some very different directions in your professional career! No matter whether you’re coming into this role directly from a college degree or if you’ve had some IT experience in a different field, you can still come into this field with the expectation that you will grow and can make a name for yourself by providing the practical knowledge that gets the work done! The salary of ethical hacker largely depends on the skills they have and how knowledgeable they are about the field rather than how many years of practice they have. As per Glassdoor, an ethical hacker salary in Google per month is around INR 5 lakhs! Factors Affecting Ethical Hacker Salary in India In most cases where individuals work freelance, it becomes difficult to estimate the ethical hacker salary per month. The reason why the salary range of ethical hackers in India varies greatly is due to multiple factors. However, out of those numerous factors, the most notable ones are: Your location (the city you work in). Your experience (how many years you have spent in the industry). Your skills (your expertise in the trade). Your employer (which company you work for) Your job role Understanding these factors can help you in determining how much you can expect to earn from this role. Moreover, you can use this information to plan your career more effectively.  In the following points, we’ll discuss these four factors in more detail: Location The city you work in plays a huge role in determining how much you’ll make as an ethical hacker.  Pay for ethical hackers varies from city to city. That’s because the cost of living is different for every city. Living in a metro city would be more expensive than a non-metro city. Moreover, a city’s work environment and culture also influence the average pay offered in that place. Hence, the highest salary of ethical hacker in India can differ in particular places.  Cities that offer the best pay to ethical hackers in India are: Hyderabad (49% more than the average) Delhi (19% more than the average) Kolkata (19% more than the average) Jaipur (50% more than the average) Similarly, some cities offer below-average pay to ethical hackers in India. These cities include: Pune (21% less than the average) Mumbai (21% less than the average) Bangalore (10% less than the average) Experience Another notable factor that affects your ethical hacker salary in India is the amount of experience you have as a professional. Generally, as you gain more experience in the field, the higher your pay will be. Entry-level and early-career ethical hackers earn 2% and 5% less than the average, whereas late-career ethical hackers make 447% more than the average. Ethical hackers with less than a year’s experience earn INR 4.93 lakh per annum on average in India. Those with five to nine years of professional experience in this field make INR 7 lakh per annum on average.  On the other hand, ethical hackers with 10 to 19 years of professional experience earn INR 30 lakh per annum on average. You should keep in mind that you can get promoted to senior roles in your organisation that pay much higher salaries with experience.  Skills Your knowledge of this field and your technical expertise will help you greatly in attracting higher pay as an ethical hacker. Developing the most in-demand skills is the best way to command high-pay as a professional.  You should focus on seeing which skills are popular in this field and which skills offer the best pay. In terms of popularity, the most popular skills among ethical hackers are cybersecurity, Linux, network security management, and IT security & infrastructure.  Alternatively, the most financially beneficial skill for ethical hackers is network management as it offers 59% higher than average pay. Other skills that offer above-average pay to ethical hackers are computer security and IT security & infrastructure – each of them offers 9% higher than average pay.  Company Different organisations offer different salaries to ethical hackers. Companies that provide some of the best salaries to ethical hackers are HCL Technologies and Tata Consultancy Services. The pay of ethical hackers at Tata Consultancy Services ranges from INR 5.17 lakh per annum to INR 5.54 lakh per annum.  You should choose your employer carefully in this field. We recommend doing thorough research on different organisations before selecting a particular company.  Job Roles Ethical hacking is a branch of cybersecurity. There are a plethora of career opportunities in this field. Following are some of the most lucrative job roles you can pursue in this field 1. Ethical Hacker An ethical hacker tests the digital security implementations of an organisation to identify its weaknesses and suggest improvements accordingly. They are experts who can penetrate networks to find security vulnerabilities. Black-hat hackers exploit these vulnerabilities to breach an organisation’s cybersecurity system. Hence, ethical hackers regularly check the company’s network security systems to identify vulnerable areas and fix them. They also train the organisation’s staff about the best security practices and standards.  What is the average ethical hacker salary in India? The average ethical hacking salary in India is INR 5.02 lakh per annum. Pay in this field can go up to INR 40 lakh per annum depending on your experience, skills, and other factors.  2. Network Security Engineer A network security engineer handles and manages the overall technology stack of an organisation. Network security engineers provision, deploy, configure, and administer the various network and security-related hardware and software of a company.  They maintain firewall, web security programs, virtual private networks, etc. They also support the code environment to protect switches, servers, and the organisation’s IT infrastructure.  What is the average network security engineer salary in India? The average network security engineer salary in India is INR 5.34 lakh per annum. Pay for this field starts from INR 2.47 lakh per annum and goes up to INR 10 lakh per annum. Notable skills in this field are security policies and procedures, WAF (Web App Firewall), and IT security & infrastructure. 3. Cyber Security Analyst A cybersecurity analyst is responsible for protecting an organisation from cyber threats. They do so by using various processes and technologies that detect and prevent these threats.  Cybersecurity analysts are responsible for testing their organisation’s security implementations to determine how well they perform against real threats. They work with other cybersecurity professionals to help strengthen their company’s defences against hackers and malware. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript What is the average cybersecurity analyst salary in India? A cybersecurity analyst in India earns an average salary of INR 5.29 lakh per annum. Their pay starts from INR 3 lakh per annum and goes up to INR 10 lakh per year, depending on their experience and skills. 4. Penetration tester: A penetration tester, aka pen tester, is an individual who performs simulated cyberattacks on a company’s computer systems and networks to assure the effectiveness of its firewalls and other cyber security measures. With the help of a pen tester, the companies can identify the potential vulnerabilities and weaknesses before actual hackers try to breach in.  A pen tester is responsible for performing tests on applications, designing and conducting simulated social engineering attacks, researching different types of attacks, reverse engineering malware spam, writing technical and executive reports, and automating the repetitive tests to make the process more efficient, etc. Compared to the ethical hacker salary in Google per month, the penetration tester salary might be a bit lower but, the job role is pretty lucrative to miss out! What is the average pen tester salary in India?  The average penetration tester salary in India is around INR 6 Lakh per annum. However, based on varied reasons, the pay may also rise up to 20 lakh per annum. Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses 5. Information security manager: An information security manager is responsible for overseeing and controlling a business’s computer-related security aspects. The managerial role demands the individual to plan and carry out security measures to protect the business from any sorts of data breach and malware attacks, or even unauthorised access.  Their responsibilities include upgrading the existing security systems, testing security products, overseeing stimulated breaches and detecting weaknesses, preparing technical documentation, making disaster recovery plans, etc.  What is the average information security manager salary in India? The average salary of an information security manager in India is around INR 16 lakh per annum and can easily escalate up to INR 30 lakh per annum. 6. Cyber security engineer: A cyber security engineer helps a company to design and implement methodologies that secure the company’s cyberspace. The major roles and responsibilities include planning, implementing, monitoring, and also upgrading the security measures, troubleshooting the network bugs, ensuring the protection of the organization’s data and infrastructure, testing and spotting the network and system vulnerabilities, and evaluating the company’s security needs, etc.  Good problem-solving ability and in-depth knowledge of computer science are the two essential skills required for the job.  What is the average cyber security engineer salary in India? A cyber security engineer in India errands an average of INR 6.5 lakhs per annum. However, for various reasons, it may range between 2.8  to 20 lakh per annum. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 7. Security Consultant: Security consultants may work under any agency or provide individual services. In both cases, their job is to engage with the clients, understand their security needs, and provide them with scope solutions that protect their computer networks and digital assets. Security consultants may also design and implement strategies to improve organizational cybersecurity.  What is the average security consultant salary in India? On average, a security consultant in India may earn around INR 8.4 lakhs per annum; however, in varied circumstances, the earnings may range anywhere between 3.1 to 20 lakhs per annum.  Ethical Hacker Salary in Other Countries (UK & USA) Apart from India, the demand for ethical hackers is significantly high all across the globe. Organisations everywhere realise the importance of cybersecurity implementations and want to protect themselves from the dangers of hackers and malware. Ethical Hacker salary in the US The average ethical hacking salary in the US is $93,566. Popular employers for ethical hackers in the US include Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Lockheed Martin Corp, US Army, and Northrop Grumman Corporation.  Ethical Hacker salary in the UK In the UK, the average ethical hacking salary is £44,525 per annum. Prominent employers for ethical hackers in the UK include BT Group, Claranet, Barclays Bank PLC, CGI Group Inc, etc.  What is the future of ethical hacking? The career of ethical hacking and related fields poses an infinite future both in government and corporate fields. Career prospects are expected to only rise exponentially as the use of the internet and related fields keep growing. With the continuous use of social media and the internet, the number of internet crimes is increasing, adding to the demand for ethical hackers and related cyber security roles. Apart from that, the finance industry is also showing a great inclination towards technological advancements, making it inevitable for them to hire cyber security personnel. The surge in people with the knowledge of ethical hacking will also significantly increase the salary of ethical hackers. Even as per the reports of google trends, people’s interest in ethical hacking has grown compared to the last year. Along with that, as per the reports of Cybercrime magazine, there will be approximately 3.5 million global job openings in the year 2025 How to become an Ethical Hacker? By now, it’s clear to you that ethical hackers are the front-line defence of any organization against cyber threats. An ethical hacker must be well-versed with cryptography, computer networks, and the basics of Internet security. If you’re interested in pursuing a career in this field, you should take a cybersecurity course. Taking a cybersecurity course will help you learn all the required concepts through a structured curriculum in a stepwise manner.  At upGrad, we offer the following two cybersecurity courses: Advanced Certificate Programme in Cyber Security  It’s an online program that lasts for 7.5 months only. You will get 300+ hours of study material in this program with all of our exclusive benefits. You will learn about network security in ethical hacking, application security in ethical hacking, and plenty of other related concepts.  Both of these courses allow you to study directly from the industry through live sessions, videos, lectures, and assignments. The projects allow you to test your knowledge of the subjects you learn during these problems and see how much you have learnt.  What are the Different Roles you can get as an Entry-Level Ethical Hacker?  There are many roles that you can get as you start out – and the most require that you’ll have to fulfil is to have general IT knowledge and experience. Once you’ve understood the theoretical bits, you can implement that to understand how to protect knowledge in practice. Here are some of the jobs you can get: Web administrator IT technician Database administrator Security administrator Web developer Now, although these jobs don’t directly have “ethical hacker” or “cybersecurity” in the job description, there is a very definite option to graduate into those roles from these more basic positions. All you’ll need to do is take up a cybersecurity course online – and from there, everything can get sorted for you, in terms of having precedence for a cybersecurity job role! For these entry-level positions, you can earn an average of INR 2.5 lacs per annum, and it can go up to INR 5 per annum as well! From here on out, it gets much more lucrative from a strictly financial perspective. Moreover, the quality of work also gets more engaging and you can end up expressing yourself in a much more satisfying manner as well. Your best bet will be to consider some certifications that will take up specific management issues, thus making your contributions to any role that much more helpful. The Next Step: Ethical Hacking Once you’ve completed the required certifications, you can take a look at ethical hacking as a full-time job option. As an ethical hacker – or a penetration tester, testing how deep the security of the network penetrates into the network – you will be looking at the various weak spots that can exist in a particular network. You will basically be simulating actual cyber-attacks so that you know which part of the network is the most vulnerable and to which part of your attack. The median salary for an ethical hacker is around INR 5 LPA. With up to 3-5 years of experience, it can go up to INR 7.2 LPA as well. The job of an ethical hacker includes penetration testing on all parts of extant networks to make sure that they can handle performance stress tests. They also have to make sure that they can communicate their research to other teams in the same organization so that they can improve upon the network’s faults, especially when it comes to existing security holes. Once they have understood which specific vulnerabilities get triggered through which attacks, their task becomes to make sure that there are newer, more improved tests to make sure that the network can continue to be protected. Once you have spent some time trying to contend with various networks and how well they can hold up under specific stresses of cyber attacks, you can move onwards to make sense of the entirety of the security architecture that encompasses the network all around. The easiest way to reach the next step is to take certain online certifications that will significantly bolster your resume and make you a strong contender for the role of a security architect. And you can read all about it below! The Next Step: Security Architecture Once you’ve figured out the basics of IT security and ethical hacking, the next logical step is to work your way towards understanding security architecture as a whole. Here, you can contend with how larger structures operate and how they impact every little aspect of the way things function within them. Security architecture is largely concerned with how a security network functions within an organization. So, a security architect looks at how the overall structure is designed and how it is built and how it is implemented. Their primary task is to protect against intrusive malware or viruses, or other kinds of attacks. As a security architect, you can earn a significant amount of money when it comes to having a job that involves security architecture. Typically, you’d need at least 7 to 10 years of experience in the security field to reach this position, and once you’ve reached this level of experience, this job will not only make sense but also offer itself a great opportunity for you. The base salary for a security architect is around 19.8 LPA and can go as high up as 30 LPA! So, needless to say, it is a monetarily lucrative position, and it will even satisfy you in terms of what you will have to do on a daily basis.  As a security architect, your job will include designing security systems that can serve across a huge range of IT projects. You will also have to understand what kinds of requirements are relevant when it comes to certain networks or network devices, and undertake risk analysis as well as perform vulnerability testing on all kinds of networks. In addition to this, you’ll also have to implement the best systems and practices for all the networks under your jurisdiction.   The Last Step: Chief Information Security Officer After you’ve worked your way through the earlier levels, you’ll reach a stage when you have a thorough understanding of security networks and processes, how these structures are constructed and how to build them on your own. At this point, your natural tendency will be to want to do more of the same, in as far and wide a range as possible. And this is exactly what the role of the Chief Information Security Officer will allow you to achieve! As the “Chief” title may give away, there is a lot at stake here, and a lot to gain as a result. Let’s take a quick look at what this role consists of, and how you’ll have to wrap your head around it! Well, at a basic level, you’ll have to handle and oversee all of the security initiatives in your company, and make sure that everything is always on point when it comes to tactical protection from threats, as well as to make sure that there are no open vulnerabilities on your part either. This role provides a certain degree of freedom in terms of how you have to operate on a daily basis. As long as you get the results that the company requires, you have full control over how you set up your daily operations and how you delegate work to others. In the role of this responsibility, you will be reporting to either the Chief Information Officer or the Chief Executive Officer. To reach this level, you will already have to have spent over a decade in the IT industry as a security specialist before you can be eligible. The more time that you spend dealing with security teams and overall security ops, the more the dice will be in your favour. The average salary of a CISO is 23 LPA, and it can go as high up as 55 LPA, or even more! As a CISO, your daily job role will involve you in managing IT security levels of all expertise and skill levels. You will also have to work closely with corporate stakeholders to understand their requirements when it comes to the security front, as well as creating plans for utilizing information security technologies to the best of their capabilities. Corporate security will of course be a great part of your job role, you will also have to step in whenever there’s a possible data breach or vulnerability being exposed, and you will need to know exactly which steps to take to make sure that things go well from that point onwards. Overall, this is no doubt going to be a very demanding role – but if you know exactly what you want from your work, and you can do that work well, this will be a very enjoyable role for you! Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Top MNCs Hiring Ethical Hackers in India In the dynamic landscape of cybersecurity, ethical hacking has become integral to safeguarding organizations against cyber threats. If you’re looking for a rewarding career as an ethical hacker in India, several reputable companies offer exciting opportunities. Accenture Overview: Accenture is one of the world’s largest consulting firms, boasting a global presence with offices in over 120 countries. The company specializes in diverse services, including IT, business, and management consulting. Ethical Hacking Role: Within Accenture, ethical hackers are crucial in assisting clients in securing their systems. By identifying vulnerabilities before malicious actors can exploit them, these professionals contribute to robust cybersecurity measures. Wipro Overview: Wipro, a global IT services company, operates in over 50 countries, offering a spectrum of services ranging from software engineering to system integration. Ethical Hacking Role: Wipro’s ethical hacking team is instrumental in fortifying client systems against cyber threats. Their focus is proactively identifying vulnerabilities and ensuring preemptive measures are taken to bolster cybersecurity. IBM Overview: IBM, a technological giant, provides a conducive environment for ethical hackers to thrive. The company boasts a dedicated division, the Security Innovation Lab, fostering skill development. Ethical Hacking Role: Ethical hackers at IBM are actively involved in enhancing their skills through specialized programs. Collaborations with organizations like HireTECH Talent Solutions further open avenues for rewarding career opportunities within the company. Capgemini Overview: Capgemini, a global corporation, offers a range of training programs to nurture ethical hacking skills. The company is recognized for providing comprehensive benefits and ample opportunities for continuous learning. Ethical Hacking Role: Ethical hackers at Capgemini engage in ongoing skill development initiatives. The company’s commitment to training ensures that professionals stay at the forefront of cybersecurity advancements. Amazon Overview: Amazon, a renowned e-commerce and technology company, stands out for its strong reputation in the industry. Ethical Hacking Role: Ethical hackers at Amazon benefit from working in an environment that thrives on innovation and collaboration. The company’s commitment to cybersecurity means that ethical hackers contribute to maintaining the highest standards of security within the organization. Top Skills Needed to Become an Ethical Hacker Planning to make a career as an ethical hacker demands a multifaceted skill set that extends beyond cybersecurity. To navigate the intricacies of ethical hacking effectively, professionals must possess expertise in programming and scripting, networking, hardware knowledge, and a profound understanding of security concepts. Programming and Scripting Proficiency Ethical hackers are not merely users of existing tools; they need the ability to create customized solutions tailored to unique challenges. This necessitates a strong command of programming languages and scripting. Application: From deciphering existing codebases to crafting scripts from scratch, ethical hackers leverage programming skills to develop tools and methodologies that enhance their ability to identify vulnerabilities and mitigate potential threats. Networking Acumen Understanding the intricate workings of networks is paramount for ethical hackers. This encompasses comprehending data flow dynamics, troubleshooting issues that may arise at choke points, and cultivating effective networking skills for collaboration within the cybersecurity community. Application: Ethical hackers delve into the intricacies of network architectures, gaining insights into how data traverses through various nodes. Networking proficiency allows them to decipher potential vulnerabilities and optimize security measures. Hardware Knowledge Mastery A comprehensive grasp of hardware components within a network is indispensable for ethical hackers. This includes routers, switches, and other devices orchestrating the data flow and an understanding of the software running on these machines. Application: Ethical hackers navigate the complexities of hardware configurations, ensuring a holistic understanding of the interconnected systems. This knowledge extends to wireless networks and diverse devices connected via various mediums, empowering ethical hackers to identify potential security loopholes. Security Concepts Expertise Ethical hacking necessitates a profound comprehension of security concepts. This encompasses encryption algorithms (e.g., SHA-1 vs. MD5), hashing algorithms (MD5 vs. SHA-1), and distinctions between symmetric and asymmetric keys (e.g., AES vs. RSA). Application: Ethical hackers leverage their knowledge of security concepts to evaluate and strengthen the resilience of systems against potential threats. This expertise informs their decision-making processes, ensuring robust security protocols that align with industry standards. What are the Tips to Increase Ethical Hacker Salary Potential? Becoming an not only about passion for cybersecurity but also about maximizing your earning potential making way for a salary of ethical hacker in india. To achieve this, consider the following tips encompassing skill development, industry visibility, and strategic career choices including pptions to get ceh salary  or ceh salary in india. Continuous Skill Enhancement Investing in continuous skill enhancement is fundamental to maximizing your ethical hacker salary. Stay abreast of emerging technologies, tools, and programming languages relevant to cybersecurity. Regularly update your knowledge to align with the dynamic nature of cyber threats and countermeasures. Build a Robust Professional Network Networking is a powerful tool in the cybersecurity realm. Attend industry conferences, engage with professionals on social platforms, and participate in cybersecurity forums. A strong professional network can open doors to lucrative opportunities, including high-paying ethical hacking roles including ones to have good government hacker salary in India. Gain Specialized Expertise Diversify and specialize your skill set to cater to niche areas within ethical hacking. Specialized expertise, such as penetration testing, mobile security, or cloud security, can make you stand out in the job market, commanding higher salaries for your specialized knowledge. Showcase Practical Experience Employers highly value practical experience in ethical hacking. Beyond certifications, actively engage in real-world projects, contribute to open-source security tools, or participate in bug bounty programs. Practical experience demonstrates your ability to apply theoretical knowledge and can significantly impact salary negotiations. Stay Informed on Market Trends Keep a vigilant eye on market trends, especially regarding the demand for specific ethical hacking skills. Align your skill development efforts with industry needs, positioning yourself as a valuable asset in high-demand areas. Being proactive in adapting to market trends ensures your skills remain relevant and sought after. Pursue Advanced Certifications Acquiring industry-recognized certifications validates your expertise and significantly impacts your earning potential. Certifications such as Certified Ethical Hacker, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), and Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) are highly esteemed in the field and can enhance your marketability. Conclusion If you’ve read through this entire article then there’s a really high chance that the security bug has bitten you and you want to do your best to make sure that all your security systems are on the correct track. And why not, what good is an ethical hacker if they can’t secure their own systems? But other than that, you’ve also understood that ethical hacking is a very lucrative field, with a lot of growth opportunities – both in terms of work and in terms of money. So get started on your path to becoming an ethical hacker today, and don’t look back! The quicker you start, the sooner you’ll reach the zenith of your career! If you want to pursue this profession, upGrad and IIIT-B can help you with an Advanced Certificate Programme in Cyber Security. The course offers specialization in application security, cryptography, data secrecy, and network security.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

19 Feb 2024

6 Exciting Cyber Security Project Ideas & Topics For Freshers & Experienced [2024]
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Summary: In this article, you will learn the 6 Exciting Cyber Security Project Ideas & Topics. Take a glimpse below. Keylogger projects Network traffic analysis Caesar Cipher Decoder Antivirus Build your own encryption software Bug Bounties and Hackathons Read the complete article to get detailed information on 6 Exciting Cyber Security Project Ideas & Topics. If you plan to plunge into a career in cyber security software development, then your preparation starts with understanding three key aspects. Above all, you need to know whether cyber security is the right career choice or not. Next, learn about the skills that you need to nurture for this career. And your end goal is to understand how you can get picked for a promising job in this field? First of all, there should be no reason why it won’t be a good career choice. Secondly, for learning the requisite technical skills, you can pursue a degree in software development with a specialization in cybersecurity. However, the most challenging part is the job competition. Do you know, an employer scans a resume in 6 seconds! So, you have very limited time to impress him. Check out our free  courses to get an edge over the competition. Mentioning your independent cyber security projects in the resume is one way to have the edge over others. Your projects are like testimonies that justify your technical skills, and this can make your profile stand out in the competition. So, this article will also explain six cyber security project ideas that you can try. In this blog post, we’ll walk you through a few cybersecurity project ideas you may try. These projects would range in difficulty from beginning to advanced, and they would include example source codes. Must Read: Cyber Security Salary in India What is Cyber Security? The organization of technologies, procedures, and methods designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, damage, malware, viruses, hacking, data theft, or unauthorized access is referred to as cyber security. The primary goal of cyber security is to protect the confidentiality of all organizational data from both external and internal threats, as well as disruptions caused by natural disasters. Check out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in Cyber Security Use Cases of Cyber Security Network Threat Identification It takes a long time for large-scale company networks to identify harmful apps among hundreds of identical programmes. For instance, Versive, an AI company, offers cybersecurity software that uses disharmony detection to identify weak security issues. Model user behaviour Hackers who have obtained a client’s consent can enter a company’s network via legitimate methods, and they are extremely difficult to stop and identify. Therefore, a risk management system may be utilised to spot changes in such procedures and identify obvious consumer behaviour patterns in passwords. When the pattern fails, they will notify their cybersecurity teams in this way.  Automatically enhancing threat intelligence Threat intelligence must be enriched as part of any event or threat investigation procedure. Up until now, the process has mostly been manual, requiring intelligence analysts to manually improve indications and search through several trustworthy sources. What is the whole point of cybersecurity projects? Beginners can improve their abilities using the best cyber security projects. Projects offer practical opportunities to investigate cybersecurity basics, put crucial skills to the test, and gain experience with designing cybersecurity solutions. Important skills like threat detection and mitigation, identity access and management (IAM) governance, and vulnerability assessment and remediation techniques can be taught through cybersecurity projects. The skills that aspiring cybersecurity experts need to land a job are taught in strong boot camp programs using project-based learning. Students can pass cybersecurity certification exams like the CompTIA Security+ with the aid of projects. There are many best cyber security projects available that also demonstrate to recruiters that you are technically competent and have a knack for solving problems. These cyber security projects for final year students are bound to bring attention to your candidature.  Is Cyber security the Right Career Choice? Many who are already into the software development or IT sector aim to leap into a career in internet security, considering that it is a lucrative job and day-by-day becoming more relevant as everything, especially businesses, shifts to the digital space and becoming data-driven. The urgent need for robust cyber security software programs can be rightly perceived by referring to the findings of the National Computer Security Survey (NCSS) conducted by the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics. At university or university at home, choice is yours ! The grave reality is that while businesses are advancing banking on newer technologies, there even the cybercriminals are constantly finding new technologies to target their victims; they adapt at a fast pace. Internet security reports from different companies like Macfee, Symantec, Cisco, Varonis, and others, reflect frightening statistics on how cybercriminals target victims through lifestyle apps, emails, smart home device apps, etc. As per the 2019 Official Annual Cybercrime Report by Herjavec Group, cybercrime is the greatest threat to the companies. As per the sources, the report predicts that cybercrime will cost the world $6 trillion annually by 2022. These statistics clearly define why businesses are becoming increasingly aware and serious about cybersecurity. They acknowledge that one of the effective ways to combat cybercriminals is to develop robust security infrastructure for the digital space. This is where businesses need competent cyber security software developers. Thus, from a career perspective, cyber security software developers can definitely hope for a bright future with sustainable career growth opportunities. Check out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in Cloud Computing Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses What skills do you need to nurture for a career in cyber security software development? A software developer working for the best cyber security projects has the responsibility to develop and integrate security tools like malware detectors, spyware, intrusion detection, and more at each stage of software development.  He/she is also accountable for integrating the other necessary cyber security technologies and components to ensure the entire organization’s network’s overall safety so that the business data can’t be breached.  He/she is expected to be proactive and prompt in detecting any kind of malicious behavior and fix it before it becomes too unruly, leading to some sort of security breach. As far as technical knowledge is considered, it is good to know about computer science engineering for an aspiring cyber security software developer. Above that, he/she requires to garner theoretical plus practical knowledge about application security, data secrecy, cryptography, network security, and much more. For professionals, who are already working in IT companies as data professionals, coding professionals, software test engineers, IT project leads, etc., leaping into a career of cyber security software development is not at all challenging. Without taking a break from their existing jobs, they can enroll in online diploma programs that offer cybersecurity specialization. Usually, the minimum eligibility criteria for such programs are graduation degrees; however, candidates with a computer science engineering degree are likely to adapt to cyber security concepts more proficiently. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4 How can you get picked for a promising job in the field of cybersecurity? Enrolling in a well-structured diploma program, wherein world-class faculty members & industry experts offer lessons, can sufficiently help you garner the technical knowledge and skills required for handling real-world job responsibilities. However, before you lend into a job, you have the colossal task of surpassing the job competition. According to research studies conducted by business.time.com and linkedin.com in 2012 and 2017, respectively, an employer looks over an applicant’s resume for roughly around six seconds. So, you are competing in a condensed space, wherein you have approximately 6 seconds to make yourself stand out among other applicants eyeing the same job. You may have the best of technical expertise, but how will you convey that to your HR or the employer in 6 seconds? One of the most effective ways to stand out in the competition is to make your resume eye-catchy by mentioning your mini projects in it.  Taking up cyber security projects not just gives you hands-on-experience of technologies related to internet security but also enhances your soft skills in handling real-world job responsibilities.  Taking up such projects and mentioning them in your resume makes your employer interested in you. He gets something concrete to judge your competency and relevancy to his company’s requirements.   In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Cyber Security Use Cases Incorporating threat intelligence enrichment is an imperative facet of any incident or threat investigation protocol. Historically, this process has predominantly entailed manual efforts, with intelligence analysts laboriously augmenting indicators and meticulously sifting through a multitude of dependable sources.  Detecting fraudulent applications within extensive enterprise networks has proven time-consuming, particularly when dealing with a plethora of similar programs. Noteworthy instances encompass cybersecurity software employing dissonance detection methodology to uncover vulnerabilities that might compromise security integrity. These nuances resonate significantly within the realm of cyber security projects for students, offering a compelling avenue for engaging in impactful and insightful cybersecurity projects. Top 6 Cyber Security Project Ideas Individual cybersecurity projects provide people with the chance to evaluate and confirm their technical knowledge while also giving them a chance to stand out on resumes. Aspiring security enthusiasts can gain great practical expertise by starting cyber security projects with source code. As cyber security projects may lend you a good job, so you must do it. If you are looking for cyber security project ideas, then here are six ideas explained for you: 1. Keylogger projects You must be aware of keylogger, which is a surveillance software installed on a system to record the keystroke made on that system. So, as part of your project, you can develop your own keylogger if you are good at coding. Another project idea can be developing a process to detect and delete keyloggers or develop a process to capture the system’s keystrokes. 2. Network traffic analysis This can be a great choice for your cyber security project as Network traffic analysis, also known as Packet sniffing, is a popular internet security concept. This project will be an analysis-based project wherein you can learn how to use a packet sniffer software to monitor and capture data packets passing through a computer network, such as the network of your office, or your training center, or your college. Here you might require taking prior permission of the administrator. Packet sniffing is important for cyber security as data packets are targeted by cybercriminals to steal information like passwords, credit card details, etc. Learn more: Career in Software Development: 13 Various Job Roles To Choose From 3. Caesar Cipher Decoder If cryptography interests you, then one of the greatcyber security project ideasfor you is to build an app to break a caesar cipher. Now, what is a caesar cipher? It is a type of encryption method wherein the letters of a given text are replaced by other letters that come after several other alphabets. For example, if you encrypt the word ‘Software’ by shifting 3 alphabets, then the Caesar chipper for it will be ‘VRIWZDUH.’ So, you can start by building a web app to break such simple encryption; later on, move on to complex concepts. Your software interface should have a space for the input text, a drop option to choose the ‘Shift,’ and a space for the output text, which will be the cipher decoded text. The example is shown below: Source 4. Antivirus If you have good programming skills and are ready to take up a complex project, then you can even try your hands on creating your own antivirus. To start the projects, first, you need to define the methods of protection that you’re going to develop, and select platforms that your software will support. For instance, macro-protection for Windows can be written in VBScript. You can get sufficient coding reference from a platform like GitHub. Then, you need to design a user interface. Get Software Engineering degrees from the World’s top Universities. Earn Executive PG Programs, Advanced Certificate Programs, or Masters Programs to fast-track your career. 5. Build your own encryption software Data encryption is a big part of cybersecurity. So, one of the widely appreciated cyber security project ideas is that of encryption software. You can try taking up a project to develop your own encryption software. First, you need to do your project scoping, like you want to build an app to encrypt files using existing algorithms. To implement encryption easily in your app, you can use Amazon Web Services” (AWS) encryption “Software Development Kit” (SDK). Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? 6. Bug Bounties and Hackathons Another good project is to find bugs in websites. On the internet, there are many bug bounty programs; you can participate in such programs and gain hands-on experience in finding bugs. Some of the programs even pay if you can find relevant bugs. Hackathons, a portmanteau of hacking marathons, is also gaining popularity, as many companies or platforms are organizing hackathons for aspiring cyber security professionals. If you get the chance, you must participate in hackathons. Here you can intensively collaborate with graphic designers, project managers, interface designers, and domain experts from the cyber security field. Taking part in hackathons is a good way to put your skills into work and also garner more in-depth knowledge about internet security. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Read: Career in Cyber Security The selection of interesting and pertinent cyber security projects for final year students is essential in the quickly changing digital ecosystem. Here are a few more cyber security projects for final year students to strengthen their programming skills and resume with competent projects. 7. Web Application Firewall By cleaning and inspecting HTTP traffic between a web app and the Internet, a Web App Firewall helps to protect web applications. It’s one of the cyber crime and security projects because it enables you to comprehend cyber security in a general context. It protects web applications from threats such as cross-site scripting, file insertion, SQL injection, and many others. A WAF is a protocol layer 7 defence that is not designed to withstand all kinds of threats. This technique of attack modification is typically part of a suite of tools that, when combined, creates a comprehensive defence against a variety of network attacks.  8. Website Scraper A Web Scraper is a program that scrapes or collects data from websites with absolute accuracy. Let us imagine that we are developing a web scraper that will go to Twitter and collect the content of tweets.  In its simplest form basic, web scraping is the act of collecting data from the internet in any form. Web scraping, on the other hand, enables you to gather information in huge volumes by using bots on a large scale. Crawlers or spiders are bots that scan the source code of a particular web page and tag data based on some predefined parameters. Following that, the data extractor gathers the enclosed data and exports it to a spreadsheet file. Monitoring your social media accounts is one of the most effective ways to keep an eye on the reputation of your business. You can quickly sort through the sea of data being generated on social media to find and respond to comments related to your business using web scraping tools. Include it in your cyber security final year projects to further exhibit your skills.  9. Log Analyzer  This is one of the suitable cyber security final year projects. It is the method by which log activities, audit trail records, or just logs are filtered from computer-generated log messages. The log analyzer offers a useful measurement system that clearly illustrates what has happened throughout the structure. The information can be used to fix or enhance an application’s or infrastructure’s functionality. Narrowing the amount of time it takes a company to identify and fix production issues will enable teams to concentrate more on enhancing existing functionalities and adding new functions to the goods and services they are producing rather than spending some time troubleshooting. 10. Antivirus  If you have good coding skills and are willing to take on a challenging project, then you could even try developing your own antivirus software. Prior to beginning the projects, you must decide which programs your software will support and define the safety measures you plan to develop. For instance, VBScript or JavaScript can be used to create macro protection for Windows. 11. Malware Analysis Sandbox Any doubtful file can be thrown at it, and within seconds, the software will produce a thorough report outlining how the file behaves when run in a reliable but isolated environment. Malware is the friend of cyber hackers and the enemy of a business. It is crucial to understand how malware functions to understand the context, intentions, and objectives of a breach in these ever-evolving times. Simply identifying and eliminating malware is no longer sufficient. 12. Secure erasure code-based cloud storage system It is a multipurpose storage system that is secure. In order to create a dependable distributed storage system, it offers a threshold proxy re-encryption scheme and integrates it with a distributed erasure code. A user may transfer their data stored on fileservers to another user without having to retrieve it again, thanks to the distributed storage system, which also retains safe and reliable data storage and retrieval. Its primary purpose is to offer a proxy re-encryption scheme that keeps up encoding over encrypted messages and sending over encoded and encrypted messages. It seamlessly combines forwarding, encoding, and encryption. 13. Encryption Software A major part of cybersecurity is encryption. One of the more popular concepts for a cyber security project is this one. You can create your own software for data encryption. Given that you want to develop an application to encrypt data using already-existing algorithms, you must include the project scope. 14. Caesar Code Decoder One of the finest cyber crime and security projects is this one if you are interested in cryptography. You must create a programme to decipher a Caesar code for this project. Caesar Code Decoder is a type of encryption that replaces the letters of a given script with new letters that come after a large number of other alphabets. 15. Web-Based Facial Authentication System Consider embarking on captivating cybersecurity projects for final year by crafting a sophisticated facial recognition system tailored for user authentication. This ingenious software finds extensive applications in realms like exam proctoring systems, KYC processing, and mobile devices’ user verification. The system is equipped with a repository of the user’s images, which can be either publicly accessible or confined to a specific user subset. Upon obtaining camera permission, the system detects the user’s face. It then undertakes a meticulous process wherein the 2D facial image is cross-referenced with entries in its comprehensive database. This software effectively reads intricate facial geometry details—such as eye distance, forehead-to-chin span, eye socket depth, lip, nose, and chin shape. These insights are transmuted into a unique numerical code, termed a faceprint. The system subsequently aligns this data with the stored faceprints, culminating in a conclusive outcome. Extend the capabilities of this project by designing a web-based face detector that can function seamlessly during video calls. To initiate this endeavor, delve into OpenCV, a dynamic real-time computer vision tool. This initial project phase can serve as a stepping stone for diverse applications, including user authentication in contexts like meetings, examinations, law enforcement, and phone face unlock features. As you explore these dimensions, you’re immersing yourself in robust cyber security projects that harmonize with the vital domain of network security projects. 16. Security Scanner Consider diving into compelling cyber security projects for final year students that involve crafting a foundational security scanner that is adept at detecting high-severity vulnerabilities in both devices and networks. This tool holds immense value, whether it’s employed during moments of device uncertainty or simply to uphold the integrity of network security. By developing this rudimentary yet effective security scanner, you’ll acquire the confidence to identify and address vulnerabilities comprehensively. This software boasts the capability to quantify the risks it uncovers, supplying numerical values that underscore the severity of potential threats. Additionally, it furnishes users with actionable tips to fortify their devices or networks. The scanner’s operation commences with the meticulous identification of device specifics, open ports, software assets, and system configurations. These findings are meticulously cross-referenced with databases harboring information about established vulnerabilities—databases typically provided by security solution vendors. Alternatively, you can tap into available demo databases within the Open-source realm to fuel your project. Once vulnerabilities are confirmed, a multifaceted assessment is conducted, encompassing factors like system exposure, exploit skill level required, business ramifications, existing controls, and more. The system subsequently delivers a comprehensive report to the user through an intuitive interface. The user can then tailor their response based on the severity of identified issues. If the risk level is pronounced, the software proactively intervenes to safeguard user data. This endeavor serves as an excellent entry point for those seeking to elevate their proficiency from a beginner to an intermediate level in the realm of cybersecurity. These innovative cyber security final year project ideas are ideally suited for college students, empowering them to delve into network security projects for final year students and leave a mark in the domain of cybersecurity. Advanced Cybersecurity Projects Here are the cyber security project for advanced: User Authentication System The advanced cyber security project may seem simple at first, but it incorporates all the information you have gained from your previous projects. For this project, you can construct a user authentication gateway with signup/register and log-in/logout capabilities. Image steganography system The practice of steganography includes hiding private data or plain text. Image steganography may be utilised as a high-level cyber security project by concealing encoded messages in pictures. Why is a job in cyber security a smart choice? In India, a profitable professional path exists in cybersecurity. To create, manage, and navigate security networks, you need cybersecurity expertise.  Here are the top 3 reasons you should think about a career in cybersecurity. High-Paying Careers In addition to providing many prospects for professional advancement, one of the best industries for earning a living is cybersecurity.   Job Satisfaction The ecosystem surrounding cybersecurity is always expanding, creating new problems that require answers. Additionally, businesses are willing to invest in personnel who can help them. One may continually learn new things and work with organisations that encourage ongoing development as a cybersecurity specialist. Unlimited Opportunities for Career Advancement The expanding need and expansion potential of the cybersecurity business are amply demonstrated by the increasing frequency and severity of security breaches in a constantly changing digital environment. For those who want to enhance their careers in cybersecurity, there are several possibilities accessible. More Interesting Cyber Security Projects Some more interesting cyber security projects to develop your skills include: Evaluate Password Strength This is one of the cyber security projects with the aim of developing a password-strength testing tool. By creating this tool, it will become easier to test the strength of passwords. The tool will check the length and complexity of the password. Moreover, it will check whether you have included special characters to determine the efficiency of your password. The tool will come with the added benefit of suggestions related to creating strong passwords. It is one of the cyber security projects focused on creating an application with a user-friendly interface. It will be based on strong algorithms for checking passwords. The ultimate goal of this tool is to help users safeguard their accounts with strong passwords. Integrity Evaluator This is one of the cyber security projects focused on safeguarding operating systems. By utilizing this tool, system files will be guaranteed to maintain their integrity and security. This is accomplished by cross-checking their integrity with pre-existing hashed data. Additionally, the tool will periodically scan the operating system files and match them against a trusted database to identify any unauthorized alterations. The integrity checker will promptly notify administrators or users of any discrepancies through real-time notifications. SQL Injection SQL injection is a dangerous form of cyberattack where savvy hackers use input fields found on the front end of SQL-based applications to manipulate data queries and gain unauthorized access. This method is particularly effective on vulnerable web applications with inadequate security measures.  The absence of security headers and lack of protection for input fields often increase the risk of these attacks. As a precaution, it is wise to incorporate a vulnerability check script in your cyber security projects. This will identify any potential susceptibility to SQL injection and provide recommendations for strengthening your application’s defenses. DOS Detection Designing a DOS detection tool can be one of the most interesting cyber security projects for beginners. Through its user-friendly interface, this tool equips users with the ability to detect DoS attacks. By identifying warning signs of a DoS attack, it empowers users to take advanced measures to safeguard their systems. Real-time alerts and notifications provide immediate awareness, enabling swift response actions. Ultimately, this project aims to empower novice users with a reliable and accessible solution for detecting and responding to DoS attacks. Therefore, it can help in elevating the overall security and availability of their systems. Optimized Password Cracker It is one of the cyber security projects that involves creating a password cracker tool with advanced techniques. This tool will enable seamless cracking of passwords encrypted with top hashing algorithms. With the power of parallel processing and GPU acceleration, this password cracker will take speed and efficiency to a whole new level. Customizable options for dictionary, brute-force, and hybrid attacks make it a one-stop solution for all your password-cracking needs. Whether you need to recover lost passwords or assess the strength of your current ones, this project promises to deliver top-notch performance and flexibility.   Detecting Network Anomalies This is one of the cyber security projects focused as open web application security project, is on developing the machine learning techniques of professionals. The network anomaly detection that you will create as part of this project will leverage machine learning techniques. It will focus on assessing the network traffic patterns to spot unusual patterns or activities indicating security breaches or threats. This is one of the cyber security projects where you will have to use supervised as well as unsupervised machine learning algorithms. The different algorithms will help you gather insights from past network data. In such projects related to cyber security, as a result, you will be able to spot deviations from regular network characteristics. The network anomaly detection system will provide real-time alerts and notifications. It will help network administrators to proactively deal with security risks. The project will empower network security by leveraging machine learning techniques for anomaly detection in network security projects. File Type Identification This is one of the cyber security projects that will focus on the concept of the magic number. You will have to work on creating a file type identification tool based on the mechanism of the magic number. These unique byte sequences at the beginning of files provide a foolproof method for determining file types. With this tool, users can easily scan and analyze their files to accurately identify their formats. The tool will work on files with different types of extensions. Additionally, the tool will boast a vast database of magic numbers and their corresponding file types to ensure maximum accuracy. This innovative tool will aid in file management and data recovery. Moreover, the advanced capabilities of this tool will help identify files with mixed or embedded formats. Cloud Access Security Broker For companies with prior experience in utilizing multiple SaaS applications, CASBs serve as a vital tool for gaining visibility and administrative control. Through the use of cloud application discovery, these organizations can uncover hidden IT resources and validate the success of their cyber security projects. Leaders can also evaluate their company’s level of visibility and control over sensitive data shared and utilized through SaaS apps. Moreover, they can determine the appropriate level needed for each cloud service. It is recommended for contracts to prioritize the discovery and security of sensitive data. Retrieval of Lost Data Retrieving lost data can be one of the most interesting cyber security projects. Cyberattacks pose a significant threat to data integrity, potentially causing corruption or destruction. Having strong data recovery skills is essential for effective remediation. Ransomware attacks hold data ransom and demand payment for decryption. To improve data retrieval proficiency, it is beneficial to practice ransomware data recovery techniques. This involves focusing efforts on restoring affected systems from backups. Additionally, creating a plan to extract compromised or damaged data from storage devices using specialized recovery tools is crucial. Network Packet Capturing Tool It is one of the cyber security projects focused on the analysis of network packets. Considered as good mini project topics for cyber security,or cyber security projects for final year and cyber security projects for final year students. In this cyber security project, you will develop a tool for analyzing network packets to discover information about network traffic. Moreover, this tool will help identify all issues related to networks. The tool will come with the feature to capture real-time network packets and filter them. Moreover, special features to thoroughly analyze the network packets should be present. The tool will come with multiple protocols and help in filtering packets according to specific network traffic directions. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide network administrators with a feature-rich tool. Network administrators will be able to monitor and optimize network performance using this tool. Frameworks and libraries from different programming languages can be used for this tool instead of writing the code from scratch. Simple Vulnerability Matcher This is one of the cyber security projects ideas for creating a tool to scan systems or software solutions. The tool will compare different software and systems with vulnerability databases to identify security issues. It will use several smart matching algorithms for detecting and prioritizing vulnerabilities. The simple vulnerability matcher will offer detailed vulnerability reports and suggestions for tackling them. The project will help in creating a user-friendly solution for addressing security problems. As a result, it will help enhance the security posture of the scanned systems, making perfect cyber security projects for college students Are you interested in making a leap into a cyber security career? For those you are interested in building a career in cybersecurity, upGrad is offering a PG diploma in software development, with a specialization in Cyber security, wherein 7+ case studies and capstone cyber security projects are integrated into the course.  upGrad is also offering a certification program in cyber security, specially designed for working professionals. These courses cover the intricacies of internet security, application security, data secrecy, cryptography, and network security.  It also facilitates learning of programming languages & tools such as python, Java, Git, Github, Amazon Web Services, etc. The lessons are imparted through best-in-class content, online sessions, and live lectures.  upGrad, in association with leading universities, has designed its online programs to understand the career objectives and limitations of working professionals. These programs are especially for IT professionals, project leads, managers in IT/tech companies, data professionals, coders, testers, who strive to continue their academic learning without taking a break from their jobs.upGrad also provides 360-degree career support to the students.  Learn more about the SHA-256 algorithm for secure data hashing and encryption. Conclusion As discussed in the article, cyber security projects are crucial for gaining hands-on experience and increasing a candidate’s credibility for a job opportunity. Since cyber security is a vast field, you can think of numerous cyber security project ideas. There is no shortage of ideas, but what is essential is to take up and finish a project successfully. The efforts and expertise required for these projects depend on the scope of work and your project’s objective. To gain adequate knowledge in the field of cybersecurity, one can opt for PG level courses in cybersecurity. upGrad, in collaboration with IIIT Bangalore, offers a PG course named, Advanced Certificate Programme in Cyber Security  for aspiring cybersecurity professionals.
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by Rohan Vats

19 Feb 2024

Cyber Security Salary in India: For Freshers & Experienced [2024]
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Summary: In this article, you will learn about cyber security salaries in India. Take a glimpse below. Wondering what is the range of Cyber Security salary in India? Cyber security career in India is witnessing new heights as the days pass by and with the growing popularity and the internet becoming a necessity, the field is only expected to go up the graph. However, the field is still experiencing a labour shortage which makes entry-level cyber security jobs salary much better than the majority of the tech field jobs.  With the increasing adoption of the Internet and online practices in every sphere, Cyber Security has generated a continuously growing concern for all businesses. One statistic reveals that in 2022, one new organization will fall victim to ransomware every 11 seconds. A report from KSN (Kaspersky Security Network) shows that India has experienced a 37% rise in cyber-attacks in the first quarter of 2020. Authorized institutions started to provide the best courses in cybersecurity in India.  Between November 2021 and October 2022, around 15.37% of computers used by global internet users faced at least one malware class attack. During this period, Kaspersky stopped over 500 million attacks originating from online sources worldwide. This emphasizes the ongoing threat of cyberattacks while showcasing the importance of cybersecurity in preventing potential security breaches. According to a report from PricewaterhouseCoopers, India’s cybersecurity market is predicted to grow from USD 1.97 billion in 2019 to USD 3.05 billion by 2022, with a rate one and a half times than the global rate. Also, Check out our free courses Cyber security is crucial in shielding systems and data from ever-evolving threats like malware and data breaches. The increasing interconnectedness of devices amplifies vulnerabilities, emphasizing the necessity for robust protection measures. This demand for cyber security experts stems from a shortage of skilled professionals and the rising frequency of cyber attacks.  Cyber security jobs salary in India is consequently higher due to this scarcity, especially for specialists in areas like ethical hacking and incident response, as organizations prioritize fortifying their defenses against evolving threats. We are sure, this must-have sparked a will to become a cyber security expert within you! Let’s take a look at who exactly is cyber security and what is a typical cyber security engineer salary in India? At university or university at home, choice is yours ! What is Cyber Security? While physical security protects facilities and objects in the real world, cybersecurity protects information systems and data. Cybersecurity is the practice of safeguarding servers, computers, electronic systems, networks, mobile devices, and data from malicious electronic attacks. It’s aimed to protect assets from malicious codes and logins and is applied in a broad range of contexts, from mobile computing to businesses. Cybersecurity ensures and maintains the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and data. It protects computers, computer systems, mobile devices, networks, applications, and data against cyberattacks. These attacks interrupt usual business actions, terminate information, and blackmail or ransom. Cybersecurity uses multiple layers to cover the chosen entry points. For example, connected networks, data, and physical devices must be covered. The growing need for cybersecurity professionals leads to an increasing cyber security salary. Check out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in Cyber Security – IIITB Need for Cybersecurity: Various types of attacks in cybersecurity must be curbed. Most individuals can access multiple electronic gadgets; the default one is smartphones. The number of devices surpasses the number of people. So, it increases the targets for attackers. The cyber threat may lead to identity theft, blackmail, the loss of years of memories in digital media, and monetary loss because your devices become useless. The growing need for cybersecurity specialists suggests that cyber security salary per month in India is admirable to deserving candidates. Attacks on large-scale organizations are more exposed; however, small companies are also targeted. Data breaches in large-scale corporations render millions of personal records and this can lead to more attacks. For example, attacks on hospitals might lead to fatalities because more equipment is connected to the internet. Similar is the case with power plants, wherein the outage show rippling effects over multiple industries. Society is completely dependent on a flawless functioning and secure infrastructure. So, it is worth offering a decent cyber security salary to skilled cybersecurity professionals. Cybersecurity is vital in any organization, irrespective of its size. The information is transforming digital through wireless communication networks owing to cutting-edge technology and software across different sectors like educational institutions, government agencies, hospitals, etc. One of the prime functions of cybersecurity is to secure an organization’s sensitive data that can damage its reputation. Cybersecurity deters cyber attackers who target small and large companies and access their essential information and documents. Leading companies are willing to pay high cyber security salary in India to experienced and skilled candidates. Common Categories of Cyber Security Cybersecurity can be divided into the following common categories. Types of Cyber Security      Application Security – Focuses on finding and fixing vulnerabilities in application codes to make apps more secure. This mainly involves using secure coding practices, regular code reviews, and implementing security controls to protect against threats like SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), and other attacks aimed at compromising the integrity or availability of an application. Network Security – Aims to prevent and protect corporate networks from intrusions such as malware or targeted attackers. It is mainly carried out by deploying firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), intrusion prevention systems (IPS), virtual private networks (VPNs), and other tools and protocols to secure the network perimeter and internal network segments. Operational Security – Includes the processes and decisions for protecting and managing data assets. It encompasses user permissions for network access and the procedures that dictate the way data should be stored and shared safely. Access controls are critical in determining who has authorization to access specific resources within the network. Furthermore, defining and enforcing procedures for secure data handling, encryption methods, and access management are integral to operational security. This practice also involves ongoing risk assessment and mitigation efforts, such as conducting regular security audits and deploying security patches to counter potential vulnerabilities. Information Security – Safeguards data integrity and privacy during its storage and transmission from one machine to another. Data integrity assurance involves measures to prevent unauthorized alterations or corruption of stored information. Data privacy protection is another key facet, ensuring that sensitive information remains shielded from unauthorized access or disclosure. Employing extensive encryption methods and using secure transmission protocols like SSL/TLS are crucial in keeping data safe while it is in transit between different machines or systems.  End-User Education – Anyone can unintentionally introduce a cybersecurity threat such as a virus by failing to follow safe security practices. Thus, educating end-users to delete suspicious emails, refrain from plugging in unidentified USB drives, and other essential lessons are vital for protecting corporate security. By raising awareness and fostering a security-conscious culture, organizations can significantly reduce the likelihood of security breaches caused by human error. Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity – It defines how an organization responds to a cybersecurity incident that causes data loss or service outage and how it will restore its information and operations to return to the same operating capacity as before the event. Business continuity is the plan a company will rely on while operating without specific resources. These plans are essential in mitigating the impact of cyber incidents, minimizing downtime, and ensuring the organization’s resilience in the face of adversity. Endpoint Security –Remote access is a vital component of business models and workflows. But endpoint security guarantees that it doesn’t turn into a liability. Endpoint devices are easier to target, specifically if the users are not warned of the risks and essential cautionary steps. Endpoint security measures, including robust antivirus software, firewalls, regular software updates, and user awareness training about potential risks, play a pivotal role in fortifying these vulnerable access points and preventing unauthorized access or malware infections. Identity Management –The process of issuing rights and system access must be well-documented and closely monitored. All users’ access levels must be monitored and logged through 2-step security measures to avoid impersonator access. Logging and tracking user activities through two-step security measures enable organizations to identify and address potential security breaches effectively, ensuring the integrity and security of sensitive data and resources. Infrastructure Security –It entails the physical facets of computer infrastructure. For example, it includes a controlled power delivery system, strong physical security, fire extinguishers, etc. Cybersecurity professionals skilled in infrastructure security can earn higher cyber security salary in India. They play a critical role in designing and implementing these measures, safeguarding the integrity and availability of an organization’s IT infrastructure.  Read: Career in Cyber Security Types of Cyber Security Threats Cybersecurity faces 3-fold threats Cybercrime – Consists of groups or single actors targeting systems to cause disruption. It covers a broad range of illicit activities like hacking, malware distribution, phishing, identity theft, financial fraud, and ransomware attacks. The motives behind cybercrime often revolve around financial gain, theft of sensitive data, or simply causing chaos and disruption. Cyber-attack – Involves politically motivated information gathering. Political motives mainly drive these attacks, aiming to obtain sensitive information or intelligence from government agencies, organizations, or entities related to political or national security matters. These attacks may target confidential documents, diplomatic communications, or other classified information for espionage, geopolitical advantage, or influencing political decisions. Cyber-terrorism – Aims to cause panic or fear by undermining electronic systems.Unlike cybercrime, cyber-terrorism’s primary objective is not financial gain but to induce terror or cause societal disruption. These attacks target vital systems such as power grids, transportation networks, financial institutions, or communication systems, aiming to cripple infrastructure and undermine public confidence in government or societal institutions. The goal is to create chaos, fear, and instability among the population. Following are some of the methods used to compromise cybersecurity. Malware – Malware is the most common type of cyber-attack, in which a hacker uses malicious software to disrupt a legitimate user’s computer. Malware is often spread through a legitimate-looking download or an unsolicited email attachment. They are intended to make money or can also have a political motivation. There are various types of malware, such as Trojan, virus, ransomware, spyware, botnets, and adware. Phishing – In phishing, a cybercriminal sends people emails that seem to be from a legitimate company to ask for sensitive information such as credit card details or personal data. It is then used to dupe them for financial gain. SQL Injection – In this type of cyber-attack, a cybercriminal exploits a vulnerability in data-driven applications to insert malicious code into a database using a malicious SQL statement for taking control of the database to steal data. Denial-of-service attack – In this type of attack, a cybercriminal prevents a computer from fulfilling legitimate requests. It overwhelms the networks and servers with traffic and renders the system unusable. It prevents an organization from managing its vital functions. Man-in-the-middle attack – This type of attack involves a cybercriminal intercepting communication between two individuals for stealing data. Attack on data availability: Attacks in data availability guarantee that both you and the end-user can’t access your data. It may be entirely malicious and simply an attempt to disrupt business fully or perhaps ask for a fee to give up access. Many organizations have paid cyber attackers to regain access to their data. You can earn a great cyber security salary per month in India if you can mitigate an attack on data availability. Attack on data integrity -Integrity can be of data or organization. For example, the data integrity is compromised if a scoundrel student hacks the school’s database and modifies all the grades. The organization’s integrity is severely compromised if a cyber attacker obtains access to an organization’s database and all the records are leaked online. This is more perceptible to people whose data is stored in the organization’s system. A justifiable cyber security analyst salary is guaranteed if you can mitigate such cyberattacks. Attack on Data Confidentiality -Personal information must be private. If anybody, either internally or externally obtains illicit access to your information, its confidentiality is compromised. This usually happens on an individual level, at homes and workplaces. Mitigation of Cybersecurity Attacks: Understanding various types of data breaches helps implement the required protective measures. The following steps help mitigate cybersecurity attacks. VA and Pen-tests: Organizations must plan regular penetration tests and vulnerability assessments to check infrastructure security. Any loopholes must be identified and patched.  2. DR & BCP: Every organization must employ business continuity plans (BCP) and disaster recovery (DR). It must contain switch-over dry runs to guarantee that the workforces are always ready to efficiently start the security operations from the primary site to the DR site. Also, it should be ensured that the organization would begin working instantly. Professionals skilled at mitigating these types of cyberattacks can have a decent cyber security salary per month. 3. User Education and Training: Employees must be educated on vigilance’s significance in the context of cybersecurity. Social engineering and phishing must be properly illustrated. 4. Cloud Security: With the increasing adoption of Cloud technology in businesses, your cloud provider must be capable of ensuring data safety and availability. 5. IDS and IPS: A blend of Intrusion Prevention (IPS) and Intrusion Detection systems (IDS) deters intruders and understands their intentions in advance. 6. Secure Web Practices: Safe web browsing involves several aspects. They are -only using secured sites, watching what you download, not clicking on the pop-ups and ads, and not answering emails that ask you to donate your wealth. 7. Regular backups: They avoid data loss and provide a fallback should when any illicit event happens to your primary device. The cyber security analyst salary demands the cybersecurity professional to perform multiple responsibilities and one of them is supervising regular backups. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript 8. Device Updates and Security Patches: They guarantee that all discovered loopholes are protected. 9. Incident Management: All cybersecurity incidents must be properly recognized and communicated. This offers a log that is effective when determining ways to enhance the existing cybersecurity controls. You can earn an admirable cyber security salary per month if you know how to mitigate most of the above-discussed cyberattacks. Cyber Security Frameworks – Cybersecurity frameworks are a set of policies and procedures businesses can adopt to improve and upgrade its cybersecurity strategies. These frameworks are created by different cybersecurity organizations and government agencies and serve as guidelines for businesses to enhance their cybersecurity. They offer detailed directions on how to implement a five-step cybersecurity process. Identify – Shortlist vulnerable assets within the organization. Protect – Take care of required maintenance to safeguard data and assets. Detect – Detect intrusions and breaches. Respond – Respond to breaches  Recover – Recover from any damage to data, systems, corporate finance, and reputation due to the attack. Check out upGrad’s Advanced Certification in Cloud Computing Learn about: Top 10 Highest Paying IT Certifications in India Cyber Security Skill Gap Besides the increasing demand for cybersecurity professionals, the industry faces an acute shortage of adequately trained individuals capable enough and proficient at filling the mounting cybersecurity roles. According to a NASSCOM report in 2019, India would need around 1 million expert cyber professionals by 2020. Education institutions recognized the gap and started to provide courses in cyber security in India but it is essential to analyze and compare the courses before taking an action.  The forecast by Cybersecurity Ventures indicates a growing recognition among major corporations of the necessity for Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) roles, with a projected rise from 70% in 2018 to 100% in 2021. However, finding qualified people for these roles can be challenging. The job needs diverse skills and knowledge because cyber threats keep changing.  Despite having the most extensive IT talent pool in the world, today, India severely lacks skilled cybersecurity professionals. This acute shortage has resulted in companies’ willingness to pay a premium salary to cybersecurity professionals. According to some reports, the average cybersecurity experts’ salaries in India have grown to INR. 8.8 lakh. There aren’t enough specialized training programs, and many companies compete for the same skilled experts. To fix this, we need better education, more diversity, and clearer career paths for people interested in cybersecurity leadership roles. upGrad’s Exclusive Software and Tech Webinar for you – SAAS Business – What is So Different? document.createElement('video'); https://cdn.upgrad.com/blog/mausmi-ambastha.mp4   Explore our Popular Software Engineering Courses Master of Science in Computer Science from LJMU & IIITB Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Program Full Stack Development Bootcamp PG Program in Blockchain Executive PG Program in Full Stack Development View All our Courses Below Software Engineering Courses Cyber Security Jobs and Salaries in India Following are some of the cybersecurity jobs that are witnessing a sharp increase in the pay. 1. Network Security Engineer It’s a critical position in every organization. This individual is responsible for protecting the organization’s assets from threats and needs to possess astute organizational, technical, and communication skills. The job responsibilities encompass a focus on quality control within the IT infrastructure, including designing, building, and protecting scalable, secure, and robust systems, assisting the company in understanding advanced cyber threats, working on operational data center systems and networks, and helping create robust strategies to protect the organizational structure. They also oversee the maintenance of routers, firewalls, switches, VPNs, and various network monitoring tools. A network cyber security salary in India is INR 4 lakhs to 8 lakhs annually. The high cyber security salary of network security engineers reflects the critical nature of their role in protecting an organization’s network infrastructure, the specialized skill set they possess, and the increasing demand for their expertise in combating cyber threats. Source 2. Cyber Security Analyst A cybersecurity analyst is also referred to as an IT security analyst, security analyst, information system security analyst, or data security analyst. The person is primarily responsible for planning, implementing, and upgrading security controls and measures. The job involves maintaining data, monitoring security access, and protecting information systems and digital files against unauthorized access, modification, and destruction. A security analyst is expected to manage a network, intrusion detection and prevention systems, conduct internal and external security audits, and analyze security breaches to determine their root cause. The individual is also responsible for defining, maintaining, and implementing corporate security policies and coordinate security plans with outside vendors. Further, the person is also responsible for training fellow employees in security procedures by following best practices to avoid security breaches. The salary of a cybersecurity analyst starts from INR. 5 to 6 lakhs per annum. Source 3. Security Architect A security architect plays a primary role in designing the computer and network security architecture for an organization. This person helps with researching, planning, and developing security elements. The individual creates a design based on the company’s needs and then works together with the programming team to make the final structure. Besides planning the architecture, a security analyst is expected to develop organizational procedures and policies regarding how employees should use the security systems and decide on the punitive actions in case of any lapses. Thus, the person is expected to know the business with an in-depth awareness of its technology and information needs. The yearly salary of a security architect starts at INR. 17-22 lakhs. A security architect has specialized skills in creating strong security systems, making them crucial in shaping an organization’s security strategy. Their experience and high demand for their skills contribute to their high pay. Source In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses 4. Cyber Security Manager A cybersecurity manager creates strategies to enhance Internet and network security related to various projects. This person is responsible for maintaining security protocols throughout the organization and manages a team of IT professionals to ensure the highest standards of data security are stringently maintained. The individual is expected to frequently review the existing security policies and make sure that the policies are based on new threats. Upskilling through courses in cyber security in India can help you become a manager quickly.   Further, the person performs regular checks on all servers, routers, switches, and other connected devices to confirm that there are no loose ends or lapses in the security system. The person is also expected to hire new employees, prepare and oversee budgets, and evaluate and procure new security technologies and tools. The average annual salary of a cybersecurity manager is INR. 12 lakhs.  The cyber security expert salary in India of managers is because of their leadership in protecting digital assets, strategic decision-making, experience, and the complexity of their role in managing cybersecurity. With the escalating demand for skilled professionals capable of mitigating evolving cyber threats, the pivotal role played by cyber security managers in safeguarding organizations further justifies their higher salaries. Source 5. Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Also referred to as CSO (Chief Security Executive), CISO is a C-level management executive. A report from PWC states that nowadays, 80+ percent of organizations have a CISO on the management team. A CISO oversees the operations of a company’s IT security department and related staff. This person is responsible for directing and managing operations, strategies, and budgets to safeguard the organization’s information assets. A CISO works with the team to identify, build, implement, and manage organization-wide processes to ensure there are no security breaches. The person is expected to respond to incidents and devise appropriate controls and standards to mitigate security risks maintaining the necessary business continuity. The average annual salary of a CISO is Rs. 23 LPA. CISOs are responsible for aligning cybersecurity with business objectives, managing risks, and making critical decisions, which justifies their higher cyber security salary per month in India. Their expertise, strategic leadership, and the growing demand for seasoned cyber security leaders contribute to the competitive salaries offered for this executive role. Source 6. Ethical Hackers Ethical hackers are responsible for identifying vulnerabilities and security flaws and help businesses from malicious hackers. They work with the authorization of the organizations they work in to ensure that their hacking efforts are legal and legitimate. They are responsible for penetrating computer systems and networks to quickly find and fix computer security vulnerabilities, perform reverse engineering, application analysis, protocol analysis, malware analysis, and debugging. Some ethical hackers begin with IT experience and get Certified Ethical Hacker credentials provided by the International Council of E-Commerce Consultants. The annual salary of an ethical hacker ranges from INR 5 lakhs to 6 lakhs. This demand is further fueled by their capacity to prevent risks, ensure compliance, and their certifications like Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), which validate their expertise. As businesses increasingly prioritize cybersecurity, ethical hackers with proven skills in identifying system weaknesses and safeguarding against threats are sought after, resulting in higher cybersecurity salaries to attract and retain top talent in this field. Source Factors Affecting Cyber Security Engineer Salary in India Cyber security engineer salaries in India can be affected by multiple factors. Let’s see some primary salary affecting factors: Location A cyber security analyst salary largely varies with the location in which they are working. There are particular cities in India that pay a significantly higher salary to cyber security personnel than the others.  As per the reports of Indeed, cities in which cyber security average salary in India is on the higher side, are: Hyderabad, the average cyber security analyst salary is around 14 lakhs per annum Delhi, the average pay of a cyber security analyst is around 9 lakh per annum Bengaluru, the average salary of a cyber security analyst is around 8 lakh per annum Noida, the average salary of a cyber security analyst is around 8 lakh per annum Chennai, the average pay of a cyber security engineer salary is more than 8 lakh per annum.  Other high-paying cities in India include Mumbai, Gurgaon and Pune 2. Experience Years of experience play a crucial role in determining cyber security engineer salary in India The reports of Payscale show that an entry-level security engineer can earn an average of  INR 3.9 Lakh per annum. On the other hand, any security engineer with more than 10 years of experience can easily earn more than INR 20 lakh per annum.  Those with intermediate experience can also earn a handsome salary of around INR 10 lakh per annum. Apart from continuously upskilling and staying relevant with the norms of the field, one must also need to have relevant years of experience to get promoted to the dream role and build a strong cyber security career in India.  3. Skills In a field like cyber security, which deals with constantly evolving cyber threats, one has to massively focus on their skillsets and continuously upskill them. The fact that there is a huge labour gap in the industry makes it even more important to have the right set of skills. To start, one must focus on the currently popular skills that can get into an entry-level job. Then they can understand the working environment better and upskill themselves as per their own needs as well as the needs of the industry, hence enhancing the cyber security engineer salary in India Payscale shows that presently the most valued skills in the cyber security career include the knowledge of IT security and infrastructure, security information and event management (SIEM), vulnerability assessment, security risk management etc.   Individuals with the aforementioned skillsets can easily earn cyber security jobs salary that is above average in the market.  4. Company Cyber security average salary in India is around 6 lakh per annum, however, it may highly vary with the company they are working in. some cyber security personnel also prefer running their own agencies or starting their cyber security career in India as a freelancer. In each case, the pay is extremely situational.  Cyber security engineers in India can apply for both government and private job roles. Various Indian government organisations such as RAW, Military intelligence, CBI, CERT and various police departments actively recruit cyber security engineers.  Top private companies in India that recruit cyber security engineers in India include Cognizant, Capegemini, Wipro, IBM, Accenture, CSS corporation and so forth.  Essential Skills for Cyber Security Engineer In today’s digital landscape, the role of a cybersecurity engineer has become paramount in safeguarding sensitive information and critical systems from cyber threats. As technology advances, the demand for skilled cybersecurity professionals is rising. So, if you want to become a cyber-security engineer, you must possess the following skills: – Cyber Threat Intelligence Staying one step ahead of cyber adversaries requires a keen understanding of the evolving threat landscape. Cybersecurity engineers must be well-versed in the latest attack vectors, malware trends, and emerging vulnerabilities. This skill helps them anticipate potential threats and design effective defense strategies. Problem-Solving Skills Cybersecurity engineers often face complex and dynamic challenges that require quick and effective problem-solving. They must analyze intricate security incidents, identify root causes, and develop innovative solutions to mitigate risks. Strong analytical thinking and the ability to approach problems from various angles are invaluable in this context. Communication and Collaboration Effective communication skills are crucial for cybersecurity engineers. They must convey technical information clearly to both technical and non-technical stakeholders. Additionally, collaboration is essential as cybersecurity professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams involving IT staff, management, legal teams, and more. Collaborative skills aid in bridging the gap between technical intricacies and business objectives. Ethical Mindset Ethics play a pivotal role in cybersecurity. Engineers must understand their actions’ legal and ethical implications, particularly when performing vulnerability disclosure and penetration testing tasks. A strong ethical foundation ensures their work contributes positively to the digital ecosystem. Continuous Learning The cybersecurity landscape is ever-changing, with new threats and technologies emerging regularly. A successful cybersecurity engineer understands the importance of continuous learning. Staying updated with industry trends, attending workshops, obtaining certifications, and participating in online communities can help professionals remain at the forefront of their field. Top Companies Hiring Cyber-Security Engineers in India Some of the top companies are: – Tata Consultancy Services (TCS): TCS is one of India’s largest IT services companies and offers clients a wide range of cybersecurity services globally. They often hire cybersecurity professionals to help clients secure their digital assets. TCS generally offers a high cyber security fresher salary package because they are required to work on various aspects of cybersecurity, including risk assessment, threat detection, security architecture, and implementing robust defense mechanisms tailored to client’s specific needs. Infosys Another major player in the IT industry, Infosys, hires cybersecurity engineers to work on various aspects of information security, including network security, application security, and data protection. Infosys also offers a  hefty cyber security fresher salary in India because their roles demand them to have expertise in several tasks. Starting with strengthening network security, ensuring application security, and implementing measures for robust data protection, these professionals must work on strategies and solutions to counter emerging cyber threats and vulnerabilities. Wipro Wipro is known for its cybersecurity services and solutions. They hire cybersecurity engineers to develop and implement security measures for their client’s IT infrastructure. The cyber security salary for freshers offered by Wipro is also considerably high because they are tasked with assessing risks, fortifying defenses, and implementing cutting-edge security technologies to combat evolving cyber threats effectively. HCL Technologies HCL provides cybersecurity services to a diverse range of industries. Cybersecurity engineers at HCL work on projects related to security architecture, risk assessment, and threat management. They also receive a high cyber security jobs salary because of their critical role in devising and implementing robust security frameworks aligned with industry best practices. IBM India IBM is a global technology company that offers a range of cybersecurity solutions. They hire cybersecurity professionals to research security, analyze threats, and develop security products. They contribute significantly to enhancing cyber security posture and crafting solutions that address clients’ evolving security needs. Hence, the cyber security salary at IBM is relatively high. Accenture Accenture offers cybersecurity consulting services to clients across various industries. They hire cybersecurity engineers to design and implement security solutions that align with client’s business objectives. Accenture also offers their freshers a hefty cyber security fresher salary because they focus on understanding clients’ unique security challenges and devising strategies that effectively mitigate risks and strengthen defenses. Amazon India As e-commerce and cloud computing continue to grow, Amazon hires cybersecurity engineers to ensure the security of their platforms and services. These professionals work diligently to fortify security measures, safeguard customer data, and ensure the integrity and availability of Amazon’s digital infrastructure. Hence, the cyber security jobs salary at Amazon is considerably high. Microsoft India Microsoft’s presence in India involves cybersecurity-related roles, where engineers work on securing Microsoft’s products and services and providing security solutions to customers. They are usually offered a high cyber security salary in India because they focus on enhancing the security of Microsoft’s offerings, identifying vulnerabilities, and offering robust security solutions aligned with industry standards. Deloitte India Deloitte offers cybersecurity consulting and advisory services to clients. They hire cybersecurity engineers for risk assessments, compliance, and incident response. They play a pivotal role in guiding clients towards fortified cyber security practices. Cisco India Cisco is known for its networking and cybersecurity solutions. They hire cybersecurity professionals for network security, threat intelligence, and cybersecurity research. Cisco offers high cyber security expert salary in India because they contribute to developing cutting-edge security solutions tailored to address clients’ diverse security challenges. How to Pursue a Cyber Security Career? The opportunities for cyber security analysts are currently at their prime in India. To protect against cyber attacks and security breaches, organizations are willing to pay good salary to cyber security experts who can safeguard their company and customers data. It includes the rise of cyber security salary in India. Online courses in cyber security in India are a great option for people who want to upskill but don’t have the option to leave their job. Unlike offline, you can revisit any video anytime. You can learn at your own pace.  With a significantly soaring demand for cybersecurity professionals coupled with the lucrative salaries they offer, a cybersecurity career is becoming one of the most sought-after career options now. If you want to pursue this profession, upGrad and IIIT-B can help you with a Advanced Certificate Programme in Cyber Security . The course offers specialization in application security, cryptography, data secrecy, and network security. This is one of the most popular courses in cybersecurity in India which takes 12 months also consists of live lectures. The course is imparted by world-class faculty members and industry experts and teaches you 6 programming languages and tools. Besides 360-degree career support consisting of the job fair, mock interviews, and more, the course also offers 3 guaranteed job interviews and a dedicated student success mentor. The course consists of over 7 case studies and projects that provide you with the much-needed hands-on experience, besides theoretical knowledge. The course includes a capstone project that validates your understanding and knowledge at the end of the program. It is one of the most successful courses in cybersecurity in India with more than 40,000 learners, 300+ hiring partners and has EMI options for learners.  The course is designed for IT and technology professionals, data professionals, IT and technical project leads and managers, testing professionals, and Java and other coding professionals and prepares you for various cybersecurity domain positions, including cybersecurity engineers, cybersecurity experts, and software developers. You need to have a Bachelor’s degree in attending the course, and no prior coding experience is required. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Refer to your Network! If you know someone, who would benefit from our specially curated programs? Kindly fill in this form to register their interest. 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by Pavan Vadapalli

18 Feb 2024

Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm – A Detailed Overview
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What Is Dijkstra Algorithm Shortest Path Algorithm: Explained with Examples The Dutch computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra in 1959, spoke about the shortest path algorithm that could be applied to a weighted graph. This graph can be of two types – directed or undirected. A precondition of the graph is that there should be a non-negative value on its very edge. Edsger named this algorithm ‘Dijkstra’s Algorithm’. This blog will explore Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm and ways to implement it in various programming languages.  Understanding Graphs Graphs are non-linear data structures depicting the connections between elements known as vertices or nodes. The arcs or lines forming the connection between two nodes in a graph are termed edges. Simply put, a graph comprises a set of Edges (E) and vertices (V). This graph can be denoted G (V, E). Two graph nodes connect only when an edge exists between them. Graph components Edges – Edges, also called arcs, are lines connecting two vertices or graph nodes. These are. Vertices – Basic graph elements, also known as nodes, vertices depict real-life people and objects. Graph Types Graphs can be broadly classified into directed and undirected graphs. 1. Directed Graph These graphs consist of edges with direction. The edges denote a one-way relationship in such graphs where a single direction traverses each edge. The figure above shows a simple directed graph consisting of five edges and four nodes. Arrows are used in place of simple lines to denote directed edges.  2. Undirected Graphs Graphs with an edge but no fixed direction are known as undirected graphs. In these graphs, the edge denotes a two-way relationship where we can communicate in both directions. The figure above shows a simple undirected graph comprising six edges and six nodes. Learn more about this topic in our detailed blog post Weighted Graph Weighted graphs are those where each edge is assigned a ‘weight’ or ‘cost.’ This weight can represent time, distance or anything representing the connection between the nodes or vertices it links. Dijkstra’s Algorithm considers these weights as essential elements. The image above shows the weighted graph with a number beside each edge, signifying the weight of the corresponding edge. Introduction to Dijkstra’s Algorithm Alternately called single source shortest path algorithm, Dijkstra’s Algorithm is used to figure out the shortest path in weighted graphs or the shortest distance between the starting node and target node in weighted graphs. It uses the weights of the edges to find the route that minimises the total weight or distance between the starting node and the other nodes.  This algorithmic process provides the shortest distance from a precise source node to all other nodes inside a graph. This differs from the minimum spanning tree since the shortest path between two nodes might not include all the graph nodes. Why Do We Use Dijkstra’s Algorithm? Dijkstra’s Algorithm is used in GPS devices to find the shortest path between your current location and your destination. Additionally, Dijkstra’s Algorithm in computer networks is used for routing protocols. A Step-by-Step Guide to Implementing Dijkstra’s Algorithm Look at some of the important features of the algorithm before moving on to Dijkstra’s Algorithm steps for implementing the algorithm.  Dijkstra’s Algorithm starts from the source node. The algorithm examines the whole graph to find the shortest path between that node and all other nodes. It keeps track of the presently recognised shortest path from each node to the starting node. It updates the values if it can find a different shortest path. After the algorithm has found the shortest distance from the source node to another node, it marks the node as ‘visited’ and adds it to the path. This process continues until the path contains all nodes in the graph. With the help of this, a path is created connecting the source node to all other nodes. This path is created following the probable shortest distance to reach each node.  Let’s move on to the step-by-step process of implementing Dijkstra’s Algorithm. Mark all vertices as unvisited. Mark the source node with a present distance of 0 while marking the other nodes as infinity. Fix the source node as the current node. Analyse all the unvisited neighbours of the current node and calculate their distances. Add the present distance of the current node to the edge’s (connecting current node and neighbour node) weight to calculate the distance. Compare the most recent distance to the distance already assigned to the neighbouring node, then set that distance as the new current distance for that node. Consider all the current node’s unvisited neighbours after that and mark the current node as visited. An algorithm has ended if the destination node has been marked as visited. If not, select the unvisited node marked with the smallest distance and fix it as the latest current node. Repeat the process once more from step 4. Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm Example For a better understanding, consider the illustration below to explain Dijkstra’s Algorithm with examples. Begin with a weighted graph. Select a source node and mark it as 0. Assign infinity to the other nodes. Move to each node and update the path distance. If the path distance of the adjacent node is smaller than the new path distance, it is unnecessary to update it. You must avoid updating the path distances of nodes you have visited. We choose the unvisited node with the smallest path distance after each iteration. That is why choose 5 before 7. You may notice how the rightmost node gets its path distance updated twice. Repeat the steps until all the nodes have been visited. Understanding Pseudocode for Dijkstra’s Algorithm Now that we have a fair grasp of Dijkstra Algorithm example, let’s dive into the pseudocode for Dijkstra Algorithm. Keep a record of the path length of every vertex. Keep each vertex’s path length inside an array with size n, where n is the total number of vertices. Find the shortest path and the distance of that path. To overcome this issue, map each vertex to the vertex that last updated its path distance. After completing the algorithm, try backtracking the destination vertex to the source vertex to find the path. Use a minimum Priority Queue to find the vertex with the smallest path length efficiently.  Now look at this pseudocode of the above example. Pseudocode: function Dijkstra Algorithm(Graph, source node) // iterating through the nodes in Graph and set their distances to INFINITY for each node N in Graph: distance[N] = INFINITY previous N = NULL If N != source_node, add N to Priority Queue G // setting the distance of the source node of the Graph to 0 distance source_node]=0 // iterating until the Priority Queue G is not empty while G is NOT empty: // selecting a node Q having the least distance and marking it as visited Q = node in G with the least distance mark Q visited // iterating through the unvisited neighbouring nodes of the node Q and performing relaxation accordingly for each unvisited neighbour node N of Q temporary distance = distance[Q] + distance between(Q, N) if the temporary distance is less than the given distance of the path to the Node. updating the resultant distance with the minimum value if temporary distance < distance[N] distance[N]:= temporary distance previousNO //returning the final list of distance return distance[], previous[] In the pseudocode above, a function is built with two parameters — the source node and the Graph made up of the nodes. In this function, each node in the Graph has been iterated through their initial distance set to INFINITY, and the previous node value set to NULL. Additionally, before adding each node to the priority queue, it was checked to confirm it was not a source node.  The source node’s length is set to 0. After going through each node in the priority queue once, the closest one is chosen and marked as visited. It is repeated through the selected node’s unexplored neighbours and relaxed wherever necessary.  Finally, the original and temporary distances between the source and destination nodes are compared and updated with the resulting distance with the minimum value and the prior node information. For the last step, we returned the final list of distances with the prior node information. Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Using Dijkstra’s Algorithm in Various Programming Languages This section will describe the implementation of the algorithm in various programming languages. Dijkstra’s Algorithm C Code Use the following code to implement Dijkstra Algorithm in C. File: DijkstraAlgorithm.c // Implementation of Dijkstra's Algorithm in C // importing the standard I/O header file #include <stdio.h> // defining some constants #define INF 9999 #define MAX 10 // prototyping of the function void DijkstraAlgorithm(int Graph[MAX][MAX], int size, int start); // defining the function for Dijkstra's Algorithm void DijkstraAlgorithm(int Graph[MAX][MAX], int size, int start) { int cost[MAX][MAX], distance[MAX], previous[MAX]; int visited_nodes[MAX], counter, minimum_distance, next_node, i, JE // creating cost matrix for (i = 0; i < size; i++) for (j = 0; j < size; j++) if (Graphi [i][j] == 0) cost[i][j] = INF; else cost[i][j]= Graphjn:[i][j]; for (i = 0; i < size; i++) { distance[i] = cost[start][i]; previous[i] = start; visited_nodes[i] = 0; } distance[start] = 0; visited_nodes[start] = 1; counter = 1; while (counter < size - 1) { minimum distance = INF; for (i = 0; i < size; i++) if (distance[i] < minimum_distance && !visited_nodes[j]) { minimum distance = distance[i]; next_node = i; } visited_nodes[next_node] =1; for (i = 0; i < size; i++) if (!visited_nodes[i]) if (minimum_distance + cost[next_node][i] < distance[i]) { distance[i] = minimum_distance + cost[next_node][i]; previous[i] = next_node; } counter++; } // printing the distance for (i=0; i< size; i++) if (i != start) { printf("\nDistance from the Source Node to %d: %d", i, distance[i]); } } // main function int main(){ // defining variables int Graph[MAX][MAX], i, j, size, source; // declaring the size of the matrix size = 7; // declaring the nodes of graph Graph[0][0] = 0; Graph[0][1] = 4; Graph[0][2] = 0; Graph[0][3] = 0; Graph[0][4] = 0; Graph[0][5] = 8; Graph[0][6] = 0; Graph[1][0] = 4; Graph[1][1] <= 0; Graph[1][2] = 8: Graph[1][3] = 0: Graph[1][4] = 0; Graph[1][5] = 11; Graph[1][6] = 0; Graph[2][0] = 0; Graph[2][1] = 8: Graph[2][2] <= 0; Graph[2][3] = 7: Graph[2][4] = 0; Graph [2][5] = 4; Graph[2][6] = 0; Graph[3][0] = 0; Graph [3][1] = 0; Graph[3][2] <= 7 Graph[3][3] <=0 Graph[3][4] = 9, Graph[3]][5] = 14; Graph[3][6]= 0; Graph [4][0] = 0; Graph [4][1] = 0; Graph[4][2] = 0; Graph[4][3]= 9; Graph[4][4] = 0; Graph[4][5] = 10; Graph[4][6] = 2: Graph[5][0] = 0; Graph[5][1] = 0; Graph[5][2] = 4; Graph [5][3] = 14 Graph [5][4] = 10; Graph [5][5]= 0; Graph[5][6]= 2; Graph[6][0] = 0; Graph[6][1]=0; Graph[6][2] = 0; Graph[6][3] = 0; Graph[6][4] = 2; Graph[8][5] = 0; Graph[8][6] = 1; source= 0; //calling the DijkstraAlgorithm() function by passing the Graph, the number of nodes and the source node Dijkstra Algorithm(Graph, size, source); return 0; } Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Dijkstra Algorithm C++ Code Use the following code to implement Dijkstra’s Algorithm in C++. File: DijkstraAlgorithm.cpp // Implementation of Dijkstra's Algorithm in C++ // importing the required header files #include <iostream> #include <vector> // defining constant #define MAX_INT 10000000 // using the standard namespace using namespace std; // prototyping of the DijkstraAlgorithm() function void DijkstraAlgorithm(); // main function int main(){ DijkstraAlgorithm(); return 0; } // declaring the classes class Vertex; class Edge; // prototyping the functions void Dijkstra(); vector<Vertex*>* Adjacent Remaining Nodes(Vertex" vertex); Vertex Extract_Smallest(vector<Vertex*>& vertices); int Distance(Vertex vertexOne, Vertex* vertexTwo); bool Contains(vector<Vertex">& vertices, Vertex vertex); vold Print Shortest Route To(Vertex" des); // instantiating the classes vector<Vertex"> vertices; vector<Edge"> edges; // defining the class for the vertices of the graph class Vertex{ public: Vertex(char id) : id(id), prev(NULL), distance_from_start(MAX_INT) { vertices.push_back(this); } public: char id; Vertex* prev; int distance_from_start; }; // defining the class for the edges of the graph class Edge { public: Edge(Vertex* vertexOne, Vertex vertexTwo, int distance) : vertexOne(vertexOne), vertexTwo(vertexTwo), distance(distance) { edges.push_back(this); } bool Connects(Vertex* vertexOne, Vertex vertexTwo) { return( (vertexOne == this->vertexOne && vertex Two == this->vertexTwo) || (vertexOne == this->vertexTwo && vertexTwo == this->vertexOne)); } public: Vertex vertexOne: Vertex vertexTwo: int distance; }; // defining the function to collect the details of the graph void DijkstraAlgorithm() { // declaring some vertices Vertex vertex_a= new Vertex('A'); Vertex vertex_b = new Vertex('B'); Vertex vertex_c = new Vertex('C'); Vertex vertex_d = new Vertex('D'); Vertex vertex_e = new Vertex('E'); Vertex vertex_f = new Vertex('F'); Vertex vertex_g = new Vertex('G'); // declaring some edges Edge* edge_1 = new Edge(vertex a, vertex_c, 1); Edge* edge_2 = new Edge(vertex a, vertex_d, 2); Edge* edge_3 = new Edge(vertex b, vertex_c, 2); Edge* edge_4 = new Edge(vertex c, vertex_d, 1): Edge* edge_5 = new Edge(vertex b, vertex_f, 3); Edge* edge_6 = new Edge(vertex c, vertex_e, 3); Edge* edge_7 = new Edge(vertex e, vertex_f, 2); Edge* edge_8 = new Edge(vertex d, vertex_g, 1); Edge* edge_9= new Edge(vertex g, vertex_f, 1); vertex a distance from start = 0; // setting a start vertex // calling the Dijkstra() function to find the shortest route possible Dijkstra(); //calling the prient_shortest_route_to() function to print the shortest route from the Source vertex to the destination vertex Print_shortest_Route_To(vertex_f); // defining the function for Dijkstra's Algorithmn void Dijkstra(){ while (vertices.size() > 0) { Vertex smallest = Extract Smallest(vertices); vector<Vertex adjacent nodes = Adjacent_Remaining_Nodes(smallest); const int size = adjacent_nodes -> size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) { Vertex adjacent = adjacent nodes → at); int distance = Distance(smallest, adjacent) + smallest -> distance_from_start; if (distance < adjacent -> distance_from_start) { adjacent->distance from start = distance: adjacent -> prev = smallest; } } delete adjacent_nodes; } } // defining the function to find the vertex with the shortest distance, removing it, and returning it Vertex* Extract Smallest(vector<Vertex">& vertices) int size = vertices.size(); if (size == 0) return NULL; int smallest_position = 0; Vertex* smallest = vertices.at(0); for (int i = 1; i < size; ++i) { Vertex* current = vertices.at(i); if (current ->distance_from_start < smallest -> distance_from_start) smallest=current; smallest_position=i; } } vertices.erase(vertices.begin() + smallest_position); return smallest; } // defining the function to return all vertices adjacent to 'vertex' which are still in the vertices collection. vector<Vertex*>* Adjacent Remaining Nodes(Vertex" vertex) { vector<Vertex"> adjacent nodes = new vector<Vertex">(); const int size = edges.size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) { Edge* edge = edges.at(i); Vertex adjacent = NULL; if (edge -> vertexOne == vertex) { adjacent = edge >> vertexTwo; }else if (edge -> vertexTwo == vertex) { adjacent = edge-> vertexOne; } if (adjacent && Contains(vertices, adjacent)) { adjacent nodes -> push_back(adjacent); } } return adjacent nodes; } // defining the function to return distance between two connected vertices int Distance(Vertex* vertexOne, Vertex* vertexTwo) { const int size = edges.size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) { Edge* edge = edges.at(i); if (edge -> Connects(vertexOne, vertexTwo)) { return edge -> distance; } } return -1; // should never happen } // defining the function to check if the 'vertices' vector contains 'vertex' bool Contains(vector<Vertex*>& vertices, Vertex* vertex) { const int size = vertices.size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) { if (vertex == vertices.at(i)) {} return true; } } return false; } // defining the function to print the shortest route to the destination vold Print_Shortest_Route _To(Vertex* des) { Vertex" prev = des; cout << "Distance from start: " << des -> distance_from_start << endl; while (prev) { cout << prev -> id <<""; prev = prev-> prev; } cout << endl; } Dijkstra Algorithm Java Code Use the following code to implement Dijkstra’s Algorithm in Java programming language. File: DijkstraAlgorithm.java // Implementation of Dijkstra's Algorithm in Java // defining the public class for Dijkstra's Algorithm public class DijkstraAlgorithm { // defining the method to implement Dijkstra's Algorithm public void dijkstraAlgorithm(int[][] graph, int source) { // number of nodes int nodes = graph.length; boolean[] visited_vertex = new boolean[nodes]; int[] dist = new int[nodes]; for (int i=0; i<nodes; i++){ visited_vertex] = false; dist[i] = Integer.MAX_VALUE; } // Distance of self loop is zero dist[source] = 0; for (int i=0; i<nodes, i++) { //Updating the distance between neighbouring vertex and source vertex int u= find_min_distance(dist, visited vertex); visited_vertex[u] = true; // Updating the distances of all the neighbouring vertices for (int v=0; y < nodes: v++) { if (visited vertex(v) && graph[u][v]! = 0 && (dist[u] + graph[u][v] < dist{v})) { dist[v] = dist[u] + graph[u][v]; } } } for (int i=0; i < dist.length; i++) { System.out.println(String format("Distance from Vertex %s to Vertex %s is %s", source, i, dist[i])); } } //definding the medhod to find the minimum distance privae static int find_min_distance(int[]dist, boolean[] visited_vertex) { int minimum_distance = integer.Max_value; int mininum_distance_vertex =-1; for (int i=0; i<dist. length; i++){ if (visited vertex) && dist[i] < minimum_distance) { minimum_distance = dist[i]} minimum distance vertex=i; } } retum minimum_distance_vertex; } // main function public static void main(String[] args) { // declaring the nodes of the graphs int graph[][] = new int[][]{ {0,1,1,2,0,0,0}, {0,0,2,0,0,3,0}, {1,2,0,1,3,0,0}, {2,0,1,0,2,0,1}, {0,0,3,0,0,2,0}, {0,3,0,0,2,0,1}, {0,2,0,1,0,1,0} }; //instantiating the DijkstraAlgorithm() class DijkstraAlgorithm Test = new DijkstraAlgorithm()) // calling the dijkstraAlgorithm() method to find the shortest distance from the source node to the destination node Test.dijkstraAlgorithm(graph, 0) } } Dijkstra Algorithm Python Code Use the following code to implement Dijkstra’s Algorithm in Python. File: DikstraAlgorithm.py #Implementation of Dijkstra's Algorithm in Python #importing the sys module import sys #declaring the list of nodes for the graph nodes=[ [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0] [0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0 [1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0] [0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, ] [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0] ] #declaring the list of edges for the graph edges = [ [0,0,1,0,2,0,0], [0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, 0], [1,2,0,1,3,0,0], [2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1], [0,0,3,0,0,2, 0], [0, 3, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1,0] ] # declaring the list of edges for the graph edges=[ [ 0, 0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 0], [ 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, 0], [ 1, 2, 0, 1, 3, 0, 0], ( 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1], [ 0, 0, 3, 0, 0, 2, 0], [0, 3, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1], [ 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0], ] #defining the function to find which node is to be visited next def toBevisited(): global visitedAndDistance V=-10 for index in range(numberOfNodes); If visitedAndDistance[index][0] == 0 and (v <0 or visitedAndDistance index][1]<= visitedAndDistance[v][1]): v=index return v #finding the number of nodes in the graph numberOfNodes = len(nodes[0]) visitedAndDistance = [[0, 0] for i in range(numberOfNodes - 1): visitedAndDistance.append([0, sys.maxsize]) for node in range(numberOfNodes): #finding the next node to be visited toVisit = toBeVisited() for neighborIndex in range(numberOfNodes) #updating the new distances if nodes to Visit][neighborIndex]== 1 and visitedAndDistance(neighborinbox[[0] ==0: newDistance = visitedAndDistance toVisit][1] + edges[toVisit][neighborindex] if visitedAndDistance neighborfndex][1] > newDistance: visitedAndDistance[neighborIndex][1] = newDistance visitedAndDistance(toVisit [0] =1 i=0 #printing the distance for distance in visitedAndDistance: print("Distance of", chr(ord("A") + i), "from source node", distance[1]) i=i+1 In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Real-life Applications of Dijkstra’s Algorithm Mentioned below are some real-world applications of Dijkstra’s Algorithm. Mobile Network Every transmission line in a mobile network consists of a bandwidth, ‘B’. The transmission line’s highest supported frequency is known as the bandwidth. In general, a line reduces a signal if the signal frequency is higher in that line. The amount of data transmitted over a line is measured as bandwidth.  Let’s imagine a city as a graph, where the graph nodes represent the switching station and the edges represent the transmission lines. The weight of the edges represents the bandwidth, or ‘B’. As a result, the mobile network can also be considered a type of shortest-distance problem that can be resolved using Dijkstra’s Algorithm. Google Maps We often try to find the distance between two cities interlinked with many routes or paths. We resort to Google Maps to show us the minimal distance. This is only possible because Dijkstra’s Algorithm aids the application in determining which portion of the path is shortest between two specified places.  Consider India as a network, with the cities and locations acting as the nodes and the routes connecting them as the edges. It is possible to figure out the shortest paths between any two cities or locations using Dijkstra’s Algorithm. Flight Programme Let’s consider that a person needs software to create a customer flight schedule. A database containing all flights and airports is available to the agent. The flights also consist of departure and arrival timings in addition to the origin airport, flight number and destination. Here, the agents can apply Dijkstra’s Algorithm to compute the earliest arrival time for the chosen destination from the original airport and the specified start time. Pros and Cons of Dijkstra’s Algorithm Dijkstra’s Algorithm comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages.  Advantages Dijkstra’s Algorithm has a nearly linear space and time complexity. It can only be used with directed weighted graphs. This graph’s edges must be non-negative. Calculating the shortest distance from a single node to all other nodes is possible by using Dijkstra’s Algorithm. It is also possible to measure the shortest path from a source node to a destination node by ending the algorithm after we reach the shortest path for the destination node. Disadvantages Dijkstra’s Algorithm cannot handle negative edges. This algorithm performs an obscured exploration. This takes up too much time during processing. Maintenance is required to keep track of the visited nodes. This algorithm cannot measure the exact shortest distance since it enters the acyclic graph. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Conclusion Dijkstra’s Algorithm is useful for finding the shortest path between a source node and all other nodes in a graph. An in-depth knowledge of this algorithm is crucial for data scientists, along with the know-how to implement it in various programming languages. Enrol in an online data science course to understand it in detail and learn more about Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm example and its real-world applications.  FAQs
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by Pavan Vadapalli

09 Oct 2023

What Is Automotive Cybersecurity? Top 12 Examples
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Welcome to a world in which cars are more than simply vehicles; they are intelligent, allied companions on our trips. However, with this technological expansion comes a new issue: protecting our automobiles from cyber assaults. Consider hackers infiltrating your car’s systems, gaining remote control, or stealing your personal information. This is where automotive cybersecurity comes in. It acts as a coat of armour for your vehicle’s computer brain, protecting it from digital intruders and ensuring that your journey is both cutting-edge and safe.  This blog will walk you through the fundamentals of cybersecurity in automotive industry, deciphering the technical terms and uncovering the mystery behind the scenes. So strap in as we investigate how this digital guardian is changing how we interact with cars and safety. Understanding Automotive Cybersecurity Automotive cybersecurity acts as a shield, protecting our modern automobiles from computer-based threats. Cars, like homes, require protection from hackers who may attempt to steal data or even take control of a car. Cars are becoming increasingly like machines on wheels, exposing them to cyber dangers. Cars now come equipped with screens, GPS, and even autonomous capabilities. These wonderful features also imply that hackers have additional ways to break in. Imagine how terrifying it would be if someone could remotely take control of a car’s steering or brakes. To prevent this, automobile cybersecurity employs unique locks in the form of operating systems and protocols. It encrypts important data, such as your location, and prevents unauthorised access. The electronic systems in your car act as a virtual bodyguard. Like your phone receives updates to keep it secure, manufacturers likewise distribute upgrades to fix weak points.  Why Is Automotive Cybersecurity Important? Imagine driving down the road when your car’s brakes suddenly fail, or worse, your steering becomes erratic – all because a shady hacker accessed your car’s brain. Scary, right? That is why car cybersecurity is so important. As automobiles progress into extremely complex computers on wheels, they become vulnerable to hacking and unauthorised access, which can have significant implications. Listed below are a few reasons that make automotive cybersecurity so important: Safety issues: Critical vehicle systems like the brakes or steering can be compromised by hackers, putting the lives of drivers, travellers, and even passersby in peril. These eventualities are avoided through good cybersecurity, ensuring the car remains in the driver’s control. Data protection: Sensitive information, such as personal data and driving patterns, is collected and transmitted by modern vehicles. Without adequate vehicle cybersecurity, this data might be taken and used inappropriately, endangering privacy and security. Preventing Theft and Tampering: Hackers may take advantage of security flaws to steal automobiles or turn off measures that protect against theft, making it simpler for criminals to commit theft or other illegal actions. Maintaining Trust: As connected vehicles proliferate, users must have faith in the security of their vehicles. This trust might be damaged by a lack of cybersecurity, which would affect the implementation of new automobile technologies. Financial Loss: Besides the financial strain on car owners, a successful cyber assault could result in pricey repairs, possible recalls, and legal repercussions for automakers. Whether you’re a tech enthusiast or just like a smooth ride, it’s critical to comprehend the significance of automobile cybersecurity. It keeps our vehicles on the digital superhighway safe, secure, and operating without a hitch. Hence, the significance of cybersecurity professionals cannot be overstated in the present day. Unmasking Different Types of Cybersecurity Attacks The significance of automotive cybersecurity has risen to the fore in an era where our cars have transformed into smart, connected computers on wheels. Potential cyber-enemies are becoming as sophisticated as our cars. Let’s examine the many kinds of car cybersecurity threats: Attacks on Critical Infrastructure: Attacks on vital infrastructure like a car’s steering, brakes, or engine can have disastrous results, endangering lives and causing havoc on the roads. Attacks on Applications, Systems, and Processes: In this attack, hackers use flaws in a car’s software and systems to compromise features like infotainment, navigation, or essential safety. The effects can be extensive, ranging from functions being disabled to unauthorised access. Network attacks: Data sent between various automotive parts or vehicles and other systems is manipulated in a network attack. Such data tampering may result in the interception of private information or the modification of control systems. Attacks on the Cloud: Modern cars are becoming increasingly connected to the cloud for services like internet upgrades and data storage. Attacks directed at the cloud have the potential to corrupt updates, reveal private car data, and interrupt vital services. Internet of Things (IoT) attacks: Hackers may exploit holes in connectivity between automobiles and external devices when cars join the Internet of Things (IoT). Unauthorised parties can get access to and alter car functionalities by breaching the IoT ecosystem.  Threats to automotive cybersecurity are no longer limited to the fictional world. Strong cybersecurity measures are necessary to maintain our safety on the road and defend the digital integrity of our cars as they develop into sophisticated, interconnected systems. Ensuring that our vehicles are adequately protected against these hidden cyber threats in the same way that we belt up for a safe drive is essential. Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Automotive Cybersecurity Solutions The goal of automotive cybersecurity solutions is to safeguard contemporary automotive systems and safeguard automobiles from cyber threats while also ensuring their security, privacy, and functionality. These technologies protect automobiles from potential flaws and threats while addressing vehicles’ growing complexity and connectivity. Among the most important automotive cybersecurity solutions are: Encryption: Using reliable encryption methods to protect data sent between internal and external systems, networks, and vehicle components. Firewalls: Applying firewalls to a vehicle’s network allows for the monitoring and managing of data flow while thwarting malicious invasions and unauthorised communications. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS): These systems keep track of the networks and parts of vehicles in real-time, spotting and blocking any suspicious activity or unauthorised access attempts. Secure Boot and Firmware Verification: Ensure that only legitimate and authorised software can run on vehicle control units to prevent unauthorised alterations. Access Control: Restricting access to vehicle systems through robust authentication and authorisation processes to stop unauthorised users from taking over. Over-the-Air (OTA) Updates Security: Using safe techniques to update car software while assuring its validity and preventing possible tampering. Security Audits and Penetration Testing: Regularly evaluating automotive systems for vulnerabilities via penetration testing and security audits, spotting weak spots before nefarious attackers take advantage of them. Cybersecurity Training and Awareness: To lower human-related security risks, the automobile industry’s professionals, including developers, engineers, and end users, are taught cybersecurity best practices. In the age of connected and automated driving, these technologies combine to create a strong defence against cyber-attacks, ensuring that vehicles stay secure, dependable, and safe.  Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? 12 Examples of Automotive Cybersecurity Measures Connected vehicle cybersecurity is a dynamic field that evolves with technology. Maintaining the technologies and techniques used to defend our vehicles is crucial in this dynamic field. Here are 12 significant instances of automotive cybersecurity that shed light on how our cars can be protected against potential dangers: Firewalls and Gateways: Putting up virtual walls to stop unauthorised access with firewalls and gateways. Biometric Authentication: Utilising distinctive personal characteristics like fingerprints or facial recognition to unlock automobiles. Behaviour Analysis: Observing driving patterns for irregularities that might point to hacking attempts. Blockchain Technology: Implementing blockchain technology guarantees data transferred between infrastructure and automobiles is accurate. Two-factor Authentication: Bolstering security by applying two separate verification processes. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS): Detecting and preventing cyber-attacks in real-time. Secure Boot Process: Ensure only reputable software is installed on an automobile’s ECU. Data Encryption: Keeping confidential information from being accessed and used improperly. Firmware Updates: Keeping security patches up-to-date on the car’s software. Security Operation Centers: Establishing facilities to track and address cybersecurity threats is known as “security operation centres”. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Encryption: Securing inter-vehicle communication to stop unauthorised access. Continuous Monitoring: Constantly scanning the cybersecurity environment for new threats.  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript A Brief Overview of ISO 21434 Cybersecurity Standard Globally, ISO 21434 is recognised as the foundation of automotive cybersecurity. This worldwide standard serves as a crucial road map for manufacturers, developers, and other industry participants to ensure the safety of contemporary cars. The ISO 21434 cybersecurity standard serves as a strong guardian as the automotive industry embraces the power of technology. It provides standards and best practices for identifying, managing, and reducing cybersecurity risks throughout a vehicle’s lifecycle.  This standard guarantees that cybersecurity is smoothly incorporated throughout all vehicle development and use phases, protecting them from potential threats. The ISO 21434 cybersecurity standard emerges as a crucial tool in a world where safety and digital innovation coexist, guaranteeing that our trips into the linked future are both exciting and secure. Automotive Cybersecurity and Privacy Regulations Safety Priority: Consumer safety is prioritised through regulations, which impose stringent cybersecurity safeguards to reduce potential risks. Data security: They adhere to tight processes to protect user information and maintain privacy.  Trust Assurance: Regulations increase consumer confidence in the automotive industry by establishing standardised security procedures. Global Standardisation: Global standardisation laws uphold uniform security requirements worldwide, fostering a coordinated strategy for vehicle cybersecurity. Industry Accountability: Manufacturers are held accountable for security lapses, encouraging a proactive approach to security. Collaborative Efforts: Regulations encourage stakeholder cooperation to handle new hazards collectively. Balanced Progress: They combine innovation and security to advance the market while protecting users.  Adapting Landscape: The regulatory environment changes as technology advances, steering the automotive industry towards a safe and bright future. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion As a result of the exciting developments in linked automobiles, an era of extraordinary utility and convenience is predicted. However, the future is not devoid of difficulties. As our protector, automotive cybersecurity is on the lookout for any attacks that could jeopardise the security of our cars and, subsequently, our own.  Vehicular cybersecurity paves the way for a future in which our smart vehicles symbolise modernity and are a testament to the collective dedication to safety in the digital age. By adopting a multifaceted approach incorporating durable solutions, global norms and compliance with regulations, automotive cybersecurity companies can become the harbinger of a new generation of transformative automation.
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by Pavan Vadapalli

26 Sep 2023

Penetration Testing in Cyber Security: What is it, Types, Pros and Cons
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Penetration testing is a controlled hacking method in which a professional pen tester, acting on behalf of a business, uses the same tactics as a criminal hacker to look for weaknesses in the company’s networks or applications. The method comprises numerous steps, including information collecting, vulnerability scanning, exploitation, and reporting.  Penetration testing is widely recognised as a vital technique to safeguard enterprises against cyber threats. This blog will discuss how to do penetration testing, why pen testing is important, and penetration testing methods to help you understand its significance and how it can benefit your organisation. Define Penetration Testing in Cybersecurity Penetration testing, often known as pen testing, is essential to cybersecurity. It entails analysing a computer system’s applications, architecture, and network for vulnerabilities and susceptibility to threats like hackers and cyberattacks.  Penetration testing may benefit a company since pen testers are professionals who think like adversaries; they can analyse data to focus their assaults and test systems and websites in ways automated testing solutions following a script cannot. Penetration testing is a component of a thorough security examination. Who Runs Pen Tests? Ethical hackers are IT professionals who employ hacking techniques to assist organisations in identifying potential entry points into their infrastructure. Most pen testers are security consultants or experienced developers with pen testing certification. It is ideal to have a pen test done by someone with little to no prior knowledge of how the system is secured since they may be able to find vulnerabilities that individuals familiar with the system are unaware of. Other consultants frequently do pen testing since they are trained to detect, exploit, and record vulnerabilities and use their findings to enhance the organisation’s security posture.  Penetration Testing’s Importance Here are the key reasons why penetration testing is important: Identifying vulnerabilities: It can uncover hidden weaknesses in an organisation’s systems, applications, and networks. By simulating attacks, penetration testers can find security holes before malevolent groups exploit them.  Testing security controls: Penetration testing provides a technique to assess the efficacy of an organisation’s security policies and processes. It helps validate the security mechanisms and suggests areas requiring improvements. By conducting frequent penetration testing, businesses may ensure that their security policies are robust and effective in guarding against possible threats. Compliance and regulatory requirements: Penetration testing is often necessary to fulfil regulatory compliance standards and industry norms. It helps firms demonstrate their commitment to security and privacy by complying with the most demanding security criteria. Regular pen testing can help firms satisfy regulatory agencies’ security and privacy criteria. Risk mitigation: Penetration testing significantly minimises risks connected with data breaches and software vulnerabilities. By detecting and fixing vulnerabilities, companies may lower the risk of a data breach and the potential harm it might cause.  Improving security awareness: Pen tests act as a “fire drill” for businesses, allowing staff to learn how to manage break-ins. It helps increase awareness about potential security threats and teaches personnel about best practices for addressing and responding to security issues. Types of Penetration Testing in Cybersecurity Listed below are some common types of penetration testing in cybersecurity: 1. Cloud Penetration Testing Cloud penetration testing is a simulated assault evaluating an organisation’s cloud-based applications and infrastructure security. The goal is to discover security risks and vulnerabilities and provide remedial recommendations. It entails modelling a controlled cyber assault to detect possible flaws.  Several approaches and tools may be employed depending on the cloud service and provider. However, conducting cloud penetration testing poses legal and technological difficulties. Each cloud service provider has its testing policy. Cloud pen testing is critical for assuring the security of cloud environments, systems, and devices, and its suitability relies on context and purpose. 2. Network Penetration Testing This method helps uncover security flaws in applications and systems by using malicious tactics to evaluate the network’s security. It includes simulating cyberattacks against the target system to find vulnerabilities that hackers may exploit.  A network penetration test aims to enhance a company’s defences against cyberattacks. The benefits of this testing include getting insight into an organisation’s security posture, finding and fixing security control flaws, and making networks safer and less prone to assaults. 3. Web Application Penetration Testing  Web application penetration testing is a rigorous procedure that simulates assaults on a system to detect vulnerabilities and exploits that potentially compromise it.  This step is vital in the secure Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) to create a system that users can safely use, free from hacking or data loss risks. The process comprises obtaining information, discovering vulnerabilities, and reporting them, with continuous assistance for remedy. Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. 4. API Penetration Testing API penetration testing is a key method to uncover security vulnerabilities in APIs, including sensitive information leaks, bulk assignments, bypass of access controls, failed authentication, SQL injection, and input validation problems.  It comprises five stages — preparation, reconnaissance, vulnerability analysis, exploitation, and reporting. It helps firms achieve security compliance requirements and secure sensitive data, systems, and procedures. 5. Mobile Penetration Testing Mobile pen testing helps find and assess security vulnerabilities in mobile apps, software, and operating systems. It seeks to expose weaknesses before they are exploited for malevolent advantage.  Mobile apps are part of a wider mobile ecosystem that interacts with devices, network infrastructure, servers, and data centres. Tools like Mobile Security Framework, Mobexler, and MSTG Hacking Playground are available for testing. 6. Smart Contract Penetration Testing Smart contract penetration testing is vital for detecting and exploiting flaws in self-executing blockchain-based computer applications. It includes playing the role of a “hacker” to find security holes in a system or network.  Methods include unit testing, static analysis, dynamic analysis, and formal verification. Web3 penetration testing covers the particular security problems of blockchain technology and its ecosystem, with smart contract vulnerabilities being a prominent worry. 7. Social Engineering Testing This security assessment approach examines an organisation’s vulnerability to social engineering attacks. It replicates real-world attacks, allowing the firm to play the role of the opponent and discover strengths and vulnerabilities.  The assessment helps measure employees’ adherence to security policies and procedures, demonstrating how quickly an invader may convince them to breach security restrictions. It can be part of larger penetration testing, attempting to find flaws and vulnerabilities with a clear route to remedy. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? What Are the Phases of Penetration Testing? Some stages of penetration testing are: Step 1: Reconnaissance and planning In this step, the tester acquires as much information about the target system as possible, including network architecture, operating systems and applications, user accounts, and other pertinent information. The purpose is to acquire as much data as possible so the tester can prepare an effective assault strategy. Step 2: Scanning Once the tester has obtained enough information, they employ scanning tools to examine the system and network flaws. This phase analyses the system flaws that can be exploited for targeted attacks. Step 3: Obtaining entry This step involves a comprehensive investigation of the target system to detect potential vulnerabilities and assess whether they can be exploited. Like scanning, vulnerability assessment is a helpful technique but is more potent when integrated with the other penetration testing phases. Step 4: Maintaining access Once the tester has obtained admission, they aim to retain access to the system for as long as feasible. This step is essential because it allows the tester to see how long they can remain unnoticed and what amount of harm they can accomplish. Step 5: Analysis Here, the tester evaluates the penetration testing findings and provides a report detailing the vulnerabilities detected, the methods used to exploit them, and recommendations for remedy. Step 6: Cleanup and remediation The final stage of pen testing entails cleaning up the environment, reconfiguring any access acquired to enter the environment, and preventing future unwanted entry into the system using whatever means required. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Methods of Penetration Testing Here are some of the most commonly used methods: External testing External penetration testing involves assessing the network’s security outside the organisation’s boundary. The purpose is to uncover vulnerabilities that can be exploited by an attacker who is not authorised to access the network. Internal testing This approach involves assessing the network’s security within the organisation’s perimeter. The purpose is to detect vulnerabilities that can be exploited by an attacker with access to the network. Blind testing Blind testing includes verifying the network’s security without any prior knowledge of the network’s infrastructure. The purpose is to recreate a real-world attack situation where the attacker has no prior knowledge of the network. Double-blind testing This approach entails verifying the network’s security without any prior knowledge of the network’s infrastructure and the knowledge of the IT employees. The purpose is to imitate a real-world attack where the IT personnel is unaware of the testing. Targeted testing This approach includes assessing the security of a single network area, such as a particular application or service. The purpose is to uncover vulnerabilities peculiar to that section of the network. Penetration Testing vs Vulnerability Assessments Here is a table that summarises the main differences between vulnerability assessments and penetration testing: Aspect Vulnerability Assessment Penetration Testing Purpose Identify potential weaknesses in an organisation’s IT infrastructure through high-level security scans Simulate real-world attacks to test the effectiveness of security measures and provide a more in-depth analysis of the organisation’s security posture Automation Can be automated Requires various levels of expertise Report Provides a higher level of risk assessment Contains detailed step-by-step guides to reproduce and fix vulnerabilities Cost Generally more cost-effective Generally conducted less frequently and are higher in cost What Are the Benefits and Drawbacks of Pen Testing? Enumerated below are some advantages and disadvantages of pen testing: Penetration testing benefits Identifies vulnerabilities: Pen testing may discover several vulnerabilities, including software problems, configuration issues, and weak passwords. Indicates attention to security: Regular penetration testing indicates dedication to the security of digital systems to clients and the industry. Avoids penalties and other implications: Pen testing helps organisations avoid fines and other consequences of non-compliance. Penetration testing drawbacks Can be expensive: Mistakes during pen testing can be costly, perhaps triggering losses of critical information. Encourages hackers: Pen testing might inspire hackers to target the company. Disruptive: Pen testing may interrupt operations if not conducted appropriately. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion While penetration testing offers considerable advantages in detecting vulnerabilities and strengthening security, companies should carefully assess the costs, resources, and potential constraints involved with the practice. Treating penetration testing as part of a holistic security plan that includes frequent updates, patches, and continuous monitoring to enable persistent protection against emerging threats is crucial.
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by Rohan Vats

25 Sep 2023

Top 5 Cybersecurity Courses After 12th
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The shift to digitisation has opened a host of new career opportunities. Modern technological advancements indicate a need for professionals with sound knowledge of the evolving IT trends. However, these advancements bring a new era of criminal activities, of which cybercrime is one. This has resulted in a growing demand for cybersecurity professionals. Students who wish to explore this career avenue can pursue cybersecurity courses after 12th grade.  The subject matter of these courses covers the methods and tools required to detect and prevent cyber-attacks. Additionally, these courses provide insights into cybersecurity fundamentals and their significance in modern technology. Learning about the different cybersecurity degree courses can help students make an informed decision. Besides degree programmes, there are cybersecurity courses for beginners on a few globally recognised, cost-effective platforms.  This blog will help you navigate cybersecurity course details, including their eligibility criteria, fees, syllabus, etc.  What Is Cybersecurity? Cybersecurity is a field of modern technology that protects our systems, programs, and networks against digital attacks. It prevents hackers from accessing, destroying, or altering sensitive data. These hackers may extort money from users and disrupt business operations. Given the threats to data security, implementing effective measures is imperative for all. Cybersecurity specialists are thoroughly trained to ensure protection against these malware attacks. They protect the data from unauthorised access and help organisations conduct their businesses smoothly.  Scope for Cybersecurity Courses After 12th  With data emerging as the most valuable asset for any business organisation, companies across the globe are constantly on the lookout for cybersecurity professionals to safeguard their data. The US Bureau of Labour Statistics estimates a 35% increase in cybersecurity jobs like information analysts by 2031. The growth is not restricted to one country alone. The field will see exponential growth globally. Hence, the scope for cybersecurity course in India is also estimated to rise in the coming years. Here’s a breakdown of the scope for cybersecurity courses after 12th: Bachelor’s in Cybersecurity – These programmes typically offer a comprehensive education in various aspects of cybersecurity, including network security, ethical hacking, digital forensics, and more. Bachelor’s in Computer Science & IT – Many universities offer bachelor’s degree programmes in computer science or information technology with specialisation or elective courses in cybersecurity. This can give students a broader foundation in computer science while allowing them to gain expertise in cybersecurity. Online courses – Reputable platforms like Coursera, upGrad, edX, and Udacity offer online courses and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). These courses can provide learners with valuable knowledge and skills in cybersecurity. Certification programmes – Certifications like Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) and Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) can help students acquire specific skills and make them more attractive to employers. Diploma courses – Numerous diploma and short-term cybersecurity courses can be pursued after 12th grade. These courses offer specialised training in ethical hacking, penetration testing, and cybersecurity essentials. Eligibility Criteria for Cybersecurity Course  The tables below list the eligibility criteria for enrolling in cybersecurity courses: Eligibility for UG courses Subjects to be taken in 12  Minimum percentage required in 12 Maths, Chemistry, and Physics 50% Eligibility for PG courses Graduation Discipline  The minimum percentage to acquire in UG Cybersecurity 50% Cybersecurity course eligibility may differ based on the specific job role and sector. A degree in computer science or a related field and two years of experience can significantly improve one’s chances of employment.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Diploma Courses in Cybersecurity Below are a few cybersecurity diploma courses students can pursue to establish a career in cybersecurity:  Computer Science Information Technology Management  Computer Programming Database Management Information Security and Assurance Network Administration Cloud Computing Top Cybersecurity Courses After 12th Commerce Owing to its valuable concepts, cybersecurity attracts students from all streams. In today’s digital world, data is scattered throughout the internet. To avoid any instance of a data breach, students from any stream are open to acquiring knowledge of data security.  Here are a few cybersecurity courses after 12th Commerce:  B.Com in Cyber Law B.Com in Forensic Accounting  B.Com in Fraud Detection B.Com in IT B.Com Cyber Crimes and Law Top Cybersecurity Courses After 12th Science Students from science backgrounds have an added advantage in this field owing to the combination of subjects they study. Cybersecurity courses to pursue after 12th science are listed below.  B.Sc Cyber Security Networks (Honours) B.Sc Digital Security and Forensics (Honours)  B.Sc Honours Cyber Security B.Sc Computer Forensics (Honours) Bachelor of Engineering – Cybersecurity Engineering (Honours)  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Top Cybersecurity Courses After 12th Arts Cybersecurity courses are not limited to commerce and science students only. Students from arts backgrounds can also have a career in cybersecurity with the courses mentioned below:  B.A in Networking  B.A in Cybersecurity B.A in IT Diploma in Cybersecurity Diploma in Cyber Crime  Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? 5 Best Cybersecurity Courses After 12th: Course Duration, Fees, and Other Details The list of courses below includes the cybersecurity course fees in India and other necessary details:   1. B.Sc Cybersecurity (Honours) Duration of the course: 3 years Cyber security course fees: INR 30,000 – 5,00,000 About the course: This is one of the best cybersecurity courses to pursue after the 12th grade. It covers topics such as ethical hacking, penetration testing, etc., boosting the knowledge in web security and diverse computing. The course prepares students to become cybersecurity experts.  2. Bachelor of Networking in Cybersecurity Duration of the course: 3 years Cyber security course fees: INR 3,00,000 – 5,00,000 About the course: This course gives insights into the detection of complex scams that occur online, finding the technical know-how of password cracking, etc. The course potentially strengthens the creativity of the aspirants and helps them to upscale their critical thinking skills.  3. B.Sc Cybersecurity with Forensics (Honours)  Duration of the course: 3 years Cyber security course fees: INR 3,00,000 – 5,00,000 About the course: This course prepares students to enhance their skills in securing and designing complex security systems in information technology. The students will learn how to respond to security threats through data analysis.  4. Bachelor of Information Technology  Duration of the course: 3 years Cyber security course fees: INR 3,00,000 – 10,00,000 About the course: This is one of the best cybersecurity courses after 12th that introduces the latest cybersecurity technologies. Students will learn about research developments and other interesting topics, such as wired network connections, security applications, etc. 5. B.Sc Computing – Cybersecurity (Honours)  Duration of the course: 3 years Cyber security course fees: INR 30,000 – 5,00,000 About the course: This course deals with concepts like cyber defence techniques, data protection, information security, etc., that are crucial in cybersecurity. The course trains students to develop, design and maintain robust computer systems.   Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Certifications in Cybersecurity  Several platforms offer cybersecurity degrees and certifications at beginner and advanced levels. Below is a list of a few online and hybrid cybersecurity courses:  1. Advanced Certificate Programme in Cyber Security This 7.5-month certificate programme imparts critical skills required for cybersecurity, covering topics like network security, cryptography, application security, and data secrecy. The course offers high-performance coaching, interview preparation, and a portal for exclusive job opportunities, among other facilities.  2. Caltech CTME Cybersecurity Certificate Programme  It is a 7-month beginner-friendly programme. The programme’s features include full-stack academy learning, access to a portal for exclusive job opportunities, mentorship sessions and more.  3. MS in Cybersecurity If you’re looking for global recognition, here’s your chance to earn a master’s degree from Johnson & Wales University (JWU), Providence, RI, USA, and an advanced certification in cybersecurity from IIIT Bangalore. In addition to the dual accreditation, students can access world-class faculty members and industry experts, online sessions, live lectures, career-centric soft skills training, IELTS prep, and more. To pursue this course, candidates must have a BEngg/BTech/BSc (Computer Science/IT) or BCA.  Syllabus for Cybersecurity Course The syllabus is different for every cybersecurity course. Nonetheless, certain essential topics and subjects are common in all courses. The list below mentions the subjects included in every cybersecurity UG and diploma course:  Information Systems Digital Forensics Cyber Defense Information Technology  Cyber Ethics Cyber Law Cyber Policy  Data Communications and Networking  Security Systems Application Security  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Jobs in Cybersecurity  Network Security Engineers, Security Architects, Cyber Security Analysts, etc., are a few highly paid job roles in cybersecurity. The table below contains a few cybersecurity job profiles with annual average salaries.  Job Profile Average Salary per year Cyber Security Engineer INR 6.0 Lakhs Cyber Security Analyst INR 4.8 Lakhs Information Security Analyst INR 5.2 Lakhs Network Security Engineer INR 5.5 Lakhs Chief Information Security Officer  INR 36.0 Lakhs Best Cybersecurity Companies  The following table has a list of top companies in India that offer cybersecurity jobs with an attractive average salary: Company  Average annual salary Cognizant  INR 8.6 Lakhs TCS INR 12.6 Lakhs HCL Technologies  INR 4.5 Lakhs Wipro  INR 5.4 Lakhs Accenture  INR 6.9 Lakhs Infosys INR 13.16 Lakhs Capgemini  INR 4.4 Lakhs Network Intelligence India INR 4.6 Lakhs IBM  INR 5.8 Lakhs Ernst and Young  INR 6.8 Lakhs Conclusion  Cybersecurity courses have gained prominence in paving pathways for career opportunities. Due to increased cybercrimes, recruiters look for certified experts for job roles in their companies. Students from all educational backgrounds can explore the scopes that cybersecurity has to offer. Hence, cybersecurity courses are extremely beneficial for aspirants wishing to establish a career in data security.  Researching the right course that fits the career choice is crucial before enrolling in one. The right course will guide and assist in shaping the students’ careers. Learn about cybersecurity course duration and fees with other details before enrolling to make an informed decision in establishing a career. 
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by Pavan Vadapalli

20 Sep 2023

Spoofing in Cybersecurity: How It Works & How To Prevent It?
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The need for securing data and online assets is increasing with the rapid evolution of digital media changes. Cybersecurity threats are emerging in new forms daily, making it imperative to stay up-to-date with various cybersecurity measures. One such threat to cybersecurity is a spoofing attack. This blog will cover everything about spoofing in cybersecurity and what can you do to prevent spoofing.  Spoofing Definition Spoofing is a cybersecurity threat where malicious attackers misrepresent themselves as authentic individuals, companies, brands, etc., to gain unauthorised access to computer systems. They then infect the system with bugs and malware to steal sensitive data or cause irreversible damage.  These scams occur mostly through emails, websites, phone calls, servers and IP addresses. The scammers execute this by making minor changes to the trusted website or email address to make it look authentic to trick users. Fraud calls and fake emails are considered the most common spoofing examples. For instance, you receive regular emails from ‘upGrad.com’, but the cybercriminal may slightly change it to ‘Upgrad.com’ to fool you and urge you to share personal information. This information will be shared with the scammer, not the authentic website. Hence, we can witness content spoofing or data spoofing in various ranges, from simple to complex.  How Does Spoofing Work? Spoofing is not a new concept. We can trace the origin of spoofing attacks back to the 1800s when spoofing meant deception or trickery. With the evolution of time and technology, the definition of spoofing has changed to take the form of cybercrime. Spoofing applies various tactics to trick the end users into revealing vital information to the scammers, such as bank details, passwords, OTP, etc. Some common spoofing tactics involve clicking a link, sharing an OTP or downloading any file on the system, which helps cybercriminals gain unauthorised access, steal sensitive data or damage the system. Spoofing is an act of technical expertise involving a degree of social engineering. Social engineering implies causing effective deception of the target audience to seek their personal data. Spoofing data is the result of effectively playing with the concerns and fears of the victim. The scammers generally target aged people as they are less tech-savvy and unaware of current scams. Types of Spoofing To understand ‘what is a spoofing attack?’ an in-depth knowledge of the various types of spoofing is essential.  The types of spoofing are enumerated as follows: 1. Email Spoofing Email spoofing is one of the most common forms of spoofing, where cybercriminals use a fake email id to send deceptive messages to the end user. It may be in the form of an attachment, a link, an image, etc., which, when downloaded, spreads the malware or bug in the entire network. They manipulate the user into providing financial information or any other sensitive data by creating a situation where a fear of urgency emerges in the user’s mind. The email spoofing is so accurate that it becomes challenging for a normal person to identify it as fraud. Only a frequent email user may identify a particular email as deceptive. 2. Caller ID Spoofing Caller ID spoofing happens when a scammer makes spoofing calls to send deceiving information and intentionally alters the caller ID. Generally, scammers use caller ID proofing to deceive users and conceal their real identity.  Mostly, scammers use voice-over-Internet Protocol to execute this particular spoofing activity. VoIP allows cybercriminals to create a caller ID that looks real. The scammer constantly attempts to extract personal or financial information from the user to carry out malicious activities. 3. Text Message Spoofing Text message spoofing is another common tactic scammers use to deceive users. It is also known as SMS spoofing. In this spoofing, cybercriminals send an authentic message and trick the user into sharing sensitive information. These messages generally include links to some websites or downloadable links containing malware. Scammers generally carry out text message spoofing by incorporating an alphanumeric sender ID which is a common practice in the marketing industry and used by many organisations. Hence, it appears to be real, although it’s not.  4. Website Spoofing In website spoofing, scammers create a website that appears authentic and legitimate but is actually fake and malicious. Scammers usually use well-known brand logos, designs, colours and patterns to make it look similar to the original website. So, this website will be a copy of the website you often visit.  The URL of this fake website will be very similar to that of the legitimate website, consisting of only minor changes that often go unnoticed by users.  5. IP Address Spoofing IP spoofing entails creating Internet Protocol (IP) packets that utilise a different source address to impersonate or conceal another mobile device or a computer system. IP packets are regarded as the primary source of communication for the devices and computers connected to a network. IP spoofing occurs by incorporating distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) that flood the network with immense traffic. However, scammers may use IP address spoofing in combination with website or email spoofing to make the attack look more real. 6. DNS Spoofing In domain name system (DNS) spoofing, scammers change the records in the DNS server. They use various tactics to direct online traffic to a fake website originally directed to reach a legitimate website.  DNS spoofing, also known as DNS cache poisoning, allows cybercriminals to change the real IP addresses in the DNS server with the malicious IP addresses. It aims to direct the user to a fake website that looks like the original one. Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. 7. GPS Spoofing GPS spoofing happens when a scammer sends a malicious GPS signal to the user or GPS receiver. This GPS receiver then sends the location signal to other connected GPS devices; hence, all devices receive the fake GPS signal.  This type of spoofing generally affects mobile devices as they heavily depend upon GPS signals. Cybercriminals use GPS to take over the control of vehicles, such as a car, ship, drone, boat, etc., that depends upon a navigation system. This is an advanced-level cyber attack executed by cybercriminals to hijack military navigation systems. 8. ARP Spoofing Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing occurs when the scammer adjoins his Media Access Control (MAC) address with the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the victim. After building a successful connection, the scammer can see, steal, update or modify the data meant to reach the victim’s IP address.  Generally, ARP spoofing is used by scammers for in-session hijacking to steal and modify sensitive data. This is a sophisticated kind of spoofing that usually incorporates denial-of-service attacks. 9. Extension Spoofing Extension spoofing occurs when the scammers successfully convince the user to install an executable file on their system that is actually malware. In this case, the malicious file name is similar to the original file, which the user may overlook at first glance. The cybercriminals trick the users into installing executable malware as an attachment, such as doc.exe. The recipient does not suspect the file is harmful and downloads it. How To Spot a Spoofing Attack In the case of websites, poor sentences and grammar, forms that ask for personal details, areas that ask you to click on a particular link and share some details, etc., are hints that you are being spoofed. This is a sign of website spoofing. When considering emails, wrong spellings and poor grammar, unusual language, unfamiliar attachments and links, personal details forms, etc., are signs that you are being spoofed. These launch an email spoofing attack. For SMS spoofing and caller ID spoofing, you will receive calls from unknown numbers asking to share your personal details by creating a situation of urgency. You may receive text messages urging you to click on a link. These are clues that you are being spoofed. Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Ways to Recognise and Prevent Spoofing Attacks You may detect a spoofing attack by analysing the obvious signs. Installing spoofing software can also help you detect a spoofing attack. Mentioned below are the ways to prevent spoofing attacks:  Do’s: Use a spam filter for your email inbox. Go through the messages minutely and double-check the content. Confirm whether the source of a call or an email you received is legitimate.  Incorporate a two-factor authentication system to increase your system security. Install a firewall and cybersecurity software in your network and computer system. Confirm the source of a suspicious URL before interacting with it. Don’ts: Do not download suspicious attachments. Don’t click on unfamiliar links. Don’t respond to emails or calls from suspicious senders. Do not share your personal information, such as bank details, passwords, etc. Spoofing Prevention: Tips and Guidelines Follow the below-mentioned guidelines to understand ‘how to prevent spoofing’ and keep your system safe: Employ packet filtering to restrict packets with unauthorised and incorrect source addresses.  Stop relying upon a trust relationship, which will entail an extra layer of protection. A trust relationship is where only the IP addresses are considered to authenticate devices in a network. Use a spoof detection software or tool to eliminate the spread of spoofing attacks. These tools are designed to detect and block suspicious data. Deploy encrypted protocols restricting scammers from viewing or interacting with your data. HTTPS, SSH, and TLS are good instances of such protocols. Use Virtual Private Network (VPN) in your systems that prevent third parties from viewing or changing your data. Install malware protection tools and a firewall restricting attackers from entering your network. In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Summing Up Cybersecurity has become paramount in recent years, given the constantly changing nature of the digital world. The rise of cyber risks, such as spoofing attacks, further highlights its importance. It has become essential for everyone to know how to avoid spoofing and other forms of cyber attacks to ensure the safety of their systems and networks. With spoofing attacks evolving with technological advancements, it is imperative to incorporate preventive measures against spoofing and remain vigilant. 
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by Pavan Vadapalli

14 Sep 2023

Cryptography in Cybersecurity: Definition, Types & Examples
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The increasing digitisation worldwide has made security an indispensable aspect of data protection. This is where cryptography and its applications in cybersecurity come into play.  Cryptography is one of the most trusted and widely used tools for safeguarding IT assets. Almost every business uses cryptography to secure sensitive data and their IT infrastructure. Cryptography is a cybersecurity domain that encrypts or decrypts data through various algorithms at rest and in transit. This blog will discuss the types and applications of cryptography in detail.  Understanding Cryptography  Cryptography can be defined as the art and science of concealing information and data in an unreadable format so that only the intended individual can read it. In other words, cryptography is a study to secure communication that allows only the message sender and the intended recipient to view the message’s contents.  The applications of cryptography have been traced back to the ancient Egyptians. However, the art of coding has reached new heights over the millennia. Modern cryptography combines engineering, advanced computer technology, maths and other disciplines.  Cryptography creates highly secure and sophisticated cyphers and algorithms for protecting sensitive data in this digital era.  Cryptography in cybersecurity involves the use of encryption and decryption algorithms. It is used for digital signing, cryptographic key generation, confidential communication, internet browsing, and verification to ensure data privacy.  Ultimate Goals of Cryptography  Cryptography is essential in cybersecurity to provide the user and their data with additional protection, ensuring confidentiality and privacy. It protects sensitive data from being compromised or stolen by cybercriminals.  The four main objectives of cryptography are: Confidentiality: Only the intended recipient can access and read the data. Hence, the data remains private.  Ensuring data integrity: The encoded data must not be tampered with or modified en route from the sender to the recipient without any traceable marks.  Authentication: The receiver and sender can verify each other’s identity and the destination of the information.   Non-repudiation: The sender becomes accountable for the messages they send. The latter cannot deny that the message was transmitted – email tracking and digital signatures are some examples of this.  Cryptography & Its Types Let’s look at the different types of cryptography in cybersecurity.  1. Symmetric Key Cryptography/Single Key In symmetric key cryptography, the same key is used in cryptography to encrypt and decrypt information. The keys used in this kind of encryption should be kept secret by both parties, making them vulnerable to attack from hackers. Symmetric cryptography is often employed to safeguard the local storage of sensitive data on servers or drivers.  The main drawback of this method is finding a way to securely share the key between the sender and receiver. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Data Encryption Standard (DES) are examples of this method.  Types of symmetric cryptography  Often, symmetric encryption is referred to as secret key cryptography. This is because one single private key is used. There are a few forms of this type of cryptography, such as: Block cyphers:  This form of cryptography – including the Fiestal cypher – codes and decodes one data block at a time.  Stream cyphers: This form works on a single data byte at a time and regularly changes the encryption key. In this method, the keystream can be in tandem with or independent of the message stream.  2. Asymmetric Key Cryptography/Public Key Asymmetric key cryptography uses two keys instead of one. This is a more secure cryptography involving the sender and receiver having two private and one public key. The sender uses the receiver’s public key to encrypt the message. On the other hand, the receiver uses the private key to decrypt it.  This type of cryptography safeguards sensitive data transmission across public networks. As the receiver has access to the private key, they will be the only ones able to read the information. The RSA algorithm is one of the most widely used forms of public key cryptography in cybersecurity.  Types of Asymmetric Cryptography   There are various kinds of asymmetric key algorithms, including: RSA: It is the basis of key exchanges and digital signatures. Its algorithm is based on the principle of factorisation.  Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA): Created by the National Institute of Standards and Technologies, it is the standard for verifying electronic signatures and is built on the modular exponentiation principles.  Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC): This type of cryptography uses the algebraic structure of elliptic curves for building complex algorithms. It is ideal for electronic devices – such as smartphones – with limited computing power since they don’t need much storage or bandwidth.  Identity-based Encryption (IBE): In this algorithm, the receiver doesn’t have to provide the public key to the sender. Instead, the sender uses some known unique identifier – such as email address – to generate a public key to encode the message. A corresponding private key is then generated by a third-party server, which the receiver can access for decrypting the information.  3. Hash Functions These are the kind of cryptographic algorithms which don’t use any keys. Instead, they use a hash value – a number with fixed lengths that acts as a unique data identifier – designed based on the length of the plain text information and is employed to encrypt the data. Various operating systems generally use this method for protecting passwords.  Check out our free technology courses to get an edge over the competition. Cryptographic Techniques in Cybersecurity Of the several techniques employed for concealing data and files through cryptography, some have been listed below: Hashing  In this method, a data string is converted into a unique string. Irrespective of the data type, this technique will change the data into a unique, irreversible form. Hashing is used for message integrity, password validation, blockchain technology, checking file integrity, etc.  Steganography It is an old technique to conceal data or messages behind non-secret images, data, text or other files. In this method, the secret message is blended with the file, therefore becoming incredibly challenging to detect.  Salting  It is another technique used in hashing to enhance and make them unreadable. Just like adding salt to food improves its taste, this salting technique strengthens the hashing process. A random salt string can be placed on either side of any password to change its hash string.  Read our Popular Articles related to Software Development Why Learn to Code? How Learn to Code? How to Install Specific Version of NPM Package? Types of Inheritance in C++ What Should You Know? Encryption vs Decryption  Let us understand the concepts of encryption and decryption in cryptography.  Encryption Data encryption in cybersecurity is essential. It refers to the process of using an algorithm to convert binary data from one form to another, accessible only via a specific key.  An algorithm converts plaintext into ciphertext (or difficult-to-decipher form) for successful encryption. This can only be converted back to plaintext using a cryptographic key. Designing a complex encryption algorithm will help increase security during data transmission and minimise the threat of data being compromised. There are various types of encryption in cybersecurity, the two prevalent being symmetric and asymmetric encryption. Decryption  Decryption is used for reversing encryption. A user can decrypt sensitive encrypted data using a cryptographic key. The various types of decryption include RSA, Triple DES, AES, Blowfish and Twofish.  Depending on the robustness and the complexity of the algorithm, both encryption and decryption will help optimise security and safeguard sensitive data.  Check Out upGrad’s Software Development Courses to upskill yourself. Applications of Cryptography in Daily Life The use of cryptography in cybersecurity is vital to protect confidential and sensitive data. Here are some of the top applications of cryptography.  1. Digital currency  A well-known application of cryptography is digital currency, where cryptocurrencies are traded over the internet. Digital currencies are growing popular due to the cashless economies. Unregulated by banks or governments, cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ripple, and Ethereum are our future.  2. E-commerce  On e-commerce websites, we can buy and make payments online. These transactions are encrypted and, hence, cannot be tampered with by any third party. All e-commerce platforms have specific passwords for each user so no hacker can access their data.  3. Military operations  Military operations have been making use of cryptography for a very long time. Military encryption devices have been used for encrypting military communication channels. They convert the real communication characters so that enemies aren’t able to decrypt them.   Explore Our Software Development Free Courses Fundamentals of Cloud Computing JavaScript Basics from the scratch Data Structures and Algorithms Blockchain Technology React for Beginners Core Java Basics Java Node.js for Beginners Advanced JavaScript Cryptographic Attacks – A Study of Their Types Although highly sophisticated, cryptography is vulnerable to threats. In case the key is compromised, it is easily possible for a third party to crack the code and get access to the protected data. Here are some potential attacks that might happen.  Weak keys: Keys are a collection of random numbers with a particular encryption algorithm for altering and disguising data. This makes it incomprehensible to others. Longer keys have more numbers, thereby making it much trickier to crack. Hence, it is better for the protection of data.  Reusing keys for various purposes: Every key must be unique, like passwords. Employing the same key on multiple systems reduces the ability of cryptography to protect data.  Not using keys properly: The keys must be used correctly. When keys are incorrectly used, hackers can easily access sensitive data.  Insider attacks: Keys could be compromised by people who can access them – like an employee. Sometimes, people on the inside sell keys for criminal purposes.  Not changing the keys: Updating the keys regularly is essential to keep sensitive data secure.  Forgetting about the backup: There must be a backup for the keys. If they become faulty, the sensitive data they protect will become inaccessible.  Not storing the keys carefully: A hacker will always try to find the keys. It is necessary to store the keys securely where they are not easily accessible. If not, it could lead to sensitive data being compromised.  Some cryptography attacks are designed to break through encryptions to find the right key. Here are some of them: Brute force attacks: These are broad attacks that try to guess the private keys with the known algorithm randomly.  Ciphertext-only attacks: These types of attacks are where a third party intercepts the encrypted message (not the plaintext). They try to work out the key, decrypt the data, and finally, the plaintext.  Chosen plaintext attack: In this attack, the third party selects the plaintext for a corresponding ciphertext and starts working on the encryption key.  Chosen ciphertext attack: The opposite of the previous type, the cybercriminals analyse a part of the ciphertext against the corresponding plaintext to discover the key.  Algorithm attack: These are attacks where cybercriminals analyse the algorithms to work out the encryption key.  Ways to Minimise Risks Associated with Cryptography There are some ways by which organisations can try to lower the possibility of cryptographic attacks. They are: Make sure that the algorithms and keys are updated regularly.  Use one specific key for one purpose.  Protect your cryptographic keys using stronger KEKs (key-encryption-keys) Encrypt all your sensitive information.  Employ hardware security models for managing and protecting keys.  Create unique, vital keys for every encryption.  In-Demand Software Development Skills JavaScript Courses Core Java Courses Data Structures Courses Node.js Courses SQL Courses Full stack development Courses NFT Courses DevOps Courses Big Data Courses React.js Courses Cyber Security Courses Cloud Computing Courses Database Design Courses Python Courses Cryptocurrency Courses Conclusion Storing and transferring data securely is paramount today, whether for governments, organisations or private individuals. Cryptography in cybersecurity has become a battleground for computer scientists and mathematicians, and its widespread adoption has turned it into a high-stakes profession.  It is necessary to ensure confidentiality in conversations and transactions. If you are interested in computer networks, building a career in cryptography can be a good choice. Explore the exciting job opportunities and begin this exciting journey today with a relevant cybersecurity course. 
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by Pavan Vadapalli

14 Sep 2023

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