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Top 5 Java Web Application Technologies You Should Master in 2023

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9th Feb, 2024
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Top 5 Java Web Application Technologies You Should Master in 2023

Web Development in Java

Java is a commonly used language for web development, especially on the server-side. Java web applications are distributed applications that run on the internet. Web development with Java allows us to create dynamic web pages where users can interact with the interface.

There are various ways through which you can create dynamic web pages in Java. The Java EE (Enterprise Edition) platform provides various Java technologies for web development to developers. Services like distributed computing, web services, etc. are provided by Java EE. Applications can be developed in Java without using any additional scripting language. Let us see how web applications are made via Java.

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Building a web application in Java can prove to be quite helpful, especially when it comes to working with applets and server-side applications. Regardless of which edition of Java is used for developing web applications, the projects will be highly dynamic and powerful. Simply put, Java for web development is incredibly popular and this is why Java software developers or Java backend developers are so much in demand.

Java Web Application 

A web application helps clients to interact with the server and access information. Java is perfect for developing large web applications too because of its ability to communicate with a large number of systems. Services like peer-web services, database connectivity, and back-end services can also be accessed via Java web development.

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There are many platforms in Java for web development. Let us see some of the prominent Java web application technologies, which are used to create Java web applications.

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Java Web Application Technologies

1. Servlet API 

The javax.servlet package comes with many interfaces like servlet, filter, filter chain, servletconfig, etc. Servlet increases the capability of servers that are used to host applications. The web applications developed via servlet in Java follow the request-response model. A servlet has a life cycle starting from being initialized to getting collected by the garbage collector.

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Servlets provide a platform-independent service to its users for web development. Besides building dynamic web pages, servlets also help in many other processes like collecting input via web page forms, presenting data from a database or any third-party source, etc.

The servlets are Java programs that run on a web application and transfer the request coming from clients to the databases/ servers. The servlets help in processing the client’s request and then providing results after communicating with the database.

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2. JSP

JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology is used by developers to create web content rapidly, which is platform and server independent. Instead of having separate CGI (Common Gateway Interface) files for embedding dynamic elements in HTML pages, one can use JSP technology, which has access to the entire family of Java APIs.

Web development can be done easily with the help of special JSP tags, which helps in inserting a Java code in HTML pages. A JSP page contains static data that can be written in HTML, WML, XML, etc. and JSP technology elements, which govern the dynamic movement of web content. You can add snippets of servlet code directly in a text-based document via the JSP technology. JSP is a prominent technology provided by Java EE, which helps developers to build complex dynamic web pages rapidly.

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Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) contains methods and queries for accessing the database. Clients can update any information in the database via web applications that contain JDBC drivers. The four types of JDBC drivers are JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver, Native Driver, Network Protocol Driver, and Thin Driver, are used to connect to the database.

Clients can connect to the database via applications made via JDBC API and can update, delete, save, and access data. JDBC is capable of reading any database and automatically creates an XML format of the data from the database.

Both synchronous and asynchronous processing can be done via JDBC API. The processed results are shown in a very simple way to the clients via JDBC. It supports many SQL statements and queries that can be used to connect to the database.

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4. Java Persistence API

Java Persistence API (JPA) uses object-relational mapping to connect an object-oriented model to the database. Relational data in Java applications can be easily managed via Java Persistence. It helps in the storage or retrieval of a large amount of data in/ from the database persistently.

You don’t have to use lots of code, proprietary frameworks, etc. for interacting with the database, JPA will provide you with simple means of communication with the database using an object-relational approach. JPA is a collection of efficient classes and methods that can connect you to the database. 

5. JavaServer Faces Technology

JavaServer Faces (JSF) Technology is a UI framework to create web-based interfaces. JSF provides a simple model for yielding components in various scripting/ markup languages. The UI widgets are connected with the data sources and server-side event handlers. Existing standard UI components can be reused and extended in the construction of interfaces via JSF. JSF helps in reducing the efforts in creating and maintaining web applications

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6. Spring Boot

Spring Boot serves as an instrumental framework for crafting production-ready applications with unparalleled ease in the landscape of Java web development. Through its innovative convention-over-configuration approach, Spring Boot liberates developers from the burdens of complicated setup procedures. It is an essential toolkit to have, especially when it comes to Java web development services.

7. React.js with Spring Boot

React.js and Spring Boot work together seamlessly to create a complete story in the world of full-stack development. React.js is great at making interactive single-page applications, and it pairs perfectly with Spring Boot, which handles the backend effectively. Together, they form a powerful combination for building web applications. This partnership, harmonized through RESTful APIs and persistent data management, converges into a symphony of efficiency and scalability.

8. Thymeleaf

Revolutionizing the terrain of server-side templating within the context of modern web development, Thymeleaf seamlessly integrates into the embrace of Spring Boot. This dynamic templating engine is the artisan’s tool, empowering developers to craft HTML templates with data-driven strategies.

9. Spring Security

In the vast world of Java web development, Spring Security plays a crucial role as a strong protector, taking care of important things like user authentication, authorization, and overall security. An integral companion to Spring Boot, it unveils a comprehensive suite of solutions, embracing diverse authentication mechanisms like LDAP, OAuth, and JWT with an elegance that befits its stature.

10. Hibernate

Hibernate, a robust Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) framework, serves as the inspiration for coordinating database operations in Java web applications. Teaming up with Spring Boot, Hibernate creates an environment that simplifies the complex process of linking Java objects to database tables. The need for repetitive code fades away, making room for a flexible platform where efficiency and maintainability work together seamlessly.

11. Angular with Spring Boot

Setting out on the path of full-stack development, Angular and Spring Boot takes center stage as key players in a story of smooth integration. Angular excels in creating dynamic user interfaces, seamlessly blending with Spring Boot’s backbone role in orchestrating the backend through RESTful APIs. The outcome is a seamless fusion of front-end mastery and back-end resilience.

12. Apache Maven

As the developer’s assistant in Java web development, Apache Maven emerges as a versatile conductor, orchestrating build automation and project management. Integrated seamlessly with Spring Boot, Maven introduces a harmony of compilation, testing, and packaging. This is one of the most important web technologies in Java.

13. Apache Tomcat

Powering the grand stage of Java web applications, Apache Tomcat steps into the limelight as the open-source servlet container. When entwined with Spring Boot, it transforms into a reliable and scalable orchestrator, providing the platform for deploying Java web applications with an efficiency that resonates across the digital landscape. This is another important tool for Java backend developers.

14. JUnit and TestNG

In the realm of scrutiny and quality assurance, JUnit and TestNG become the meticulous examiners of Java web applications. Integrated with Spring Boot, these frameworks metamorphose into guardians of reliability, guiding developers through the creation and execution of unit tests that illuminate the correctness and resilience of their code. JUnit and TestNG are two very important tools for Java web development.

15. Jackson

In the delicate art of handling JSON data within Java web applications, Jackson stands as a top performer. Seamlessly integrated with Spring Boot, Jackson simplifies the intricate process of serialization and deserialization, offering a high-performance library that navigates the realms of data binding, streaming, and tree models with extreme precision.

16. Vaadin Flow

Vaadin Flow is a modern framework that simplifies the creation of rich and interactive user interfaces, providing a harmonious bridge between Java and the dynamic world of web development. With its Java-based programming model, Vaadin Flow becomes the perfect tool for guiding developers towards the creation of enterprise-grade applications with ease.

17. MyBatis

MyBatis takes on the role of a harmonious framework when it comes to web applications in Java, turning database interactions into an expression of flexibility. Java applications smoothly incorporate MyBatis, which weaves a SQL-centric story to connect Java objects with database queries. The outcome is a seamless integration of application logic and data storage.

18. Apache Kafka

Integrated seamlessly into Java applications, Kafka efficiently manages distributed processes, handling events with precision and structuring fault-tolerant architectures. With the unfolding of the scenario, Kafka crafts a narrative where data streams flow effortlessly, creating a robust and scalable framework. Apache Kafka enhances the use of Java for web development with the functionalities it provides.

19. JavaServer Faces (JSF)

Within the realm of Java web development, JavaServer Faces (JSF) stands out as a significant chapter. With its component-based architecture, JSF simplifies the creation of dynamic user interfaces, showcasing a modular approach that emphasizes reusability and efficiency. In this methodology, each component contributes seamlessly to the overall structure of a web application in Java.

20. Elasticsearch

Embarking on an expedition through the vast landscape of search capabilities, Elasticsearch emerges as a cartographer of information. Seamlessly integrated into Java applications, it enriches the search functionality, becoming a compass that guides users through realms of advanced search features. In this narrative, Elasticsearch becomes the scribe of efficient and powerful search experiences.

21. Spring Data JPA

In the context of data access within Java applications, Spring Data JPA takes on a pivotal role. As a part of the Spring Data project, it simplifies interactions with databases through the Java Persistence API (JPA), becoming an integral element. Seamlessly incorporated into Spring Boot, Spring Data JPA transforms the often intricate process of database communication into an effortless and productive melody.

22. Apache Camel

As an open-source framework, Apache Camel adeptly orchestrates the convergence of diverse systems, functioning as a storyteller. Leveraging the Java DSL language, it crafts integration routes akin to unfolding chapters, offering a robust tool for constructing applications imbued with scalability and resilience.

23. PrimeFaces

PrimeFaces stands out as a versatile component library for UI development. It paints a vivid landscape by offering a rich array of components and themes. Integrated seamlessly, PrimeFaces enables developers to compose visually appealing and responsive web interfaces with ease.

24. Quarkus

Quarkus is quite popular when it comes to cloud-native architectures and it helps in fine-tuning Java applications for containers. Functioning as a Kubernetes-native framework, Quarkus skillfully manages swift startup times and an efficient memory footprint. In the modernization narrative, Quarkus takes on the role of an agile dancer, adeptly navigating the complexities of microservices.

25. Apache Shiro

Assuming the role of a vigilant guardian in the realm of security, Apache Shiro equips itself as the defender, shielding Java applications from unauthorized access. Seamlessly integrated, it acts as a sentinel, addressing the diverse challenges of authentication, authorization, and session management. In the extensive saga of Java web projects, Apache Shiro emerges as the reliable protector, ensuring the integrity and security of the digital realm.

26. JOOQ (Java Object Oriented Querying)

JOOQ guides developers in querying databases using a fluent API. With its expressive Java-based DSL, JOOQ transforms the syntax of SQL queries into a refined language, allowing developers to manage database interactions with grace and type safety. JOOQ is a master of querying and data retrieval.

27. Vaadin Fusion

Being the evolution of Vaadin Flow, Vaadin Fusion ushers in a new era of frontend development for Java applications. Leveraging TypeScript on the client side, Vaadin Fusion facilitates seamless communication between Java and the browser. Vaadin Fusion helps in creating dynamic and modern web user interfaces with this fusion of Java and TypeScript.

28. Micronaut

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Micronaut is specifically crafted to enhance the performance and efficiency of Java applications. Leveraging its compile-time dependency injection and minimal runtime overhead, Micronaut executes precise maneuvers within the containerized environments of contemporary microservices architectures. Integrated seamlessly, Micronaut pioneers the way forward, steering web applications in Java toward a future marked by agility and scalability.

29. JHipster

The JHipster platform effortlessly generates Spring Boot + Angular/React/Vue applications and microservices, acting as a conjurer to expedite the creation of up-to-date Java web applications. JHipster allows developers to effortlessly create sophisticated and feature-rich web applications

30. Hazelcast

Functioning as an in-memory data grid platform, Hazelcast plays the role of an architect in building highly scalable and fault-tolerant systems. Seamlessly integrated, Hazelcast becomes the guardian of data integrity, orchestrating a symphony of distributed computing capabilities that transcend the conventional boundaries of data storage.

What Next?

We know by now that Java in web development is incredibly popular, especially for developing dynamic web applications. If you wish to improve your Java skills, you need to get your hands on java projects. If you’re interested to learn more about Java, full stack development, check out upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Programme in Software Development- Specialisation in Full Stack Development which is designed for working professionals and offers 500+ hours of rigorous training, 9+ projects, and assignments, IIIT-B Alumni status, practical hands-on capstone projects & job assistance with top firms.


Rohan Vats

Blog Author
Software Engineering Manager @ upGrad. Passionate about building large scale web apps with delightful experiences. In pursuit of transforming engineers into leaders.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What are the two types of Java?

Java Stand-Alone Applications and Java Applets are the two types of Java programs. The Java Stand-Alone Application is a Java program that can operate independently on a computer. It is further distributed into two categories: Console-based and Graphical User Interface-based applications. The Acrobat Reader is the perfect example of this. The Java Applets are the applications which operate within the web browser. They are majorly used for Internet programming to perform various tasks such as playing sounds, displaying graphics, accepting user input, and more.

2How is Java used in advanced technologies?

Java is divided into two parts: Core Java and Advanced Java. The latter is designed to create web-based, network or enterprise applications. These include concepts such as Server, JDBC, RMI, JSP, Socket Programming and more. The applications which are developed by advanced Java utilize two-tier architecture. By using advanced Java, you simplify the complexity of creating an application. The server and containers also provide framework services. You can also work with Apache Tomcat and Glassfish using this.

3What are Microservices in Java?

The set of software applications that are written in the Java programming language that works with each other to construct a bigger solution is called Java microservices. Every microservice can do very minimally to create a pretty modularized architecture. The microservice behaves like a station in an assembly line as each station is responsible for a single specific task. This creates a quality workflow, consistency, efficiency and outputs. This leads us to believe that each microservice is one small piece of a bigger overall system. The tasks are simple such as counting the number of words in the text or calculating the standard deviation of the input data set.