Web Development in Java
Java is a commonly used language for web development, especially on the server-side. Java web applications are distributed applications that run on the internet. Web development with Java allows us to create dynamic web pages where users can interact with the interface.
There are various ways through which you can create dynamic web pages in Java. The Java EE (Enterprise Edition) platform provides various Java technologies for web development to developers. Services like distributed computing, web services, etc. are provided by Java EE. Applications can be developed in Java without using any additional scripting language. Let us see how web applications are made via Java.
Java Web Application
A web application helps clients to interact with the server and access information. Java is perfect for developing large web applications too because of its ability to communicate with a large number of systems. Services like peer-web services, database connectivity, and back-end services can also be accessed via Java web development.
There are many platforms in Java for web development. Let us see some of the prominent Java web application technologies, which are used to create Java web applications.
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Java Web Application Technologies
1. Servlet API
The javax.servlet package comes with many interfaces like servlet, filter, filterchain, servletconfig, etc. Servlet increases the capability of servers that are used to host applications. The web applications developed via servlet in Java follow the request-response model. A servlet has a life cycle starting from being initialised to getting collected by the garbage collector.
Servlets provide a platform-independent service to its users for web development. Besides building dynamic web pages, servlets also help in many other processes like collecting input via web page forms, presenting data from a database or any third-party source, etc.
The servlets are Java programs that run on a web application and transfer the request coming from clients to the databases/ servers. The servlets help in processing the client’s request and then providing results after communicating with the database.
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JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology is used by developers to create web content rapidly, which is platform and server independent. Instead of having separate CGI (Common Gateway Interface) files for embedding dynamic elements in HTML pages, one can use JSP technology, which has access to the entire family of Java APIs.
Web development can be done easily with the help of special JSP tags, which helps in inserting a Java code in HTML pages. A JSP page contains static data that can be written in HTML, WML, XML, etc. and JSP technology elements, which govern the dynamic movement of web content. You can add snippets of servlet code directly in a text-based document via the JSP technology. JSP is a prominent technology provided by Java EE, which helps developers to build complex dynamic web pages rapidly.
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3. JDBC API
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) contains methods and queries for accessing the database. Clients can update any information in the database via web applications that contain JDBC drivers. The four types of JDBC drivers are JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver, Native Driver, Network Protocol Driver, and Thin Driver, are used to connect to the database.
Clients can connect to the database via applications made via JDBC API and can update, delete, save, and access data. JDBC is capable of reading any database and automatically creates an XML format of the data from the database.
Both synchronous and asynchronous processing can be done via JDBC API. The processed results are shown in a very simple way to the clients via JDBC. It supports many SQL statements and queries that can be used to connect to the database.
4. Java Persistence API
Java Persistence API (JPA) uses object-relational mapping to connect an object-oriented model to the database. Relational data in Java applications can be easily managed via Java Persistence. It helps in the storage or retrieval of a large amount of data in/ from the database persistently.
You don’t have to use lots of code, proprietary frameworks, etc. for interacting with the database, JPA will provide you with simple means of communication with the database using an object-relational approach. JPA is a collection of efficient classes and methods that can connect you to the database.
5. JavaServer Faces Technology
JavaServer Faces (JSF) Technology is a UI framework to create web-based interfaces. JSF provides a simple model for yielding components in various scripting/ markup languages. The UI widgets are connected with the data sources and server-side event handlers. Existing standard UI components can be reused and extended in the construction of interfaces via JSF. JSF helps in reducing the efforts in creating and maintaining web applications.
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