Introduction to Spring Architecture Framework 

Spring Framework is a Java platform from the Java enterprise release which presents an extensive infrastructure practice for developing Java-based applications. Using the spring’s infrastructure technique, a developer can easily build the application from the plain old Java objects. This skill applies to the Java SE programming standard with full and partial Java EE (Enterprise Edition) techniques.

Below is the advantage is as a Java application developer How can they  use the Spring platform

  1. Create a java function and execute it with the database transaction without the use of separate transaction APIs.
  2. Create a local Java function with the remote logic without using separate remote APIs.
  3. Create a local Java function for providing your logic without using JMX APIs.
  4. Create a separate local Java function for message handler requests without using separate JMS APIs.

Spring Modules Core Concepts 

Inversion of Control: IOC has the concept of OOPS, a standard programming technique and based on the “objects” that accommodate the data and code in the pattern of fields and methods. The object works independently with no dependency on different objects implementations with the inbuilt interfaces for a particular interaction. It presents various design patterns:

For instance: Factory, Abstract Factory, Builder, Decorator to create and develop the numerous classes and object instances for creating the extensive Java applications.

The Spring Framework Inversion of Control (IoC) provides the best practice using the design patterns as first-class objects that we can easily use in applications. Many organisations use the Spring Framework for creating robust and scalable applications.

Dependency Injection: It is a structural design pattern. Here we have the concept of an independent object that we can use with other objects by the interface while creating the object Dependencies are assigned through the service. Dependency Injection (DI) is a design pattern that separates the dependency from the programming code, and we can use and test it easily in the application. It performs as a loosely coupled approach in the source code.

Aspect-oriented programming: It is a programming standard that enables you to discover multi cross-functionality in the application. It has inbuilt functions. Using these functions, we can reuse them in various application nodes called the cross-cutting approach, isolated from the application’s quick business code logic. AOP has the advantage to classify cross-cutting concerns from the objects.

Spring Architecture Framework 

The spring framework is distributed into several layered architectures, which are divided into separate modules. It establishes these modules on the top of their core container. Using these modules, developers can easily develop the application with the help of several design techniques.

It has a modular architecture that allows integration with other frameworks with no difficulty. The below image represents the essential modules of Spring Framework architecture.



Spring Modules Core Framework

The Core container modules from Spring Framework is divided into these four modules: 

    • Context, SpEL, Core, Description, Beans we can define these components are as follows:
    • SpEL module implements a potent representation language for managing objects while performing it.
    • Context is developed based on Core and Beans. It enables you to get an object which is established within the settings. The key factor of the Context module is the ApplicationContext interface. The Core module implements key elements of the framework which include the DI and IoC features.
    • Bean module is accountable for generating and maintaining Spring Beans module is an application connection structure unit.
  • ORM: It combines the essential object-relational mapping tools, For example, hibernates, ibatis sql maps, oracle toplink, JPA.
  • Jee module: This component provides the jmx, jca, ejb and jms, and the JCA (Java Connector Architecture).

Read: Spring Interview Questions and Answers

Spring Framework Web

Spring framework Web is divided into Web, MVC web-based application, Web-Socket, Web-Portlet.

The Web module implements functions:

For Example: download and upload the files, developing a web-based application, rest, or web APIS.

Web-MVC includes a Spring-based MVC mechanism that implements the web-based applications.

Web-Socket supports interaction connecting with the client and the server, with Web-Sockets’ help in web-based applications.

Web-Portlet executes MVC .net-based implementation using a portlet server environment.

Spring Framework Data Access

The Data Access and Integration container divide into JDBC (java based connectivity), ORM (Object-relational mapping), OXM (Object XML Mappers), JMS (Java Message Service), and the Transactions modules. 

JDBC implements an abstract layer of JDBC and overcomes the manual register on the uniform code associated with connecting to the database.

Spring ORM provides the integration of ORMs using the Hibernate, JDO (Java Data Objects).

The OXM (Spring Object XML Mappers) module is accountable for linking the Object and XML XMLBeans.

The JMS (Java Messaging Service) module is capable of generating, transmitting, and receiving messages.

Miscellaneous Modules


Spring incorporates various relevant modules. 

For example: AOP (Aspect oriented programming), Instrumentation, Messaging, and Testing.

AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) involves breaking down program logic within different sections described as so-called concerns.

The Aspects module implements the combination of AspectJ, a powerful AOP (Aspect-oriented programming) framework. 

Instrumentation effectively maintains the class loader and class instrumentation, which we can use and practice in server-based applications.

The Test module implements testing techniques using TestNG and the JUnit Framework modules.

Spring 5 framework Features

Spring 5 framework provides extensive essential features:

  • Here we have the multiple versions of Java 8 and Java 9, Java EE 7 and Java EE 8, Servlet 4.0, JPA 2.2, Bean Validation 2.0.
  • Advanced Logging mechanisms with a unique module For Example spring and JCL (Java Class Library).
  • For File transactions, it has the NIO 2 stream features, which help to improve the performance.
  • Spring MVC controller methods provide the Reactor 3.1 Flux and Mono, RxJava features.
  • For JSON Binding API, it provides the Kotlin, Project Lombok techniques.
  • For getting the Spring Reactive support, it provides the Spring WebFlux techniques.


We hope this article helped you with the understanding of the Spring Framework concepts and Architecture. upGrad offers a comprehensive range of Java Spring Framework courses, Java Programming, Data Science, Machine Learning, etc. Mentorship from the industries’ best individuals is also provided! If you are interested to learn more and need mentorship from industry experts, check out upGrad & IIIT Banglore’s PG Diploma in Full-Stack Software Development.

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