Machine learning is one of the most common applications of Artificial Intelligence. A machine learns to execute tasks from the data fed in it. And with experience, its performance in a given task improves. Machine learning includes supervised, unsupervised and reinforced learning techniques. Read more about the types of machine learning.
In this article, we will look at different types of supervised learning.
Table of Contents
What is Supervised Learning?
In Supervised Learning, a machine is trained using ‘labeled’ data. Datasets are said to be labeled when they contain both input and output parameters. In other words, the data has already been tagged with the correct answer.
So, the technique mimics a classroom environment where a student learns in the presence of a supervisor or teacher. On the other hand, unsupervised learning algorithms let the models discover information and learn on their own.
Supervised machine learning is immensely helpful in solving real-world computational problems. The algorithm predicts outcomes for unforeseen data by learning from labeled training data. Therefore, it takes highly-skilled data scientists to build and deploy such models. Over time, data scientists also use their technical expertise to rebuild the models to maintain the integrity of the insights given.
How Does it Work?
For instance, you want to train a machine in predicting your commute time between your office and home. First, you would create a labeled data set such as the weather, time of day, chosen route, etc. which would comprise your input data. And the output would be the estimated duration of your journey back home on a specific day.
Once you create a training set is based on corresponding factors, the machine would see the relationships between data points and use it to ascertain the amount of time it will take for you to drive back home. For example, a mobile application can tell you that your travel time will be longer when there’s heavy rainfall.
The machine may also see other connections in your labeled data, like the time you leave from work. You can reach home earlier if you start before the rush hour traffic hits the roads. Read more if you are curious to know about how unsupervised machine learning works.
Now, let us try to understand supervised learning with the help of another real-life example. Suppose you have a fruit basket, and you train the machine with all different kinds of fruits. Training data may include these scenarios:
- If the object is red in color, round in shape, and has a depression on its top, label it as ‘Apple’
- If the item has a greenish-yellow color and shaped like a curved cylinder, mark it as ‘Banana’
Next, you give a new object (test data) and ask the machine to identify whether it is a banana or an apple. It will learn from the training data and apply the knowledge to classify the fruit according to the inputted colours and shapes.
Different Types of Supervised Learning
In regression, a single output value is produced using training data. This value is a probabilistic interpretation, which is ascertained after considering the strength of correlation among the input variables. For example, regression can help predict the price of a house based on its locality, size, etc.
In logistic regression, the output has discrete values based on a set of independent variables. This method can flounder when dealing with non-linear and multiple decision boundaries. Also, it is not flexible enough to capture complex relationships in datasets.
It involves grouping the data into classes. If you are thinking of extending credit to a person, you can use classification to determine whether or not a person would be a loan defaulter. When the supervised learning algorithm labels input data into two distinct classes, it is called binary classification. Multiple classifications means categorizing data into more than two classes.
3. Naive Bayesian Model
The Bayesian model of classification is used for large finite datasets. It is a method of assigning class labels using a direct acyclic graph. The graph comprises one parent node and multiple children nodes. And each child node is assumed to be independent and separate from the parent.
A decision tree is a flowchart-like model that contains conditional control statements, comprising decisions and their probable consequences. The output relates to the labelling of unforeseen data.
In the tree representation, the leaf nodes correspond to class labels, and the internal nodes represent the attributes. A decision tree can be used to solve problems with discrete attributes as well as boolean functions. Some of the notable decision tree algorithms are ID3 and CART.
4. Random Forest Model
The random forest model is an ensemble method. It operates by constructing a multitude of decision trees and outputs a classification of the individual trees. Suppose you want to predict which undergraduate students will perform well in GMAT – a test taken for admission into graduate management programs. A random forest model would accomplish the task, given the demographic and educational factors of a set of students who have previously taken the test.
5. Neural Networks
This algorithm is designed to cluster raw input, recognize patterns, or interpret sensory data. Despite their multiple advantages, neural networks require significant computational resources. It can get complicated to fit a neural network when there are thousands of observations. It is also called the ‘black-box’ algorithm as interpreting the logic behind their predictions can be challenging.
6. Support Vector Machines
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a supervised learning algorithm developed in the year 1990. It draws from the statistical learning theory developed by Vap Nick.
SVM separates hyperplanes, which makes it a discriminative classifier. The output is produced in the form of an optimal hyperplane that categorizes new examples. SVMs are closely connected to the kernel framework and used in diverse fields. Some examples include bioinformatics, pattern recognition, and multimedia information retrieval.
Pros & Cons of Supervised Learning
Several types of supervised learning allow you to collect and produce data from previous experience. From optimizing performance criteria to dealing with real-world problems, supervised learning has emerged as a powerful tool in the AI field. It is also a more trustworthy method as compared to unsupervised learning, which can be computationally complex and less accurate in some instances.
However, supervised learning is not without its limitations. Concrete examples are required for training classifiers, and decision boundaries can be overtrained in the absence of the right examples. One may also encounter difficulty in classifying big data.
The long and short of supervised learning is that it uses labelled data to train a machine. The regression techniques and classification algorithms help develop predictive models that are highly reliable and have multiple applications.
Supervised learning requires experts to build, scale, and update models. In the absence of technical proficiency, brute-force may be applied to determine the input variables. And this could render inaccurate results. So, selection of relevant data features is essential for supervised learning to work effectively.
One should first decide which data is required for the training set, continue to structure the learned function and algorithm, and also assemble outcomes from experts and measurements. Such best practices can go a long way in supporting the accuracy of a model.
As artificial intelligence and machine learning pick up pace in today’s technology-oriented world, knowing about the types of supervised learning can be a significant differentiator in any field. The explanations above would help you take that first step!
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