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What Is AWS Route 53 and How Does It Work?

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29th Sep, 2023
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What Is AWS Route 53 and How Does It Work?

Managing domain names and directing traffic efficiently is pivotal in the intricate web of cloud computing and web hosting. Enter AWS Route 53, Amazon Web Services’ highly versatile and scalable Domain Name System (DNS) web service. If you’ve ever wondered how websites find their way to your browser or how to create resilient and performant infrastructure, you’re in the right place. This blog will unravel the mysteries of Amazon Route 53 and provide a comprehensive understanding of how it works and its vital role in modern internet architecture.

What Is Route 53 in AWS?

Amazon Route 53 is a robust cloud service offering essential functionalities like DNS management, domain name registration, and health-checking services. Developers and businesses use it as a reliable, cost-effective way of leading end users directly to Internet applications. 

Route 53 in AWS is an intermediary between user requests and infrastructure in AWS (e.g. instances, load balancers, and storage services) or external infrastructure outside it – such as external websites accessed via API calls). 

Characteristics of AWS Route 53 

Amazon Route 53 offers many features that elevate its DNS and traffic routing capabilities. Here are the significant functionalities that make Route 53 a powerful tool in the AWS ecosystem:

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1. Route 53 resolver

It lets you get recursive DNS for your Amazon VPCs, AWS Outposts, or on-premises networks. You can create conditional forwarding rules and endpoints to resolve custom names, whether hosted in private hosted zones or on your on-premises DNS servers.

2. Resolver on Outpost endpoints

Establish a Connection between Route 53 Resolvers on Outpost racks and DNS servers in your on-premises data centre. This facilitates DNS query resolution between on-premises resources and Outposts racks.

3. Route 53 resolver DNS firewall

Protects recursive DNS queries within Route 53 Resolver by enabling the creation of domain lists and firewall rules for outbound DNS traffic.

4. Application Recovery Controller (ARC)  

  • Readiness check

Maintain ongoing audits of your resources distributed across Availability Zones or Regions to ensure their readiness for recovery.

  • Routing control

Using integrated on/off switches with DNS records allows you to effectively manage traffic failover during incidents.

  • Safety rules

Ensures compliance with specific rules during failover, safeguarding automated recovery actions and maintaining system availability.

5. Traffic flow

Offers beneficial traffic management on a global scale, routing end users based on geo-proximity, health, latency, and more, optimising application performance.

Understanding the Working of Amazon Route 53 

Amazon Route 53 is crucial in translating human-readable domain names into IP addresses and making websites and applications accessible online. Here’s how it works:

1. DNS resolution 

When users enter a domain name (like www.example.com) in their browser, their device sends a DNS query to a DNS resolver.

2. DNS resolver 

The DNS resolver, which could be provided by an internet service provider or a third-party service, forwards the query to a DNS authoritative server.

3. DNS authoritative server 

This server is responsible for storing DNS records for the domain. In the case of Route 53, it manages these records.

4. Record retrieval 

The authoritative server retrieves the DNS records associated with the requested domain, which include IP addresses or other relevant information.

5. Response 

The DNS resolver receives the records and returns the IP address to the user’s device.

6. Connection 

The user’s device uses the obtained IP address to connect with the appropriate server hosting the web application.

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Benefits of Amazon Route 53

Amazon Route 53 offers a range of benefits that make it a valuable tool for managing domain names and DNS services. Some are:

  • High availability 

Route 53 has a global network of DNS servers strategically distributed worldwide, reducing latency and resolving DNS queries promptly. This makes it ideal for critical applications requiring uninterrupted service.

  • Scalability 

Route 53 can effortlessly handle many DNS queries, making it suitable for both small websites and large-scale applications. It automatically scales to manage increased traffic, ensuring consistent performance.

  • Load balancing 

Route 53 supports weighted routing, allowing you to distribute traffic across multiple resources or regions based on specified weights. This load-balancing capability ensures optimal resource utilisation and high availability.

  • DNS traffic flow policy 

You can create traffic policies to control how Route 53 responds to DNS queries, enabling advanced traffic management and routing scenarios.

  • Health checks 

Route 53 can perform health checks on web servers or load balancers. If a resource fails a health check, Route 53 will stop routing traffic to it until it passes the check again.

  • Integration with AWS services 

Route 53 integrates with other AWS services, simplifying DNS management for AWS resources like EC2 instances, S3 buckets, and load balancers. This integration ensures that DNS records are automatically updated as resources change.

  • AWS Domain registration 

Route 53 also provides domain registration and management services. Users need not register domains through a domain registrar before configuring Route 53 for DNS management. They can simply use Route 53 to manage and register domains.

  • Cost-effective 

Route 53 offers a pay-as-you-go pricing model, making it cost-effective for businesses of all sizes. You only pay for the DNS queries and hosted zones you use.

Some Amazon Route 53 Limitations to Keep in Mind

While Amazon Route 53 is a powerful and reliable DNS service, it does have some limitations, as mentioned below:

  • Complexity 

For users unfamiliar with DNS and AWS routing policies, Route 53’s advanced features can be complex to configure correctly. Misconfigurations can lead to service disruptions or suboptimal routing.

  • AWS domain pricing 

While Route 53 offers competitive pricing, costs can increase as DNS queries and hosted zones increase. Users should carefully monitor their usage and select the most cost-effective AWS routing policy.

  • Propagation delay 

DNS changes can take time to propagate globally, affecting how quickly updates to DNS records take effect. Route 53 has a low propagation delay, but it’s not instant.

  • Limited logging 

Route 53 provides basic logging and metrics, but users seeking more comprehensive DNS traffic analysis may need third-party tools or services.

  • No reverse DNS (rDNS) for EC2 

While Route 53 supports rDNS for certain AWS domain resources, it doesn’t support it for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances. Users requiring rDNS for EC2 instances must use other methods.

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Amazon Route 53 Alternatives to Choose From

Here are some notable alternatives to Amazon Route 53:

1. Google Cloud DNS 

Google Cloud DNS is Google’s managed DNS service. It offers low-latency and reliable DNS resolution, integration with Google Cloud services, and global anycast IP addresses. It’s suitable for those already using Google Cloud Platform.

2. Cloudflare 

Cloudflare provides DNS services with a focus on security and performance. It offers protection against DDoS attacks, global content delivery, and analytics. Cloudflare’s free plan includes basic DNS management.

3. Microsoft Azure DNS 

Microsoft’s Azure DNS is tightly integrated with Azure services and provides scalable and reliable DNS hosting. It’s a good choice for those using Azure as their cloud platform.

AWS Route 53 Security Features

Here are some key security features and practices associated with Amazon Route 53:

  • DDoS mitigation

Route 53 is designed to scale and absorb DDoS attacks automatically. It can help protect your domain names and ensure their availability during attacks.

  • Domain name registration protection

AWS offers a Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) service for added security in domain name registration, helping to prevent DNS-related attacks.

  • Private DNS

Route 53 supports private DNS namespaces that can only be resolved within your VPCs. This is useful for internal applications that should not be accessible over the public internet.

  • Encryption

Route 53 supports DNS over HTTPS (DoH) and DNS over TLS (DoT), adding an extra layer of encryption to DNS queries and responses.

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Routing Policies Amazon Route 53 Offers

Here are some key Amazon Route 53 routing policies that help achieve various availability, performance, and failover goals:

  • Simple routing policy

In this straightforward policy, your DNS records can be linked with one or more resources, such as an Elastic Load Balancer or S3 bucket, to distribute traffic evenly among them. This method ensures traffic flows seamlessly.

  • Weighted routing policy

With this policy, you can assign different weights to different resources. For example, you might direct 70% of the traffic to one resource and 30% to another. It’s useful for load-balancing traffic across resources with varying capacities.

  • Failover routing policy 

Failover allows you to configure a primary and a secondary resource (usually in a different location or region). Route 53 automatically directs traffic to the secondary resource if the primary resource becomes unavailable. This is useful for creating high-availability configurations.

  • Geolocation routing policy 

Geolocation routing enables you to direct user traffic based on their geographical location, for instance, routing European users towards resources located in a European data centre while sending North American users towards resources in a North American one.

  • Weighted alias record 

This policy is similar to the weighted AWS Route 53 routing policy but can be used with alias records that route traffic to AWS resources like ELB, CloudFront distributions, or S3 buckets.

Understanding the Route 53 Pricing Structure

Here’s a breakdown of the AWS Route 53 pricing details:

  1. DNS zones

The first 25 hosted DNS zones cost $0.50 per zone per month. Beyond the initial 25 zones, additional zones are charged at $0.10 per zone per month.

2. Policy records

For each DNS name (e.g., www.abc.com), the Route 53 cost is $50 per Standard query for the first query. For queries beyond the first, the AWS domain pricing is tiered:

  • $0.40 per million queries for the first billion queries per month.
  • $0.20 per million queries per month for queries beyond the initial billion.

3. Latency-based routing queries

Route 53 charges $0.60 per million for the first billion monthly queries. For queries exceeding the initial billion, the price drops to $0.30 per million queries per month.

4. Geo-based queries

For the first billion queries per month, Route 53 charges $0.70 per million queries. Subsequent queries are billed at $0.35 per million queries per month.

5. Health checks

The first 50 AWS endpoints are covered at no charge. Beyond the initial 50 endpoints, each additional endpoint incurs a fee of $0.50 per endpoint per month.

6. Domain registration

Domain registration in AWS costs vary based on the top-level domain (TLD) and are determined according to the pricing sheet.

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Use the AWS Pricing Calculator or Route 53 pricing page on the AWS website to estimate costs based on your usage patterns and requirements. Route 53 charges may depend upon factors like the number of hosted zones, DNS queries per second scaled across geographic locations, and how widely distributed resources are.

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Conclusion

In the dynamic world of cloud services and networking, Amazon Route 53 remains a cornerstone for many enterprises, facilitating the seamless flow of data and services across the internet’s vast landscape.

Moreover, alternative DNS and traffic management solutions may emerge as the cloud computing landscape evolves, offering different features and pricing models. Businesses must stay informed about these alternatives to make strategic choices for their infrastructure.

Profile

Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1Can Amazon Route 53 route users to infrastructure outside of AWS?

Route 53 can serve multiple applications and scenarios within AWS and external services outside its ecosystem. It makes an excellent solution in many different circumstances and applications.

2Why is AWS DNS called Route 53?

The name Route 53 derives from the DNS, Port 53. It reflects the service's core function of routing or directing internet traffic by resolving domain names to IP addresses.

3What Is Route Tables in AWS?

AWS Route Tables are essential Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs) components that act as rule sets determining the traffic's path within a VPC.

4Is Route 53 part of VPC?

While Route 53 in AWS can be used with Amazon VPC to route traffic to resources within a VPC, it is a separate AWS service. Route 53 provides DNS and domain management services that can be used in various AWS and non-AWS contexts.

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