Homebreadcumb forward arrow iconBlogbreadcumb forward arrow iconArtificial Intelligencebreadcumb forward arrow iconProduction System in Artificial Intelligence and its Characteristics

Production System in Artificial Intelligence and its Characteristics

Last updated:
11th Feb, 2024
Read Time
6 Mins
share image icon
In this article
Chevron in toc
View All
Production System in Artificial Intelligence and its Characteristics

The AI market has witnessed rapid growth on the international level, and it is predicted to show a CAGR of 37.3% from 2023 to 2030. The production system in artificial intelligence is the key driver of this surge due to AI integration across industries to enhance process optimization and decision-making. These figures point to the growing ubiquity of AI and highlight the importance of understanding what is behind its success, especially in production systems. 

When I talk about production systems in AI, I’m essentially referring to structured frameworks that play a pivotal role in modeling logical rules and knowledge. These systems are vital for achieving specific AI application goals by processing input data and generating understandable outputs. Essentially, they mimic human thinking, comprising a set of rules, a knowledge base, and an inference engine. It’s fascinating how they’re shaping the future of AI and driving innovation across industries. 

Production System in AI

production system in artificial intelligence

A production system (popularly known as a production rule system) is a kind of cognitive architecture that is used to implement search algorithms and replicate human problem-solving skills. This problem-solving knowledge is encoded in the system in the form of little quanta popularly known as productions. It consists of two components: rule and action.

Ads of upGrad blog

Rules recognize the condition, and the actions part has the knowledge of how to deal with the condition. In simpler words, the production system in AI contains a set of rules which are defined by the left side and right side of the system. The left side contains a set of things to watch for (condition), and the right side contains the things to do (action).

What are the Elements of a Production System?

An AI production system has three main elements which are as follows:

elements of a production system

  •   Global Database: The primary database which contains all the information necessary to successfully complete a task. It is further broken down into two parts: temporary and permanent. The temporary part contains information relevant to the current situation only whereas the permanent part contains information about the fixed actions.
  •   A set of Production Rules: A set of rules that operates on the global database. Each rule consists of a precondition and postcondition that the global database either meets or not. For example, if a condition is met by the global database, then the production rule is applied successfully.
  •   Control System: A control system that acts as the decision-maker, decides which production rule should be applied. The Control system stops computation or processing when a termination condition is met on the database.

What are the Features of a Production System?

features of a production system

A production system has the following features:

  1. Simplicity: Due to the use of the IF-THEN structure, each sentence is unique in the production system. This uniqueness makes the knowledge representation simple to enhance the readability of the production rules.
  2. Modularity: The knowledge available is coded in discrete pieces by the production system, which makes it easy to add, modify, or delete the information without any side effects.
  3. Modifiability: This feature allows for the modification of the production rules. The rules are first defined in the skeletal form and then modified to suit an application.    
  4. Knowledge-intensive: As the name suggests, the system only stores knowledge. All the rules are written in the English language. This type of representation solves the semantics problem.

Best Machine Learning and AI Courses Online

Must Read: Free deep learning course!

Control/Search Strategies 

After knowing what a production system is in AI, let us see some control and search strategies. The effectiveness of decision-making in Artificial Intelligence’s production systems is dictated by efficient control and search strategies. Here are key strategies: 

  • Depth-First Search (DFS): 

DFS is a sequential search and gives suboptimal solutions due to deep paths. 

  • Breadth-First Search (BFS): 

BFS is a level-by-level systematic exploration that ensures completeness but requires additional memory. 

  • Best-First Search: 

Best-First Search chooses the best paths that have good heuristic values for making informed decisions. 

  • Rule Ordering and Priority: 

Rule ordering and priority is a configurable strategy that determines the sequence or priority of rule execution. 

  • Parallelism and Concurrency: 

Improves performance as it executes multiple rules in parallel. 

Production System Rules 

We have seen the production system and the types of production systems in artificial intelligence. Now let’s explore some rules: 


  • Condition-Action Structure: 

Production rules have a condition-action or “if-then” structure. When a specific condition occurs, an action is performed. This logical framework enables the system to react intelligently depending on different inputs. 

  • Rule Base: 

The total set of production rules in a system forms the rule base. This repository includes the knowledge and logic implemented in the AI system to make decisions. 

  • Inference Engine: 

The inference engine, an important part of a production system, determines the conditions described within rules and instantiates corresponding actions. It performs rule-based reasoning and decision-making. 

  • Conflict Resolution: 

In cases where several rules could apply, a conflict resolution mechanism emerges. This helps to ensure that the system focuses on rules and actions, thus eliminating ambiguity.  

  • Forward and Backward Chaining: 

Production systems use forward chaining, in which rules are applied using available data, or backward chaining, where the system works backward from a goal to determine which rules to apply. 

What are the Classes of a Production System?

A production system is classified into four main classes which are:

  •   Monotonic Production System: In a monotonic production system, the use of one rule never prevents the involvement of another rule when both the rules are selected at the same time. Hence, it enables the system to apply rules simultaneously.
  •   Partially Commutative Production System: In this production system if a set of rules is used to change state A to state B then any allowable combination of these rules will also produce the same results (convert state A to state B).
  •   Non-Monotonic Production System: This production system increases the problem-solving efficiency of the machine by not keeping a record of the changes made in the previous search process. These types of production systems are useful from an implementation point of view as they do not backtrack to the previous state when it is found that an incorrect path was followed.
  •   Commutative Production System: These type of production systems is used when the order of operation is not important, and the changes are reversible.

Join the Machine Learning Course online from the World’s top Universities – Masters, Executive Post Graduate Programs, and Advanced Certificate Program in ML & AI to fast-track your career.

In-demand Machine Learning Skills

Examples of Production Systems in Artificial Intelligence 

Below are some examples of types of production systems in AI:

  • Expert Systems: 

Classic production systems in AI includes expert systems. These systems simulate the reasoning capabilities of human experts in particular domains. They take a rule-based approach, in which the inference engine is governed by a knowledge base of rules that draw conclusions and deliver expert advice. They include medical diagnosis systems and financial advisory systems. 

  • Manufacturing Control Systems: 

In manufacturing, AI-based production systems are used to control and maximize the performance of the process. Rules determine parameters for machinery adjustment, inventory management, and quality control. These systems improve efficiency and responsiveness in dynamic manufacturing environments. 

  • Customer Support Chatbots: 

Customer support chatbots use production rules in order to interact with the users according to predetermined conditions. The responses to the user’s queries are based on rules, which dictate how the chatbot should act by giving information or referring users to a supervisor. These systems boost customer relations and streamline support processes. 

What are the Advantages of using a Production System in AI?

  •   Offers modularity as all the rules can be added, deleted, or modified individually.
  •   Separate control system and knowledge base.
  •   An excellent and feasible model that imitates human problem-solving skills.
  •   Beneficial in real-time applications and environment.
  •   Offers language independence.
Ads of upGrad blog

Popular AI and ML Blogs & Free Courses


The exploration of the production system in artificial intelligence (AI) reveals its significance as a fundamental framework for problem-solving and knowledge representation. By dissecting its elements, features, control/search strategies, rules, and classes, we have gained a comprehensive understanding of how production systems operate within AI. The myriad examples presented illustrate the versatility and adaptability of production systems in various AI applications, showcasing their ability to efficiently process information and execute tasks based on a set of rules. Furthermore, the advantages of using a production system in AI, including enhanced decision-making capabilities, scalability, and the facilitation of complex problem-solving, underscore its value in the development of intelligent systems. As we continue to push the boundaries of technology, the role of the production system in artificial intelligence will undoubtedly evolve, offering new opportunities for innovation and advancement in the field. This exploration not only demystifies the concept but also highlights its potential to revolutionize how we interact with and leverage technology in the AI-driven era.

Check out Advanced Certification Program in Machine Learning & Cloud with IIT Madras, the best engineering school in the country to create a program that teaches you not only machine learning but also the effective deployment of it using the cloud infrastructure. Our aim with this program is to open the doors of the most selective institute in the country and give learners access to amazing faculty & resources in order to master a skill that is in high & growing


Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.
Get Free Consultation

Selectcaret down icon
Select Area of interestcaret down icon
Select Work Experiencecaret down icon
By clicking 'Submit' you Agree to  
UpGrad's Terms & Conditions

Our Popular Machine Learning Course

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What is a Production System in Artificial Intelligence?

A production system is a type of cognitive architecture for implementing search algorithms and simulating human problem-solving abilities. This problem-solving knowledge is stored in the system in the form of products, which are little quanta. It is made up of two parts: rule and action. The rules section recognizes the condition, while the action part knows how to deal with it. To put it another way, the AI production system consists of a set of rules established by the system's left and right sides. On the left is a list of things to look out for (conditions), and on the right is a list of things to do (action).

2What are the main elements of an AI production system?

The primary database, which holds all of the information required to execute a task successfully. It's also divided into two sections: temporary and permanent. A set of rules that apply to the entire database. Each rule has a pre and a post condition that the global database must satisfy. A decision-making control system determines which production rule should be used. When a termination condition on the database is reached, the Control system ceases computation or processing.

3What are some of the highlighting features of a Production System?

Each sentence in the production system is unique due to the utilization of the IF-THEN structure. Because of its one-of-a-kindness, the knowledge representation is simple to understand and improve the readability of the production rules. The production system divides the available knowledge into discrete components, making it simple to add, alter, or delete data without causing any negative consequences. This feature enables you to change the production rules. The rules are initially stated in their most basic form, then adjusted to fit a specific application.

Explore Free Courses

Suggested Blogs

45+ Best Machine Learning Project Ideas For Beginners [2024]
Summary: In this Article, you will learn Stock Prices Predictor Sports Predictor Develop A Sentiment Analyzer Enhance Healthcare Prepare ML Algorith
Read More

by Jaideep Khare

21 May 2024

Top 15 IoT Interview Questions & Answers 2024 – For Beginners & Experienced
These days, the minute you indulge in any technology-oriented discussion, interview questions on cloud computing come up in some form or the other. Th
Read More

by Kechit Goyal

19 May 2024

40 Best IoT Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners 2024 [Latest]
In this article, you will learn the 40Exciting IoT Project Ideas & Topics. Take a glimpse at the project ideas listed below. Best Simple IoT Proje
Read More

by Kechit Goyal

19 May 2024

Top 22 Artificial Intelligence Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners [2024]
In this article, you will learn the 22 AI project ideas & Topics. Take a glimpse below. Best AI Project Ideas & Topics Predict Housing Price
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

18 May 2024

Image Segmentation Techniques [Step By Step Implementation]
What do you see first when you look at your selfie? Your face, right? You can spot your face because your brain is capable of identifying your face an
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

16 May 2024

6 Types of Regression Models in Machine Learning You Should Know About
Introduction Linear regression and logistic regression are two types of regression analysis techniques that are used to solve the regression problem
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

16 May 2024

How to Make a Chatbot in Python Step By Step [With Source Code]
Creating a chatbot in Python is an essential skill for modern developers looking to enhance user interaction and automate responses within application
Read More

by Kechit Goyal

13 May 2024

Artificial Intelligence course fees
Artificial intelligence (AI) was one of the most used words in 2023, which emphasizes how important and widespread this technology has become. If you
Read More

by venkatesh Rajanala

29 Feb 2024

Artificial Intelligence in Banking 2024: Examples & Challenges
Introduction Millennials and their changing preferences have led to a wide-scale disruption of daily processes in many industries and a simultaneous g
Read More

by Pavan Vadapalli

27 Feb 2024

Schedule 1:1 free counsellingTalk to Career Expert
footer sticky close icon