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Production System in Artificial Intelligence and its Characteristics

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1st Sep, 2020
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Production System in Artificial Intelligence and its Characteristics

A production system in AI is a type of computer program that provides artificial intelligence based on a set of rules. Do read the full article if you are curious to know more about the production systems.

Production System in AI

A production system (popularly known as a production rule system) is a kind of cognitive architecture that is used to implement search algorithms and replicate human problem-solving skills. This problem-solving knowledge is encoded in the system in the form of little quanta popularly known as productions. It consists of two components: rule and action.

Rules recognize the condition, and the actions part has the knowledge of how to deal with the condition. In simpler words, the production system in AI contains a set of rules which are defined by the left side and right side of the system. The left side contains a set of things to watch for (condition), and the right side contains the things to do (action).

What are the Elements of a Production System?

An AI production system has three main elements which are as follows:

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  •   Global Database: The primary database which contains all the information necessary to successfully complete a task. It is further broken down into two parts: temporary and permanent. The temporary part contains information relevant to the current situation only whereas the permanent part contains information about the fixed actions.
  •   A set of Production Rules: A set of rules that operates on the global database. Each rule consists of a precondition and postcondition that the global database either meets or not. For example, if a condition is met by the global database, then the production rule is applied successfully.
  •   Control System: A control system that acts as the decision-maker, decides which production rule should be applied. The Control system stops computation or processing when a termination condition is met on the database.

What are the Features of a Production System?

A production system has the following features:

  1. Simplicity: Due to the use of the IF-THEN structure, each sentence is unique in the production system. This uniqueness makes the knowledge representation simple to enhance the readability of the production rules.
  2. Modularity: The knowledge available is coded in discrete pieces by the production system, which makes it easy to add, modify, or delete the information without any side effects.
  3. Modifiability: This feature allows for the modification of the production rules. The rules are first defined in the skeletal form and then modified to suit an application.    
  4. Knowledge-intensive: As the name suggests, the system only stores knowledge. All the rules are written in the English language. This type of representation solves the semantics problem.

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What are the Classes of a Production System?

A production system is classified into four main classes which are:

  •   Monotonic Production System: In a monotonic production system, the use of one rule never prevents the involvement of another rule when both the rules are selected at the same time. Hence, it enables the system to apply rules simultaneously.
  •   Partially Commutative Production System: In this production system if a set of rules is used to change state A to state B then any allowable combination of these rules will also produce the same results (convert state A to state B).
  •   Non-Monotonic Production System: This production system increases the problem-solving efficiency of the machine by not keeping a record of the changes made in the previous search process. These types of production systems are useful from an implementation point of view as they do not backtrack to the previous state when it is found that an incorrect path was followed.
  •   Commutative Production System: These type of production systems is used when the order of operation is not important, and the changes are reversible.

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What are the Advantages of using a Production System in AI?

  •   Offers modularity as all the rules can be added, deleted, or modified individually.
  •   Separate control system and knowledge base.
  •   An excellent and feasible model that imitates human problem-solving skills.
  •   Beneficial in real-time applications and environment.
  •   Offers language independence.
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I hope that this article gives you a basic understanding of the production systems in AI.

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Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What is a Production System in Artificial Intelligence?

A production system is a type of cognitive architecture for implementing search algorithms and simulating human problem-solving abilities. This problem-solving knowledge is stored in the system in the form of products, which are little quanta. It is made up of two parts: rule and action. The rules section recognizes the condition, while the action part knows how to deal with it. To put it another way, the AI production system consists of a set of rules established by the system's left and right sides. On the left is a list of things to look out for (conditions), and on the right is a list of things to do (action).

2What are the main elements of an AI production system?

The primary database, which holds all of the information required to execute a task successfully. It's also divided into two sections: temporary and permanent. A set of rules that apply to the entire database. Each rule has a pre and a post condition that the global database must satisfy. A decision-making control system determines which production rule should be used. When a termination condition on the database is reached, the Control system ceases computation or processing.

3What are some of the highlighting features of a Production System?

Each sentence in the production system is unique due to the utilization of the IF-THEN structure. Because of its one-of-a-kindness, the knowledge representation is simple to understand and improve the readability of the production rules. The production system divides the available knowledge into discrete components, making it simple to add, alter, or delete data without causing any negative consequences. This feature enables you to change the production rules. The rules are initially stated in their most basic form, then adjusted to fit a specific application.

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