Characteristics of Big Data: Types & 5V’s


The world around is changing rapidly, we live a data-driven age now. Data is everywhere, from your social media comments, posts, and likes to your order and purchase data on the e-commerce websites that you visit daily. Your search data is used by the search engines to enhance your search results. For large organizations, this data is in the form of customer data, sales figures, financial data, and much more.

You can imagine how much data is produced every second! Huge amounts of data are referred to as Big Data. 

Let us start with the basics concepts of Big Data.

What is Big Data?

Big Data refers to the huge collections of data that are structured and unstructured. This data may be sourced from servers, customer profile information, order and purchase data, financial transactions, ledgers, search history, and employee records. In large companies, this data collection is continuously growing with time.

But the amount of data a company has is not important, but what it is doing with that data. Companies aim to analyze these huge collections of data properly to gain insights. The analysis helps them in understanding patterns in the data that eventually lead to better business decisions.

All this helps in reducing time, efforts, and costs. But this humongous amount of data cannot be stored, processed, and studied using traditional methods of data analysis. Hence companies hire data analysts and data scientists who write programs and develop modern tools. Learn more about big data skills one needs to develop.

Types of Big Data

Big Data is present in three basic forms. They are – 

1. Structured data

As the name suggests, this kind of data is structured and is well-defined. It has a consistent order that can be easily understood by a computer or a human. This data can be stored, analyzed, and processed using a fixed format. Usually, this kind of data has its own data model.

You will find this kind of data in databases, where it is neatly stored in columns and rows. Two sources of structured data are:

  • Machine-generated data – This data is produced by machines such as sensors, network servers, weblogs, GPS, etc. 
  • Human-generated data – This type of data is entered by the user in their system, such as personal details, passwords, documents, etc. A search made by the user, items browsed online, and games played are all human-generated information.

For example, a database consisting of all the details of employees of a company is a type of structured data set.

2. Unstructured data

Any set of data that is not structured or well-defined is called unstructured data. This kind of data is unorganized and difficult to handle, understand and analyze. It does not follow a consistent format and may vary at different points of time. Most of the data you encounter comes under this category.

For example, unstructured data are your comments, tweets, shares, posts, and likes on social media. The videos you watch on YouTube and text messages you send via WhatsApp all pile up as a huge heap of unstructured data.

3. Semi-structured data

This kind of data is somewhat structured but not completely. This may seem to be unstructured at first and does not obey any formal structures of data models such as RDBMS. For example, NoSQL documents have keywords that are used to process the document.

CSV files are also considered semi-structured data.

After learning the basics, now let us understand the features of Big Data.

Read: Why to Become a Big Data Developer?

Characteristics of Big Data

The primary characteristics of Big Data are –

1. Volume

Volume refers to the huge amounts of data that is collected and generated every second in large organizations. This data is generated from different sources such as IoT devices, social media, videos, financial transactions, and customer logs.

Storing and processing this huge amount of data was a problem earlier. But now distributed systems such as Hadoop are used for organizing data collected from all these sources. The size of the data is crucial for understanding its value. Also, the volume is useful in determining whether a collection of data is Big Data or not.

Data volume can vary. For example, a text file is a few kilobytes whereas a video file is a few megabytes.

Also read: Difference Between Big Data and Hadoop

2. Variety

Another one of the most important Big Data characteristics is its variety. It refers to the different sources of data and their nature. The sources of data have changed over the years. Earlier, it was only available in spreadsheets and databases. Nowadays, data is present in photos, audio files, videos, text files, and PDFs.

The variety of data is crucial for its storage and analysis

3. Velocity

This term refers to the speed at which the data is created or generated. This speed of data producing is also related to how fast this data is going to be processed. This is because only after analysis and processing, the data can meet the demands of the clients/users.

Massive amounts of data are produced from sensors, social media sites, and application logs – and all of it is continuous. If the data flow is not continuous, there is no point in investing time or effort on it.

4. Value

Among the characteristics of Big Data, value is perhaps the most important. No matter how fast the data is produced or its amount, it has to be reliable and useful. Otherwise, the data is not good enough for processing or analysis. Research says that poor quality data can lead to almost a 20% loss in a company’s revenue. 

Data scientists first convert raw data into information. Then this data set is cleaned to retrieve the most useful data. Analysis and pattern identification is done on this data set. If the process is a success, the data can be considered to be valuable.

5. Veracity

This feature of Big Data is connected to the previous one. It defines the degree of trustworthiness of the data. As most of the data you encounter is unstructured, it is important to filter out the unnecessary information and use the rest for processing.


Big Data is the driving force behind major sectors such as business, marketing, sales, analytics, and research. It has changed the business strategies of customer-based and product-based companies worldwide. Thus, all the Big Data characteristics have to be given equal importance when it comes to analysis and decision making.   

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