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Top 7 Data Science Use Cases in Finance Industry [2024]

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30th Aug, 2022
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Top 7 Data Science Use Cases in Finance Industry [2024]

In the dynamic landscape of the finance industry, the effective management of financial intricacies has evolved significantly over time. The emergence of Data Science has ushered in a new era, providing swift and efficient analysis for informed decision-making. As a mid-career professional, delving into the finance industry’s specific data science use cases unveils many opportunities. 

Data science serves as the backbone of financial operations. The absence of appropriate data science tools compromises a firm’s effectiveness. The relevance of data science for the finance industry has experienced exponential growth in recent years, particularly in areas such as algorithmic trading, fraud detection, customer management, and risk analytics – all critical data science use cases for the finance industry. 

The application of data science in the finance sector enhances consumer relationships by comprehending their preferences, ultimately boosting sales and profit margins. Simultaneously, it plays a crucial role in identifying and mitigating risks and fraud, safeguarding the firm. As a data scientist, I’ve witnessed its indispensable role in organizational success, making it an integral asset for effective performance in the finance industry. 

Read more about Data Science applications. 

Data Science Applications in Finance Industry

There are many data science applications in the field of finance. Let’s discuss these below.

1. Risk Analytics

Every company has some risk while doing business, and it has become essential to analyze the risk before taking any decision. Risk management is the method by which the risks involved while doing business can be identified, assessed, and measures must be taken to control the risk.

It is through proper risk management only that the profits of the business can be increased in the long term. Thus, it is very important to analyze the risks that a firm is facing properly. The use of Data Science Use Cases in Finance has made the method of risk management easier, particularly in financial markets. Analyzing the threat has become crucial for large companies for their strategic decision making and is called Risk Analytics. For Business intelligence and Data Science Use Cases in Finance, Risk Analytics has become vital areas.

A company can increase the security and trustworthiness of the company using risk analytics of data science. Data is the core of Risk Management and Risk Analysis because it measures the gravity of the damage and multiplies it with the frequency of loss. The knowledge of problem-solving, statistics and maths is essential in the field of Risk Management for any professional.

Raw Data majorly consists of unstructured data which cannot be inserted into a standard excel spreadsheet or a database. Data science plays a significant role in this using their frameworks to analyze the data.

A company faces various kinds of risk which can originate from the market, credits, competitors, etc. The first step in managing the risk is identifying the threat. After that, monitoring and prioritizing the risk is essential.

A risk analyst has first to analyze the loss and the pattern of the loss. It also has to identify the source of loss. Financial data science helps to create models that help in analyzing areas.

A company can use massively available data like financial transactions and customer information using which they can create a scoring model and optimize the cost. This is an essential aspect of risk analysis and management which is used to verify the creditworthiness of a customer.

The past payment records of a customer must be studied, and then it must be decided whether the loan is to be paid to the customer or not.  Many companies now employ data scientists to analyze the creditworthiness of customers using machine learning algorithms to analyze the transactions made by customers.

Read: statistics for data science free courses

2. Real-Time Analytics

In the earlier period, data were processed and analyzed in batches which means one by one and not real-time. It had a huge disadvantage of data being old by the time it was processed and analyzed. The decisions taken on historical data will not be very helpful or accurate.

Real-time analytics means a huge amount of data is being generated and analyzed continuously. It is a continuous process. The use of data science in finance makes the process much easier. Machine learning algorithms perform real-time analytics of data. Real-time analytics is very important because old data is of no use to the firm. It is a setback for the firm. Firms need to analyze the constant changes to be at par with the market and preferences of the customers.  

Many various industries started having a problem because they require real-time data to gain insights about present circumstances. However, now it is possible to access the data with minimum delay due to the development of dynamic data pipelines and advancements in technology.

Data Science has now become a very crucial part of Finance and Financial Institutions to keep track of all financial attributes, credit scores and transactions without any issue of latency. Read about the contribution of Data Science to the banking industry.

3. Consumer Analytics

Many financial institutions have consumer personalization as their major operation. With the help of data scientists, companies can gain insight into the behaviour of consumers in real-time with the help of real-time analytics to make better strategic business decisions. Data Science is being used in many financial institutions such as insurance companies to understand the consumer to reduce losses by eliminating below zero customers, to increase cross-sale and to measure the lifetime value of a customer.

By observing the behavior of different customers by means of financial data science, a data scientist can make the best use to increase the purchasing habits and frequencies of potential customers by following the below-mentioned techniques –   

Bifurcation of customers as per their habits – Customers can be bucketed into different segments, for example, a tech-savvy customer from an online platform is expected to buy latest products more frequently than the ones who purchase only based on the requirement. There are other segments of customers who generally wait for special sales offers. 

Offer to enhance customer purchase capacity – With this tool, a business house lures a periodic customer to purchase 25 to 30% more of its periodic purchase value by offering him attractive schemes. 

Prevention of attrition – Sometimes, customers tend to switch over service providers or brands in view to get more value for their money. Switching between different brands of cell phones or cellular data service provider is the most common example of attrition cells. Business houses try to capture the customer grievances and address them with value-added offers thereby preventing attrition.

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4. Customer Data Management

Firms record the purchases and buying habits of the customers. Their choice and preferences are taken into account. Data science in finance helps in analyzing the purchasing trends of the customer and serving the customers according to their choices. 

Data is everything, and the financial institution needs customer data for processing and analyzing the information. The functioning of financial institutions has completely revolutionized after the introduction of big data in the world of data science. Large numbers of transactions and social media have contributed a lot to the variety and volume of data.

There are mainly two types of data available, which are Structured Data and Unstructured Data. It is effortless to handle, process and analyze the structured data as it is already in a specific format. But in the case of Unstructured Data, It is not as smooth as structured data to process and analyze it. Various top data science tools are used to process and handle unstructured data. 

One of the most important aspects of Big Data is Business Intelligence which is extracted by using machine learning to gain insight about the customers and their behaviour. Meaningful insights from data can be generated using various tools such as text analytics, data mining, Natural Language Processing (NLP) and many more. A thorough analysis is conducted on the data of customers using machine learning algorithms to analyze the changes and trends in the financial market and values.

Read: Career in data science and its future growth

5. Personalized Services

Through consumer analytics and consumer data management, firms analyze the choices of the buyers and the kinds of products they are interested in. Data Science Use Cases in Finance make this process much more hassle-free. Personalized services are a great way for the financial institution to build a good relationship with its customers and increase their sales by offering them what they are interested in.

Insights are generated and analyzed the customer information related to the interaction by financial institutions by employing many kinds of tools and techniques. Natural language processing and speech recognition based software is handy to financial institutions nowadays for better communication with consumers.

Actionable insights are gained, and the needs of the customers are understood from the information provided by customers to the financial institution, which leads to higher profit to them. Those insights are also used to provide better services, and business strategies are optimized according to each customer.

Read: Career in finance and its Scope.

6. Financial Fraud Detection

One of the major concerns for financial institutions is a fraud. As the number of transactions is increasing, it is also increasing the chances of fraud. But now, financial institutions can keep track of scams and frauds in a better way by using the analytical tools to analyze the big data.

Identity thefts and or consecutive abnormally high purchases from credit cards indicate financial fraud. Banks often block such credit cards to prevent financial fraud. Following this way the banks can protect the company as well as the customers from financial loss. Data science tools have helped in fraud identification to a great extent and it has helped the film to protect itself from any bad debt. 

Credit card fraud will remain at the top of the list of financial scams. There has been an improvement in the detection of these types of fraud because of the development of algorithms. Anomaly detection is much easier now with higher accuracy. The losses from the scams are promptly minimized by the detection alert received at real-time by the companies about the anomalies in financial purchases.

Unusual patterns in trading data are identified using various machine learning tools. Financial institutions are alerted, and the anomalies are taken for further investigation. There are many other types of fraud also which are detected by understanding the pattern of the data which seems to be suspicious and many insurance companies are using several clustering algorithms to segregate the data and understand the cluster pattern of information.

Read our popular Data Science Articles

7. Algorithmic Trading

One of the essential parts of financial institutions is Algorithmic Trading which is used to compute complex mathematical formulas at lightning speed which helps in devising new trading strategies by financial institutions. Big Data has wholly revolutionized Data Science and Algorithmic Trading in a much bigger way which has lead to a complete change in the functioning of the industry.

Massive amount of data are streamed which are processed through algorithmic trading, and a data model is produced which describe the information about the data streams. There are various kinds of data streams like stock data, fundamental data, financial news data, futures data, macroeconomic data, etc.

These different types of data can be obtained from Yahoo finance, wall street horizon, RBI, google news, and many more. By the understanding of massive datasets in a better way, financial institutions can make better predictions for the future market, and that is the aim of the analytical engine.

Our learners also read: Top Python Free Courses

Top Data Science Skills to Learn

Let’s Wind Up

Data Science is crucial in the Finance Industry, primarily focusing on enhancing risk management and analysis. Improved analysis facilitates better decision-making, leading to increased profits for financial institutions. 

Companies utilize business intelligence tools to analyze data trends. Data science has significantly improved accuracy in detecting anomalies and fraud, thereby reducing risks, minimizing losses, and preserving the reputation of financial institutions. 

As a mid-career professional aspiring to stay ahead in the rapidly evolving technological landscape, I highly recommend exploring upGrad & IIIT-B’s Executive PG Programme in Data Science. It’s an excellent opportunity to upskill oneself for the future, particularly in understanding the finance industry’s intricate data science use cases. 


Rohit Sharma

Blog Author
Rohit Sharma is the Program Director for the UpGrad-IIIT Bangalore, PG Diploma Data Analytics Program.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1How does data science contribute to risk analytics?

Risk analysis is an important aspect of running a business. Every company analyzes the risks before making a decision. For business intelligence and data science in finance, risk analytics has become a vital area. Since data is the core of risk management, data science plays a crucial role and measures the gravity of the damage and multiplies it with the frequency of loss. Analyzing the risk analysis with data science can increase the security and trustworthiness of a company. The companies initially have raw data which can not be inserted into excel sheets directly so we use data science techniques to first sort this unstructured data. The financial transactions and customer details can be used to create a scoring model and can optimize the cost.

2How can one imply data science in the finance sector?

Data science is tremendously efficient when it comes to the finance sector. It provides modern approaches to the companies. To be able to implement data science for finance, one must excel in the skills that are mentioned here: Statistics and Probability are the two most important mathematical concepts of Data Science. Descriptive statistics including mean, median, and mode, linear regression, hypothesis testing are some of the topics of statistics and probability. You must go with one programming language and master it to code in it. There are plenty of languages out there but Python is the most preferable language due to the libraries and modules it provides. Machine Learning and Deep Learning are two separate domains and the subsets of Data Science at the same time. These topics will help you to get far in data science.

3How do personalized services add value to the finances of a company?

Personalized services help institutions to improve their relationships with their customers. Services like natural language processing and speech recognition increase the customer base as more and more people can use the features in their own mother tongue. Cookies play a major role in finding the customer’s needs and preferences so that the institutions can work upon them.

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