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15 Must-Know Spring MVC Interview Questions

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4th Mar, 2024
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15 Must-Know Spring MVC Interview Questions

Spring has become one of the most used Java frameworks for the development of web-applications. All the new Java applications are by default using Spring core and Spring MVC frameworks. Thanks to its growing popularity, recruiters all over the globe are looking for candidates hands-on with the Spring framework. If you’re appearing for an interview for a Java developer role, Spring MVC is one of the first things that you should brush up your knowledge on Spring framework interview questions – irrespective of whether you’re a fresher or someone with experience.

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After all, the Spring MVC framework is the most commonly used Java frameworks, and you are bound to get asked questions in and around the same, in any Java (or any related interview) interview you sit for. If you didn’t know, Spring MVC is a robust Java-based framework that helps build web applications. As the name suggests, it uses an MVC architecture – Model, View, Controller. Spring MVC provides an elegant way of using Spring with the MVC framework. Released in 2002, the Spring framework’s is an open-sourced framework, that means developers all around the world can contribute to the development and further releases of the framework.

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That also means that there is an ever-active community of developers out there to help you with your queries. Being open-sourced also adds to the plethora of benefits that the Spring framework offers. Especially if you’re beginning with your career in Java, you’d require guidance, and the diverse community of Java developers ensures you don’t lack any guidance when it comes to working with Spring MVC.

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It is important to understand the flow of Spring MVC to gain an in-depth knowledge of Java. 

With so many benefits to offer, there shouldn’t be an iota of doubt as to why Spring MVC is an interview’s favorite topic to question you on.

In this article, we’ll be talking about 15 such Spring MVC must-know questions which you can expect to encounter in any interview you sit for. Let’s learn about the interview questions on Spring MVC for freshers and other Spring MVC interview questions and answers for experienced candidates, which will help you ace your interview. 

1. What is the Spring framework?

To start off our list of interview questions on Spring MVC, let us start with the basics of what Spring MVC stands for. 

Spring is an open-source framework that was built to simplify application development. It has a layered structure which allows the developer to be selective about the components they use. It has three main components – Spring Core, Spring AOP, and Spring MVC.

Further, you can talk about your experience with Spring, if any. That’ll add a lot of weight to your answer.

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2. What are the main features of Spring framework?

Spring framework offers a lot of features to make the developer’s life easy. Some of them are:

  • Lightweight: Spring is extremely lightweight, the basic version is around 1MB, with negligible processing overheads.
  • Inversion of Control (IoC): Dependency Injection or Inversion of Control is one of the most important features of Spring. Using IoC, the developers don’t need to create a complete environment for the object and its dependencies; they can simply create and test the object they are handling at the given point in time. Object dependencies will be included or called upon when the need arises. It majorly creates a window in the case of configuration management. The container, therefore, consists of different assembler codes that solely exist for configuration management.  
  • Aspect-Oriented Programming: Spring supports Aspect-Oriented Programming. AOP isolates secondary functions from the programmer’s business logic. This not only provides modularity but also makes the code maintainable.
  • MVC architecture: Spring comes with an MVC framework for web-applications. This framework is highly configurable using various technologies like JSP, Tiles, iText, and POI.
  • JDBC exception handling: Spring comes with a predefined JDBC abstraction layer which simplifies the overall exception handling process.
  • Spring MVC network is also the basis of power for other Spring-based projects like Spring Boot, Spring Cloud, and SpringGraph QL. 

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3. Explain a bit more about Dependency Injection.

Spring MVC questions like these check your test your clarity on basic concepts. Dependency injection is the fundamental aspect of Spring frameworks which theoretically injects objects with dependencies that helps in responsibly managing the components that already exist in the container.

Inversion of Control or Dependency Injection aims to simplify the process of object creation by following a simple concept – don’t create objects, just describe how they should be created. Using IoC, the objects are given their dependencies at build-time by an external entity that is responsible for coordinating each object in the system.

In essence, we’re injecting dependencies into objects using IOC or Dependency Injection. For example, if class One needs to operate an object which is possessed by class Two, which instantiates or operates a particular method, then it can be concluded that in this case, class One depends on Class Two. 

This particular example, however, is only possible theoretically and not in the real world because it can lead to several problems in the module, like system failure and other important issues. This can also lead to loose coupling, which can be possible because of two classes being intertwined for common functionality. 

Make sure you offer such clarity in your Spring MVC questions. This also marks one of the most important Spring MVC interview questions for experienced candidates. 

4. Explain the different types of Dependency Injections in Spring? When to use which?

Spring provides the developers with the following two types of dependency injections:

  • Constructor-based DI: Constructor-based DI is accomplished by passing a number of arguments (each of which represents a dependency on other class) to a class’s constructor. Simply, dependencies are given in the form of constructor parameters.

CDI is declared as the <constructor-arg> tag in the configuration bean file in this particular parameter. 

  • Setter-based DI: When you are working with a no-argument constructor, you will set values by passing arguments through setter function to instantiate the bean under consideration, this is called setter-based dependency injection.

For example, a class GFG can use Setter Dependency Injection (SDI) to set the property tag in the bean- configuration file. 

When will you use which one of these, boils down to your requirements. However, it is recommended to use Setter-based DI for optional dependencies and Constructor-based DI for mandatory dependencies.
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5. What is the Spring MVC framework?

Spring MVC is one of the core components of the Spring framework. It comes with ready to use components and elements that help developers build flexible and robust web applications. As the name suggests, the MVC architecture separates the different aspects of the application – input logic, business logic, and UI logic. It also provides a loose coupling between the M, V, and C of the application.

These are classified further into: 

  • Model (M): This contains the application data with a single object and a collection of objects. 
  • View (V): A view requires provided information in a specific format. Generally, in this case, JSP+ JSTL uses this way to create a view page. This consists of components of various technologies like Apache Velocity, Thymeleaf, and FreeMarker. 
  • Controller ( C): This contains the business logic of an application. The annotation of the @controller is used as a mark to class the controller in the program. 

This question is a fine example of Spring MVC interview questions for experienced

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6. What are some benefits of Spring MVC framework over other MVC frameworks?

The Spring MVC framework has some clear benefits over other frameworks. Some of the benefits are:

    • Clear separation of roles –  There is a specialised object for every role, thus providing a clear separation of roles.
    • Reusable business code – With Spring MVC, you don’t need to duplicate your code. You can use your existing objects as commands instead of mirroring them in order to extend a particular framework base class.
      • Customizable binding and validation- This helps in rewriting the code from scratch and also taking up the previous codes at times for a proper binding and validation following the function. It is very feasible and one of a kind. 
      • Customizable locale and theme resolution- One of the important components of Spring MVC is the customizable theme resolution. The developer can surely change these based on the needs provided by the organization or the required programming clientele. 
    • Customizable locale and theme resolution
    • Customizable handler mapping and view resolution
  • From Spring 2.0 onwards, the framework comes with a JSP form tag library which makes writing forms in JSP pages much easier.

7. What is DispatcherServlet?

Spring MVC framework is request-driven and is designed around a central Servlet that handles all the HTTP requests and responses. The DispatcherServlet, however, does a lot more than just that. It seamlessly integrates with the IoC container and allows you to use each feature of Spring.
On receiving an HTTP request, the DispatcherServlet consults HandlerMapping (these are the configuration files) to call the appropriate Controller. Then, the controller calls appropriate service methods to set the Model data. It also returns the view name to DispatcherServlet. DispatcherServlet, with the help of ViewResolver, picks up the defined view for the request. Once the view is finalized, the DispatcherServlet passes the Model data to View – where it is finally rendered on the browser.
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8. What is the front controller class of the Spring MVC?

A front controller is a controller which handles all requests for a Web application. When it comes to Spring MVC, DispatcherServlet is that front controller. When a web request is sent to a Spring MVC application, the DIspatcherServlet takes care of everything. First, it takes the request. Then, it organizes the different components like request handlers, controllers, view resolvers, and such – all needed to handle the request. And finally, it renders the content on the browser.

9. What is a Viewresolver pattern and how does it work in MVC?

View Resolver is a J2EE pattern which allows the applications to dynamically choose technology for rendering the data on the browser (View). Any technology like HTML, JSP, Tapestry, XSLT, JSF, or any other such technology can be used for View. The View Resolver pattern holds the mapping of different views. The Controller returns the name of the View which is then passed to View Resolver for selecting the appropriate technology.

10. How does Spring MVC provide validation support?

Spring primarily supports two types of validations:

  • Using JSR-303 Annotations and any reference implementation, for example, Hibernate Validator, or
  • Implementing org.springframework.validation.Validator interface.

11. A user gets a validation error in other fields on checking a checkbox, after which, he unchecks it. What would be the current selection status in command object of the Spring MVC? How will you fix this issue?

This is one of the trickier questions to answer if you aren’t aware of the HTTP Post behaviour in Spring MVC.
During HTTP Post, if you uncheck the checkbox, then HTTP does not include a request parameter for the checkbox – which means the updated selection won’t be picked up. To fix that, you can use hidden form field which starts with ‘_’.

This is one of the toughest Spring MVC interview questions How to Succeed in Your First Software Development Job

12. How will you compare the MVC framework to the three-tier architecture?

A Three-tier architecture is an architecture style whereas MVC is a design pattern.
3 tier architechture with mvc part
Having said that, in larger applications, MVC forms the presentation tier of a three-tier architecture. The Model, View, and Controller are concerned only with the presentation – they use the middle tier to populate their models.

13. How should we use JDBC in Spring to optimize the performance?

Spring provides a template class called as JDBCTemplate. Using JDBC with this template gives manifolds better performance. This, therefore, helps in providing accurate results and finally makes programming easier for the developer. 

14. What do you mean by a “Bean” in the context of Spring framework?

Any class that is initialized by the IoC container is known as a bean in Spring. The lifecycle of a Spring Bean is managed by Spring IoC Container. Bean helps provide accuracy in the overall Spring MVC framework giving optimal results. 

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15. What is a “Scope” in reference to Spring Beans?

Spring Beans comes with following five scopes:

    • Prototype: Whenever there’s a request for a bean, a separate prototype is created each time.
    • Request: It is like the previous scope, but only for web-based applications. For each HTTP request, Spring creates a new bean instance.
    • Singleton: There’s only one bean created for every container, and it acts as the default scope of that bean. In all these instances, the beans cannot use a shared instance variable as it can lead to data-inconsistency.
    • Session: A bean is created for every HTTP session
    • Global-session: Global session is created for Portlet applications.

The Spring framework is extendable, that is, you can create your own scope as well. The “scope” attribute of the bean element is used to define the scope.
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16. What are the different types of AutoWire? 

This is one of the most common Spring MVC interview questions. Spring’s autowiring feature allows the framework to automatically inject dependencies into Spring beans. Spring supports a variety of auto-wiring modes:

  • No auto-wiring (by default): In this mode, auto-wiring is disabled, and dependencies must be explicitly defined using the components in the bean configuration.
  • Autowiring by Type (autowire=”byType”): Spring wires a property if its type is the same as one of the beans declared in the container. If there is more than one matched bean, an error is returned.
  • Autowiring by Name (autowire=”byName”): In this mode, Spring searches for a bean that shares the same name as the property being authored. If the dependence is discovered, it is injected; otherwise, an error is returned.
  • Autowiring by Constructor (autowire=”constructor”): Spring matches and injects dependencies depending on the constructor arguments. This style is very handy for working with several constructors or intricate dependents.
  • Autowiring by Qualifier (@Qualifier annotation): When combined with @Autowired, @Qualifier allows you to define the precise bean name that will be injected when the container contains numerous beans of the same type.

17. What are Spring Interceptors? 

This is a commonly asked Spring MVC interview questions for experienced. Spring interceptors are components that enable developers to pre-handle, post-handle, or alter requests and answers within a Spring MVC application. They allow you to inject custom behaviour into the request processing lifecycle. Interceptors are very useful for cross-cutting issues like logging, security, authentication, and altering the model before it reaches the view.

To answer this Spring MVC interview questions, talk about ways to use interceptors in a Spring MVC application and how they must be specified in the application context or through Java configuration. 

Spring interceptors are an effective tool for expanding the functionality of a Spring MVC application in a modular and reusable manner. They contribute to cleaner code by isolating concerns and encouraging the reuse of certain portions of request processing logic across different areas of the application.

In a Spring MVC application, interceptors are created by implementing the HandlerInterceptor interface. This interface contains three methods:

  • preHandle(): Called before the actual handler function is run. It may be used for a variety of functions, including request pre-processing, authentication checks, and logging.
  • postHandle(): Runs after the handler procedure but before the view is rendered. This function allows developers to conduct actions on the model or alter the ModelAndView.
  • afterCompletion(): Called after the entire request has been processed, including displaying the view. It is useful for operations like cleaning and resource release.

18. What is a Spring Configuration File? 

This is one of the most anticipated Spring MVC interview questions for 10 year experience.  The Spring Configuration File is an XML or Java-based configuration file that is used to create and configure Spring beans. These configuration files are critical to the Inversion of Control (IoC) container, which governs the Spring beans’ lifespan.

There are two major types of Spring configuration files:

  • XML-based Configuration: Beans and their dependencies are defined by developers using XML markup in this configuration style. The configuration file normally contains a <beans> element as the root, followed by individual <bean> elements that specify the beans, their attributes, dependencies, and other configurations.
  • Java-based Configuration: With the introduction of Java configuration in Spring, developers may now create beans and their connections using simple Java classes annotated with @Configuration. These classes frequently use @Bean annotations to define individual beans, as well as other annotations such as @ComponentScan or @Import to describe scanning packages or import other configuration classes.

19. When is Autowiring used? 

This is also one of the most crucial interview questions on Spring MVC. To answer Spring MVC framework interview questions like this, start by mentioning that autowiring may not be appropriate for all scenarios. 

Developers should think carefully about the ramifications of autowiring, such as the possibility of ambiguity when numerous candidates exist. Furthermore, it is critical to understand the many autowiring options available in Spring (byType, byName, constructor, etc.) and select the one that best meets the application’s needs.

  • Reducing Configuration Boilerplate: Autowiring reduces the amount of boilerplate code necessary to configure dependencies. Rather than manually describing each dependency in the configuration file, Spring may identify and inject them based on predefined criteria.
  • Maintaining Loose Coupling: Autowiring facilitates loose coupling among components. By relying on the container to automatically wire dependencies, components are not directly aware of one another, making the system more modular and maintainable.
  • Simplifying Dependency Injection: Autowiring can make it easier to configure a bean with several dependencies. Developers do not need to explicitly wire each dependency; Spring resolves and injects them based on the autowiring option selected.
  • Easier Maintenance and Refactoring: Autowiring simplifies code maintenance and refactoring. When new dependencies are introduced or old ones are adjusted, the configuration file does not need to be explicitly updated; Spring can react to changes automatically.
  • Promoting Convention Over Configuration: Autowiring is consistent with the Spring idea of “convention over configuration.” It encourages developers to utilise naming conventions or particular annotations, which allow Spring to infer dependencies and wire them appropriately.

20. What is a Spring IoC Container? 

The Spring IoC (Inversion of Control) Container is a core component of the Spring Framework that manages the lifespan of Java objects, generally known as beans. Traditional Java programmes frequently delegate responsibilities for creating and managing objects (beans) to the application code. However, the Spring IoC Container reverses this control by taking over the task of producing and maintaining beans.

The Spring IoC Container, has the following key properties and functionalities:

  • Bean Definition: Bean definitions are metadata that explains how to construct and configure a bean. They are the foundation of the IoC Container. These bean definitions can be defined in XML files, Java configuration classes, or a combination of the two.
  • Bean Lifespan Management: The container handles the whole lifespan of beans, including instantiation, dependency injection, initialization, and destruction. This enables developers to concentrate on building business logic while the container tackles infrastructural issues.
  • Dependency Injection (DI): The IoC Container supports Dependency Injection, which is a crucial Spring Framework concept. Dependencies between beans are injected at runtime, eliminating tight coupling and improving application modularity and maintainability.
  • Inversion of Control: Unlike traditional programming, the control flow in Internet of Things applications is inverted. Instead of the application code directing the execution flow, the IoC Container manages bean creation and wiring.
  • Configuration Options: The IoC Container enables developers to configure beans via XML-based configuration files, Java-based configuration classes, or a mix of the two. This flexibility allows developers to select the configuration approach that best meets their needs and preferences.

This also falls under one ofthe top-asked interview questions on Spring MVC. Hence, it is important to prepare Spring MVC framework interview questions when you’re preparing solo or even preparing a one-on-one mock interview with your friend. 

21. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Spring MVC framework? 

This is one of the popularly asked Java MVC interview questions. Additionally, knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the Spring Framework is extremely important while simultaneously preparing for Spring MVC interview questions for 5 years experience, as well as Spring boot MVC interview questions


  • Modular and Flexible: The design of Spring MVC is modular and flexible, enabling programmers to arrange their code in a logical and manageable way. It encourages the separation of issues, making it easier to handle various areas of the app.
  • Loose Coupling: The framework promotes loose coupling between components, making it easier to replace or alter individual modules without impacting the overall system. This improves maintainability and encourages proper software design practices.
  • Integration with Other Spring Technologies: Spring MVC works smoothly with other Spring Framework components including the Spring IoC container, Spring AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming), and Spring Security. This allows for the creation of extensive and well-structured applications.


  • Learning Curve: Spring MVC has a learning curve, particularly for developers new to the Spring Framework. Understanding concepts like inversion of control, dependency injection, and the MVC architecture might take time.
  • Configuration Complexity: While Spring MVC provides configuration flexibility, some developers, particularly those working on bigger projects, may find XML-based configuration files or Java configuration classes to be complicated. This complexity can be reduced by good documentation and training.
  • Annotation Overhead: While annotations can make code more succinct, using too many annotations might result in code that is difficult to read and comprehend. It is critical to find a balance between utilising annotations for convenience and ensuring code readability. 

Wrapping Up

This was all about the must-know Spring interview questions and answers revolving around the Spring framework – and Spring MVC, to be precise. If you’re a Java developer looking to get started with Spring, there couldn’t be a better time! Read more if you are looking for Java interview questions.

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Spend some of your precious time to get your hands on Java Spring interview questions and you will be good to go. Organizations are on a look-out for developers having strong command on this framework – thanks to the features it has to offer.

The above questions have provided you with great insights about interview questions for Spring MVC freshers, Spring MVC interview questions and answers for experienced alike, accompanied with other scrutinizing details for this particular subject matter. 

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Arjun Mathur

Blog Author
Arjun is Program marketing manager at UpGrad for the Software development program. Prior to UpGrad, he was a part of the French ride-sharing unicorn "BlaBlaCar" in India. He is a B.Tech in Computers Science from IIT Delhi and loves writing about technology.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What is JDBC and what is its use?

JDBC stands for Java Database Connectivity. It is a Java-based API that helps the client access the database. The JDBC driver is an interface through which the Java application can interact with various databases like Oracle, MsAccess, MySql, and SQLServer. It involves the following steps: import packages, open a connection, pass the query that has to be executed, extract useful information from the result, save the output, and close the connection. Statement is an interface that helps to execute queries. It is of 3 types: Connection statement, Prepared statement, and Callable statement.

2How to handle HTTP requests in Spring MVC?

HTTP requests include GET, PUT, POST, UPDATE, DELETE, PATCH, etc. HTTP requests are handled by Spring MVC by using some annotations like @GetMapping, @PostMapping, @PutMapping, @PatchMapping, and @DeleteMapping. When an HTTP request is sent to the browser, it performs routing and creates an MVC request handler. The MVCRouteHandler object creates an instance and passes a RequestContext object to it. After the handler is created and the necessary specifications are made, the action is invoked and it is executed. The response is sent to the browser. View engineer renders the HTML content onto the browser.

3What are the types of transactions supported by Spring MVC?

The types of transactions supported by Spring MVC are programmatic and declarative. Programmatic transaction management involves managing transactions by writing programs or code. As we write the code, it is flexible, and we can change it according to our needs. However, it isn't easy to maintain. Declarative transaction management isolates transaction management from business logic. It makes use of XML-based annotations and configurations. Declarative is preferred because it is consistent and lightweight. It defines roll-back rules and can be applied to classes. With minimal configuration changes, it works well with JDBC, JDO, Hibernate, etc.