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What is a botnet? Architecture, Function Explained

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8th Sep, 2023
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What is a botnet? Architecture, Function Explained

As our lives become increasingly intertwined with technology, robust cybersecurity measures are essential to safeguard personal, financial, and sensitive information, maintain critical infrastructure reliability, and uphold the trust that underpins our digital interactions and transactions.

Cybersecurity is crucial to shield digital systems and data from a rising tide of cyber threats like botnet attacks. A Botnet attack can be debilitating because they enable cybercriminals to wield a vast network of compromised devices and exploit the collective power of the botnet to perform various malicious activities, such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, spamming, data theft, fraud, and more. To tackle botnets, ones must first know about what is botnet in cyber security

In this article, we will be provide an in-depth understanding of what is botnet malware, uncover its inner workings, the intricacies of the Botnet architecture, as well as its ominous purposes.

What is Botnet in Cyber Security?

It is crucial to understand what is a botnet in detail before delving into the nitty-gritty involved in this malware. A Botnet attack is a cyber threat orchestrated by a network of infected computers (bots) controlled by a single cybercriminal (hacker). These attacks exploit the collective power of the botnet to perform illicit activities, like DDoS attacks, spamming, data theft, fraud, and more.

A botnet architecture is typically constructed through malware infections, where unsuspecting users’ devices are infected and transformed into bots. The central controller, known as the “bot herder,” can then issue commands to the botnet, coordinating the actions of the compromised devices.

How Does a Botnet Work?

A botnet operates as a network of compromised computers, or “bots,” infected with malware. These infected devices are controlled by a central entity, often called the “bot herder” or “command and control server.” The process through which a botnet attack works involves several key steps:

  • Infection: The botnet operator distributes malware to vulnerable computers through various means, such as email attachments, malicious downloads, or exploiting software vulnerabilities. Once a computer is infected, it becomes a bot.
  • Communication: The infected bots establish a connection to the command and control (C&C) server, which serves as the brain of the botnet. This server is responsible for issuing commands to the bots and receiving data from them.
  • Command Execution: The bot herder sends commands to the compromised devices, instructing them to perform specific actions. These commands can range from sending spam emails, launching DDoS attacks, stealing data, or participating in other malicious activities.
  • Coordination: The botnet coordinates the actions of all its infected bots to carry out large-scale attacks. The combined computing power of the botnet can be used for various purposes, such as overwhelming a target website with traffic in a DDoS attack or spreading malware to other systems.
  • Propagation: Some botnets can self-propagate by infecting other vulnerable devices. They can scan the internet for potential targets and exploit vulnerabilities to expand their network.
  • Data Collection: Bots may collect and transmit data to the C&C server, including sensitive information like login credentials, personal data, or financial details. This data can be exploited for financial gain or other malicious purposes.
  • Evolution: Botnets continuously evolve to evade detection and maintain their effectiveness. Bot herders may update the malware, change C&C servers, or use encryption to obfuscate communications.
  • Detection and Mitigation: Detecting and mitigating botnets is a challenge. Security measures involve using intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, network monitoring, and timely software updates to prevent infections and disrupt the botnet’s operations.

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The Inner Workings of the Botnet Architecture 

The botnet architecture reveals a complex hierarchy and orchestrated coordination, enabling cybercriminals to wield significant power. This architecture involves distinct components:-

  • Infected Devices (Bots): These are computers, smartphones, or other internet-connected devices infected with malware, allowing attackers to take control.
  • Command and Control Server (C&C): The brain of the botnet, the C&C server, communicates with infected devices, issuing commands and collecting data. It is pivotal in orchestrating attacks and managing the botnet’s activities.
  • Bot Herder: The individual or group behind the botnet, often called the bot herder, controls the C&C server. They dictate the botnet’s actions, such as launching attacks, gathering data, or distributing malware.
  • Propagation Mechanisms: Botnets employ various methods to expand their network. This may involve exploiting vulnerabilities in software, using social engineering to trick users into downloading malware, or self-propagation, where bots search for and infect other vulnerable devices.
  • Communication Protocols: To maintain control over the botnet, attackers establish communication channels between the C&C server and infected devices. These channels can be encrypted or hidden within seemingly legitimate traffic to evade detection.
  • Attack Capabilities: Botnets can be tailored for specific purposes. Some are designed for DDoS attacks, overwhelming target websites with traffic. Others focus on spamming, data theft, distributing malware, or even cryptocurrency mining.
  • Evasion Techniques: Botnet operators employ techniques to evade detection, such as using fast-flux DNS to constantly change IP addresses or employing polymorphic malware that changes its code to avoid signature-based detection.
  • Lifecycle Management: Botnets have lifecycles that involve recruitment (infection of new devices), exploitation (utilising compromised devices for attacks), maintenance (updating malware and C&C servers), and eventual dismantling or replacement.

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Common Forms of A Botnet Attack

A botnet attack can be of several forms. They exploit the collective power of infected devices. Some of them include:-

Phishing attacks

Phishing attacks is a common botnet attack example and entails sending fraudulent emails online that appear to be from reliable sources like banks, government agencies or social media platforms. Botnets are often employed to distribute these phishing emails on a massive scale. 

Recipients are deceived into clicking on malicious links or downloading attachments that contain malware. Once clicked, the malware can steal sensitive information like login credentials, credit card numbers, or personal data. Phishing attacks can lead to identity theft, financial loss, and unauthorised access to various accounts.

Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks

A DDoS attack is a prime Botnet attack example. It is used to flood a target website or server with overwhelming traffic. The sheer volume of requests makes the target system unable to respond to legitimate users, causing service disruptions. 

DDoS attacks can impact businesses by rendering their websites inaccessible, leading to revenue losses and damaging their reputation. Botnets magnify the impact of DDoS attacks, enabling attackers to commandeer thousands or even millions of devices to participate in the assault.

Brute force attacks

Botnets are employed to launch brute force attacks, where they systematically attempt various combinations of usernames and passwords to gain unauthorised access to online accounts, servers, or other systems. These attacks exploit weak or commonly used passwords.

Once a botnet gains access, attackers can steal data, install malware, or use the compromised account to launch further attacks. Brute force attacks highlight the importance of using strong, unique passwords and implementing account lockout and monitoring mechanisms.


Spambots fall under the most common botnet attack example. They significantly contribute to the overwhelming volume of spam emails that inundate inboxes. Botnets are responsible for distributing these spam messages, which can contain malicious attachments, phishing links, or fraudulent offers. 

Spambots not only clog email systems and annoy users but can also be used to spread malware or gather sensitive information from unsuspecting recipients. Effective spam filters and user education are crucial to mitigating the impact of spambot-driven campaigns.

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Preventing a Botnet Attack

After learning about what is a botnet, you need to take the next step – preventing a botnet attack. Tackling this form of malware requires a combination of proactive cybersecurity measures and user education. By adopting these preventive measures, organisations can significantly reduce the risk of botnet attacks and strengthen their overall cybersecurity posture. Here’s a comprehensive approach to safeguarding against botnet attacks:

  • Use Strong Authentication: Implement strong, unique passwords for all accounts and systems. Consider using multi-factor authentication (MFA) whenever possible to add an extra layer of security.
  • Regular Software Updates: Keep all operating systems, software, and applications updated with the latest security patches to address known vulnerabilities that botnets may exploit.
  • Install and Update Antivirus/Anti-Malware Software: Use reputable security software to detect and remove malware from your devices. Keep it updated to ensure protection against the latest threats.
  • Firewalls and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS): Deploy firewalls and IDS solutions to monitor network traffic, block suspicious activities, and detect potential botnet communication.
  • Email Filtering and Security: Utilise robust email filtering to identify and block phishing emails and spam messages, often used to distribute botnet malware.
  • User Education: Train employees and users to recognise phishing attempts, suspicious attachments, and links. Educate them about safe online practices and the importance of not clicking on unknown or unsolicited links.
  • Network Segmentation: Separate your network into segments to contain potential breaches and limit lateral movement for attackers who might gain access through a botnet.
  • Disable Unnecessary Services: Disable or uninstall unnecessary services and applications on your devices to reduce potential attack surfaces.
  • Monitor Network Traffic: Regularly monitor network traffic for unusual patterns or spikes that could indicate a botnet attack. Intrusion detection and prevention systems can assist in this regard.
  • Behavioural Analysis: Use behavioural analysis tools to identify abnormal behaviour from devices and users, which could indicate botnet activity.
  • Regular Backups: Perform regular backups of critical data and systems to ensure data recovery in case of a successful attack.
  • Secure IoT Devices: Ensure proper security measures for Internet of Things (IoT) devices by changing default passwords, keeping firmware updated, and segmenting them from critical systems.
  • Blocking Known Malicious IP Addresses: Utilise threat intelligence feeds and tools to block connections from known malicious IP addresses associated with botnets.
  • Participate in Security Collaborations: Collaborate with industry groups, cybersecurity organisations, and law enforcement agencies to share threat intelligence and stay updated on emerging botnet threats.
  • Incident Response Plan: Develop a comprehensive incident response plan that outlines steps to take in case of a botnet attack, including isolating compromised devices and restoring systems from backups.

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The threat posed by botnet attacks is a grave concern that demands our unwavering attention and proactive measures. Botnets represent a formidable weapon for cybercriminals, capable of executing large-scale and devastating attacks on individuals, businesses, and critical infrastructure. 

The evolution of botnet techniques and their increasing sophistication underscore the urgency of adopting robust cybersecurity strategies. By remaining vigilant, keeping our systems updated, employing strong authentication practices, and embracing emerging technologies like AI-driven threat detection, we can mitigate the risks posed by botnets and safeguard the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of our online ecosystems.


Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1How harmful is a botnet attack?

The collective power of a botnet attack can be used to launch various types of attacks, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), spreading malware, stealing sensitive information, and engaging in illegal activities.

2What is botnet malware on mobile?

Botnet malware on mobile devices refers to malicious software that infects smartphones or tablets, turning them into part of a larger network controlled by cybercriminals. These infected devices, known as bots, can carry out coordinated attacks, spread malware, steal personal information, send spam messages, or perform illicit activities without the user's knowledge or consent.

3Is it hard to remove Botnet?

Removing a botnet can be challenging due to its ability to hide within a device's system files and processes. Seeking help from cybersecurity professionals is often recommended to ensure thorough removal and prevent potential re-infection.

4What is a good Botnet attack example?

A prevalent botnet attack example is the Mirai botnet, which infected thousands of IoT devices and used them to launch massive Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks on various online services.

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