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A Guide to Supply Chain Management in eCommerce

Last updated:
27th Jun, 2023
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A Guide to Supply Chain Management in eCommerce

What is eCommerce Supply Chain Management?

Supply Chain Management in eCommerce refers to managing and coordinating activities in online retail operations’ flow of products, information, and services. It encompasses sourcing, inventory management, order processing, warehousing, fulfillment, and logistics.

In eCommerce, supply chain management begins with sourcing products or identifying manufacturers and suppliers. It then focuses on maintaining optimal inventory levels to meet customer demand while minimizing costs. Order processing involves verifying orders, payment, and preparing them for shipment.

Warehousing and fulfillment involve storing products in strategically located facilities and efficiently picking, packing, and shipping them to customers. Logistics and transportation ensure the smooth movement of goods, selecting the right shipping methods and optimizing delivery routes.

Efficient eCommerce supply chain management is crucial for meeting customer expectations of fast and accurate deliveries, reducing costs, and maximizing profitability. It requires effective coordination, integration of technology, data analysis, and strong relationships with suppliers and logistics partners. E-commerce businesses can enhance customer satisfaction, improve operational efficiency, and gain a competitive edge in the online marketplace by optimizing the supply chain.

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What is the Role of eCommerce Supply Chain Management?

The role of eCommerce Supply Chain Management is crucial for the success of an online retail business. Here are the key roles it plays:

  • Ensure Stock Availability: Effective supply chain management ensures that the right amount of stock is available to meet customer demand. By accurately forecasting demand, monitoring inventory levels, and collaborating with suppliers, eCommerce businesses can avoid stockouts and ensure products are readily available for purchase.
  • Maintain a Shipping Strategy: Supply chain management helps establish and maintain a well-defined shipping strategy. This includes selecting appropriate shipping methods and carriers and optimizing shipping costs. It involves determining shipping rates, packaging requirements, and tracking mechanisms to ensure timely and cost-effective delivery of orders.
  • Set Delivery Targets: eCommerce supply chain management sets delivery targets and strives to meet them. By analyzing historical data, market trends, and customer expectations, businesses can set realistic delivery timeframes. Meeting or exceeding delivery targets enhances customer satisfaction and helps build trust and loyalty.
  • Adapt to Market Trends: Supply chain management enables businesses to adapt to changing market trends and customer demands. By closely monitoring market dynamics, consumer preferences, and emerging trends, eCommerce companies can adjust their sourcing strategies, inventory levels, and fulfillment processes to stay competitive and meet evolving customer expectations.
  • Maximize Order Fulfillment: Supply chain management aims to maximize order fulfillment efficiency. This involves streamlining warehouse operations, optimizing order picking and packing processes, and minimizing errors. By improving order fulfillment speed and accuracy, businesses can enhance customer satisfaction and drive repeat purchases.

How Does eCommerce Supply Chain Management Work?

eCommerce Supply Chain Management involves several interconnected processes that work together to ensure the smooth flow of products from suppliers to customers. Here’s an overview of how it works:

  • Inventory Management: It starts with accurately managing and forecasting inventory levels. This involves monitoring stock levels, tracking sales data, and analyzing historical trends to determine the right quantity of products to stock. Inventory management systems help automate these processes, ensuring products are available to fulfill customer orders without excessive stockouts or overstocking.
  • Warehousing and Distribution: Products are stored in strategically located warehouses or fulfillment centers. These facilities are designed to efficiently receive, store, and organize inventory. Warehouse management systems help track inventory, optimize storage space, and facilitate order fulfillment. When a customer places an order, the system directs warehouse personnel to pick up and pack the products for shipment.
  • Processing Order Information: Once a customer places an order, the eCommerce supply chain management system processes the order information. This involves verifying payment details, checking product availability, and validating customer data. The order processing system may also handle functions like fraud detection, address verification, and order prioritization based on service level agreements (SLAs).
  • Transportation of Orders: After order processing, the eCommerce supply chain management system arranges for the transportation of the orders. This can involve selecting appropriate carriers, determining shipping methods (such as ground, air, or express), and generating shipping labels. The system may also provide real-time tracking information to customers, allowing them to monitor the progress of their orders.
  • Successfully Delivering Orders: The final step in eCommerce supply chain management is the successful delivery of orders to customers. This includes coordinating with carriers, managing logistics, and optimizing delivery routes. Timely and accurate delivery is crucial for customer satisfaction and retention. Returns management is also an integral part of this process, ensuring efficient handling of product returns and refunds.

Throughout these processes, eCommerce supply chain management relies on technology systems, data analysis, and integration between various stakeholders, including suppliers, warehouses, carriers, and customers. The aim is to streamline operations, minimize costs, and provide a seamless shopping experience for customers.

Top Supply Chain Management Tools Used in the eCommerce Industry

In the eCommerce industry, several supply chain management tools and services are used to facilitate efficient operations and optimize the flow of goods. Here are some of the top tools commonly used:

  • Supplier/Vendor Management Platforms: These platforms help eCommerce businesses manage their relationships with suppliers and vendors. They enable communication, collaboration, and coordination of activities such as product sourcing, procurement, and inventory management. Examples include, SAP Ariba, and TradeGecko.
  • Shipping Companies: eCommerce businesses rely on shipping companies to transport their products from warehouses or fulfillment centers to customers’ locations. Shipping companies provide shipping options, tracking services, and delivery management solutions. Prominent players in this space include UPS, FedEx, DHL, and USPS.
  • Third-Party Logistics (3PL) Services Providers: 3PL providers offer a range of logistics and supply chain services to eCommerce businesses. They can handle warehousing, order fulfillment, inventory management, and shipping on behalf of the eCommerce company. Popular 3PL providers include Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA), ShipBob, Rakuten Super Logistics, and ShipStation.
  • Shipping Aggregators: Shipping aggregators consolidate shipping services from multiple carriers into a single platform, simplifying the process of comparing rates, selecting the best carrier, and generating shipping labels. These tools streamline shipping operations and offer cost-saving opportunities. Examples include ShipStation, Shippo, Easyship, and ShipBob.

Additionally, various software platforms and systems are used for SCM in eCommerce, including Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software, Warehouse Management Systems (WMS), and Transportation Management Systems (TMS). These tools help automate and integrate processes, manage inventory, optimize logistics, and provide real-time visibility into the supply chain.

E-commerce Supply Chain Management Software 

There are several eCommerce supply chain management software solutions available, including SAP S/4HANA, Oracle NetSuite, Microsoft Dynamics 365 Supply Chain Management, JDA (Blue Yonder), Fishbowl, ShipStation, and TradeGecko. These software platforms offer features for inventory management, order processing, demand planning, warehouse management, and transportation management. They help eCommerce businesses streamline operations, optimize inventory levels, improve order fulfillment, and enhance overall supply chain efficiency. The choice of software depends on factors such as the business’s specific needs, scalability requirements, integration capabilities, and budget constraints. Evaluating features, scalability, user-friendliness, and customer support is crucial when selecting the appropriate software solution.

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What are the Key Benefits of eCommerce Supply Chain Management?

eCommerce Supply Chain Management offers several key benefits to businesses in the online retail industry. Here are some of the major advantages:

  • Better Customer Experience: Timely order fulfillment, precise inventory availability, and dependable delivery are all made possible by effective supply chain management. As a result, there is a rise in consumer happiness, loyalty, and favorable brand perception.
  • Greater Visibility: Supply chain management systems provide real-time visibility into inventory levels, order statuses, and shipment tracking. This visibility allows businesses to make informed decisions, address potential bottlenecks, and proactively manage customer expectations.
  • Automated Shipping Functions: Supply chain management software automates shipping functions such as carrier selection, rate comparison, label generation, and tracking updates. Automation streamlines processes, reduces errors, and saves time, enabling businesses to handle larger order volumes efficiently.
  • Improved Delivery Mechanisms: Effective supply chain management enables businesses to optimize their delivery mechanisms. This includes selecting the most cost-effective shipping methods, negotiating favorable rates with carriers, and implementing efficient logistics strategies to ensure on-time deliveries.
  • Maintain Flexibility and Growth: eCommerce supply chain management allows businesses to adapt to changing market conditions, customer demands, and industry trends. It provides the flexibility to scale operations, adjust inventory levels, and expand into new markets while maintaining operational efficiency.


The success of online retail businesses is heavily dependent on the eCommerce supply chain management process. Businesses may obtain several important advantages by controlling the flow of products, information, and services properly. These include improving delivery mechanisms to ensure on-time deliveries, providing a better customer experience through prompt order fulfillment and dependable delivery, gaining greater visibility into inventory and order statuses, automating shipping functions to save time and reduce errors, and maintaining flexibility and growth in a dynamic marketplace. Businesses may optimize their operations, improve customer happiness, lower costs, and gain a competitive advantage in the eCommerce market with the correct supply chain management strategies and technologies in place.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What is the role of inventory management in eCommerce supply chain management?

Inventory management in eCommerce ensures the availability of products, minimizes stockouts, and optimizes inventory levels for efficient order fulfillment.

2How does eCommerce supply chain management improve customer satisfaction?

By streamlining processes, ensuring timely deliveries, and providing accurate order tracking, eCommerce supply chain management enhances the overall customer experience.

3What are the challenges faced in eCommerce supply chain management?

Challenges include inventory forecasting, managing multiple suppliers, handling returns, optimizing warehouse space, and coordinating logistics for efficient delivery.

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