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What is Computer Security? Definition, Types, Threats

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23rd Jun, 2023
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What is Computer Security? Definition, Types, Threats

Introduction: What Is Computer Security?

In this digital age, where technology reigns supreme, protecting computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorised access, malicious activities, and unforeseen threats has become imperative for individuals and organisations.

The computer security definition encompasses a variety of challenges and complexities, addressing a range of problems with far-reaching consequences. It combats relentless assault hacker assaults seeking to breach defences and exploit vulnerabilities within computer systems. 

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The Importance of Computer Security

Computer security is of paramount importance in today’s interconnected world. Here are some key reasons why:

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  • Protecting confidential information: It prevents unauthorised access and theft of personal data, financial records, and sensitive information, reducing the risk of identity theft and cybercrime.
  • Preserving privacy: It ensures that personal data remains private and prevents unauthorised surveillance or data collection.
  • Business continuity: Robust security measures prevent disruptions, financial losses, and damage to reputation, enabling uninterrupted operations.
  • Defence against cyber threats: Security measures like antivirus software and strong authentication mechanisms help defend against viruses, malware, hacking attempts, and other cyber threats.
  • Safeguarding critical infrastructure: Computer security protects essential systems, such as power grids and healthcare networks, from cyber-attacks that could endanger public safety.
  • Regulatory compliance: Compliance with data protection and cybersecurity regulations is essential to avoid legal consequences and uphold customer trust.

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Types of Computer Security

The following types of computer security work together to create a comprehensive approach to safeguard computer systems:-

  • Network Security

Network security focuses on providing the best internet security and protecting computer networks and their infrastructure from unauthorised access, attacks, and data breaches. It involves implementing a firewall in computer networks, intrusion detection systems, encryption, and secure network protocols to protect network communications and prevent unauthorised access to network resources.

  • Operating System Security

Operating system security involves protecting the operating system of a computer or device from vulnerabilities, exploits, and unauthorised access. It includes using a trusted platform module (TPM), implementing security patches and updates, configuring user access controls and permissions, using strong authentication mechanisms, and ensuring secure system configurations.

  • Application Security

Application security protects software applications from vulnerabilities, exploits, and malicious attacks. It involves secure coding practices during the development phase, regular security testing and auditing, implementing access controls and input validation, and addressing common vulnerabilities such as cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection.

  • Data Security

Data security protects sensitive and valuable data from unauthorised access, disclosure, alteration, and destruction. It includes encryption, access controls, data classification, data backup and recovery procedures, and data loss prevention techniques to ensure data confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

  • Physical Security

Physical security protects computer systems, equipment, and facilities from physical threats, theft, and unauthorised access. It includes securing server rooms and data centres with locks and access controls, employing video surveillance and alarm systems, implementing secure disposal procedures, and controlling physical access to critical infrastructure.

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Threats to Computer Security

Common computer Security threats include:


Malicious software, or malware, encompasses viruses, worms, trojans, ransomware, and other destructive programs. These harmful programs can infiltrate computer systems, compromise data integrity, and disrupt regular operations.


Phishing refers to deceitful endeavours to deceive individuals into divulging sensitive information, such as passwords, credit card details, or personal data. This is achieved by impersonating reliable entities through emails, websites, or messages to gain the target’s trust.

Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks aim to inundate a computer system, network, or website with overwhelming traffic or resource demands. This flood of activity is intended to make the target inaccessible to real users and disrupt the provided services.

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

In this attack, an assailant intervenes the communication between two parties, possibly modifying it, usually without their knowledge. This unauthorised interference enables the attacker to secretly listen to conversations, steal sensitive information, or manipulate transmitted data.

Social Engineering

Social engineering involves manipulating individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions compromising security. Attackers often exploit trust, curiosity, or emotions to deceive people into providing access to sensitive information.

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Cybersecurity Measures

Implementing cybersecurity measures helps strengthen the overall security of computer systems and networks. They combine to detect and prevent threats, control access to resources, protect sensitive data, and ensure information confidentiality, integrity, and availability. They are:

Antivirus Software

Antivirus software is designed to detect, prevent, and remove malicious software (malware) from computer systems. It scans files, programmes, and incoming data for known malware signatures or suspicious behaviour, providing real-time protection against viruses, worms, trojans, and other types of malware. 

Antivirus software helps to safeguard systems by identifying and neutralising threats before they can cause harm.


Firewalls act as a barrier between a computer network and external networks, monitoring and controlling incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. They help prevent unauthorised access to the network, block malicious activity, and protect against network-based attacks.

 Firewalls can be implemented at the network level (network firewalls) or host level (host-based firewalls) to provide an additional layer of defence against potential threats.


Encryption converts data into a coded form that can only be accessed or deciphered with a decryption key. It ensures the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive information by making it unreadable to unauthorised parties. 

Encryption can be applied to various aspects, such as data at rest (stored data), data in transit (during transmission over networks), and data in use (while being processed). It is vital in protecting data from unauthorised access or interception.

Password Policies

Password policies establish guidelines and requirements for creating and managing passwords to enhance security. These policies typically include criteria such as minimum length, complexity, and password expiration periods. 

By enforcing strong passwords, regularly changing them, and prohibiting common or easily guessable passwords, password policies help mitigate the risk of unauthorised access to systems or accounts. 

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User Education and Training

User education and training are crucial for ensuring computer security in organisations. They raise awareness about potential threats, such as data breaches and financial loss, and help individuals understand the consequences of cyberattacks. 

Training programmes provide knowledge about best practices, like creating strong passwords and avoiding suspicious emails, reducing the likelihood of falling victim to common security threats. Users are also educated on identifying phishing attempts and social engineering tactics to protect personal and organisational information. 

Safe internet and social media practices are emphasised, including privacy settings and the risks of sharing personal information online. Incident reporting is taught, enabling prompt response and containment measures in case of a security breach. 

User education also ensures compliance with regulatory requirements, educating employees on data protection laws and confidentiality obligations. 

Emerging Trends in Computer Security

Several emerging trends are shaping the field of computer security and influencing how organisations protect their systems digitally. Three prominent trends include artificial intelligence (AI) in security, Internet of Things (IoT) security, and cloud security.

AI in security

Artificial Intelligence is revolutionising the field of computer security. AI technologies like machine learning and deep learning are applied to various security tasks, including threat detection, analysis, and response. 

AI-powered security solutions can help automate security processes, detect sophisticated attacks, and provide real-time insights for proactive threat mitigation.

Internet of Things (IoT) Security

IoT refers to the network of interconnected devices and objects that can collect, exchange, and process data. IoT security focuses on protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of IoT devices, data, and communications. 

The unique challenges in IoT security include managing diverse devices simultaneously, ensuring secure device provisioning, implementing robust authentication and access controls, and addressing potential vulnerabilities in IoT ecosystems.

Cloud Security

Cloud computing has transformed how organisations store, process, and access data and applications. Cloud security protects cloud-based resources, including data, infrastructure, and services. 

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As businesses increasingly rely on cloud services, ensuring the security of sensitive information stored in the cloud becomes paramount. Cloud security involves implementing strong access controls, encryption, data segregation, threat monitoring, and compliance with security standards. 

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All types of computer security catalyse organisational resilience, empowering businesses to operate confidently in an ever-evolving digital landscape. By diligently integrating a failsafe computer security system, conducting regular risk assessments, and fostering a culture of awareness and preparedness, organisations can navigate the complexities of the digital world calmly and with poise. 

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Frequently Asked Questions


Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1What are some computer security threats and their types?

Computer security threats include malware (viruses, worms, trojans), phishing attacks, ransomware, data breaches, and hacking attempts.

2How many types of computer security are there?

Computer security can be categorised into different types, including network security, application security, data security, and physical security.

3What 4 elements encompass computer security?

The four elements encompassing computer security are confidentiality, integrity, availability, and authenticity.