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C# Tutorial: Learn Step-by-Step Guide

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31st Aug, 2022
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C# Tutorial: Learn Step-by-Step Guide

C# basics: Introduction

C# (C-Sharp) is a programming language developed by Anders Hejlsberg in Microsoft. It was introduced with .NET Framework and Visual Studioand. It is an object-oriented multi-paradigm programming language and is declarative and component-oriented, thus being very effective in developing software components. 

C# is used extensively for working with deployment in distributed environments, and the language was released alongside the .NET framework. It is an excellent language for people who have priorly used languages such as C++ and C. 

C# is designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) that includes the executable code and runtime environment to facilitate the usage of high-level languages across multiple computer platforms and architectures.

Importance Of C# And Why It Is So Widely Used

C# is quite commonly used as a professional language in many sectors. The following reasons are why this language is so widely used:-

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  • It is a general-purpose modern programming language
  • It is component-oriented
  • It is object-oriented
  • It is a structured programming language.
  • It can easily make efficient programs.
  • It is easy to master
  • It can be compiled on numerous computer platforms.
  • It belongs to the  .Net Framework.

Important Features of C# 

Below is a list of some of the most important and prominent features of the C# programming language that makes it one of the most flexible languages used by developers:-

  • Boolean Conditions
  • Standard Library
  • Automatic Garbage Collection
  • Properties and Events
  • Assembly Versioning
  • Easy-to-use Generics
  • Indexers
  • Delegates and Events Management
  • Simple Multithreading
  • Conditional Compilation
  • Integration with Windows
  • LINQ and Lambda Expressions

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Understanding The .Net Framework

The .Net framework is a platform developed by Microsoft that has revolutionized the world of programming. It helps write various types of applications such as Windows applications, web applications, and web services. The .Net framework applications are multi-platform and have been designed for the use of multiple programming languages like C#, C++,  Jscript, Visual Basic, COBOL, etc. The .Net framework consists of an enormous library of codes used by client languages such as C#. 

IDE or Integrated Development Environment for C#

For C# programming, Microsoft has provided the following development tools:−

  • Visual Studio 2010 (VS)
  • Visual Web Developer
  • Visual C# 2010 Express (VCE)

Visual C# 2010 Express and Visual Web Developer are available for free from Microsoft’s official website. All kinds of C# programs can be written with these programming tools, be it simple or complex. C# source code files can also be written using basic text editors like Notepad, which can be further compiled into assemblies with the help of the command-line compiler that also belongs to the .NET Framework.

Writing C# Programs on Linux or Mac OS

The .NET Framework primarily runs on the operating system of Windows. However, there are a few alternative options for different operating systems. One good example of an open-source version of the .NET Framework is Mono. Mono has a C# compiler and can be used on numerous operating systems, like Linux and Mac OS. Mono is quite helpful and widely popular because not only can it run on the cross-platform of Microsoft .NET applications, but it also provides efficient development tools for developers working on Linux. Mono can also run on Android, iOS, BSD, Linux, Windows, Solaris, OS X, and UNIX.

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Creating A Program with C#

Learning a C# program can be pretty easy if you have prior knowledge about developing and programming. For beginners, you will need to know the essential components required before C# programming. C# programming has the following components:

  • Namespace declaration
  • class
  • Class methods
  • Class attributes
  • Main method
  • Expressions and Statements 
  • Comments

Down below is a simple code that prints the words “ Good Morning” −

using System;

namespace GoodMorningApplication {

   class GoodMorning {

   static void Main(string[] args) {

      /* my first program in C# */

      Console.WriteLine(“Hello World”);

      Console.ReadKey();

   }

   }

}

After the compilation and execution of the code, you will get the following result:−

Good Morning

Let us look at the different parts of the above program:-

  • As per the first line of the program that uses System; In this case, the using keyword is used to add the System namespace into the program. Usually, programs have multiple using statements. 
  • The next line comprises the namespace declaration, which is a collection of classes. The GoodMorningApplication namespace consists of the class GoodMorning. 
  • The following line comprises a class declaration. The class GoodMorning has the data and method definitions used by the program. Classes usually have numerous methods that define the behavior of the class. However, the GoodMorning class only has one method, Main.
  • In the following line, the Main method is defined. This is the point of entry for all C# programs. The Main method states the purpose of the class after execution.
  • The compiler ignores the following line /*…*/ and adds comments in the program. The Main method defines its behavior with the statement Console.WriteLine(“GoodMorning”);
  • The Console class has a method called WriteLine that is defined in the System namespace. This statement results in the message “GoodMorning!” being displayed on the screen.
  • The VS.NET Users use the last line Console.ReadKey();. This enables the program to wait for the user to press a key. This helps prevent the screen from running and closing during the launch of a program from Visual Studio .NET.
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As a beginner level C# programmer, it is vital to keep the following points in mind:−

  • C# is case-sensitive.
  • All statements and expressions need to end with a semicolon (;).
  • Execution of a program starts at the Main method.
  • The program filename can be different from the class name, unlike JAVA..

Compiling and Executing the Program With C# 

Visual Studio.Net is a great option for compiling and executing programs with C#. Here are the following steps to run a program with Visual Studio.Net:-

  • Start Visual Studio.
  • Choose File -> New -> Project from the menu bar.
  • Go to Templates, choose Visual C#, and click on Windows.
  • Click on Console Application.
  • Name your project and click OK. A new project is created in Solution Explorer.
  • Start writing your code in the Code Editor.
  • Click the Run button or hit the F5 key to execute it. A Command Prompt window will appear with the message Good Morning.

C# program can also be compiled and executed using the command-line instead of the Visual Studio IDE. Down below are the following steps:−

  • Open a text editor and write the code mentioned above.
  • Save the file as goodmorning.cs.
  • Click on the command prompt tool. Next, go to the directory where the file is saved..
  • Type csc goodmorning.cs and click enter to compile the code. If the code has no errors, the command prompt will take you to the following line and generate a goodmorning..exe executable file.
  • Type goodmorning to execute the program.
  • The output, Good Morning, will appear on the screen.

Conclusion

C# is one of the most flexible object-oriented programming languages. It is used for software and web development since it can function alongside the .NET framework. It can also run any kind of .NET program. This language is highly used for developing web games and desktop software. Therefore, the prospects of upskilling yourself with the knowledge of C# is quite lucrative. Like its predecessor C++ and C, C# is also one of the most popularly used, making it an in-demand skill in the job market. upGrad’s Executive PG Program in Software Development specializes in providing students wholesome software development training that includes teaching C# basics.

Profile

Pavan Vadapalli

Blog Author
Director of Engineering @ upGrad. Motivated to leverage technology to solve problems. Seasoned leader for startups and fast moving orgs. Working on solving problems of scale and long term technology strategy.
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