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    SQL Course Overview

    What is SQL?

    SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language for accessing and manipulating available data. SQL is a programming language that programmers utilize to supervise and manage raw data. When one says that SQL is a programming language, it doesn’t hold resemblances to other types of programming languages such as C, C++, Java, etc. 

    While Java, C++, and Python are used for developing websites, applications, etc., SQL is utilized to store, fetch, organize, and manipulate data according to the user's requirement. While Java and C++ are third-generation languages, SQL is established as a fourth-generation language.

    Features of SQL

    Approved by the International Standard Organization and American National Standard Institute, SQL aims to provide the following features:
    Features of SQL

    1. DDL - Data Definition Language:

    SQL provides many commands, one of which is DDL. Also referred to as the Data Description Language, it includes the commands used to define the data. This particular command contains within itself five more commands:

    i) Create Command: It is used if the programmer wants to create a table.

    Syntax: Create table table_name

              {

                Column_1 datatype;

                Column_2 datatype;

               

                Column_n datatype;

              };

    ii)   Drop Command: If the programmer wants to delete the table inclusive of the contents of the table, then this command is used

    Syntax: droptable table_name;

    iii) Alter Command: If a programmer wants to alter the table's contents, such as adding or deleting the columns or rows, this command is used.

    Syntax: altertable table_name

               {

                 Add new_column_1 datatype;

                 Add new_column_2 datatype;

               }

    iv) Rename Command: When the programmer wants to change or alter the table's name, this command is used.

    Syntax: renametable old table_name;

    To new_table_name;

    v) Truncate: When the programmer wants to delete the table contents without affecting the table structure, this command is used.

    Syntax: Truncate table table_name;

    2. DML – Data Manipulation Language:

    After receiving raw data, the data must be supervised and manipulated into tables with proper structure. This is done by DML. The following commands are used to manipulate the data:

    i) Insert Command: When the programmers want to insert a set of values into the table's structure, this command is used.

    Syntax: Insert into table_name(column_1_name, column_2_name,…) values(value_1, value_2..)

    ii) Select Command: When the programmer wants to select a piece of information from the structure of the table, then this command is utilized. It is one of the essential commands in SQL. However, there are many formats depending on the requirement type. Everyone should note that while using this command, the table contents must be full and not empty.

    The syntax for displaying the information in the table:

    Select * table_name;

    iii) Update Command: When the programmer wants to update some information into an existing table, then this command is used

    Syntax: Update table_name set;

    Column_name1=value1, Column2_name1=value2;

      . . . . .

      Where condition();

    iv) Delete Command: This command is used when the programmer wants to delete any content from the table or data from the table.

    Syntax: Delete from table_name where condition;

    3. Efficient Performance: As the data is being generated in a large number, manipulated using simple commands of Data Manipulation Language and Data Description Language, easy operations can be performed on them. Using SQL, queried data return vast sets of data very quickly. In most successful organizations, the people work on making optimal query plans for efficient and quick data manipulations.

    4. Client-Server Interaction: The recent trend of client-server technology permits building relationships with many clients on one server. SQL offers commands that allow the client to access the database over a network using a simple application.

    5. Authentication and Security: SQL approves authentication to users using credentials like usernames and passwords. It also assures that the required data is shown to the user while the original and authorized data is stored in a database management system.

    What is SQL Used For? (Applications)

    Various studies are going on to work with data and determine their insights and knowledge. SQL queries are a hot topic in Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Learning. Companies are paying a large amount to data science engineers and analysts to infer information from the data. Their role is to assure the company of their assets and enable the data the organizations require if the need arises. However, the common uses of SQL are as follows:

    • Banking Systems, and stores, i.e., the finance industry, require SQL to back them up for data operation to carry out smooth transactions. However, extra security measures are necessary for banking systems as hacking is a security threat. This requires advanced SQL developers with experience in ethical hacking added with a hint of SQL language knowledge.

    • Applications and Websites require SQL as there are databases that require the expertise of management. SQL developers usually perform operations on data to understand the users' needs of the applications and websites and what they are looking for.

    • Digital marketing requires SQL. It involves data processing. Even Social Media Platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter require the users to fill in their basic details such as name, email, profession, location, etc. SQL performs all these operations.

    • Analyzes a huge amount of data to draw necessary insights to support business objectives.

    • Optimizes and supervises databases.

    • Ensures the storage, organization, and easy retrieval of data.

    • Maybe involved directly or indirectly in managing the databases.

    • Examines raw data to find errors and bugs in the software by performing operations like inserting queries in SQL and reporting the observations and changes

    Why do you Need to Learn SQL?

    People interested in knowing how the applications work at their fingertips require a basic understanding of SQL. Learning SQL will only hone your skills as a developer and provide you with a knowledge of applications and their backend frame.

    One can view in SQL many commands that can be utilized to build an application. It will help you manage the data and get noticed by large organizations that will expand your career. Apart from the basic understanding of SQL, one must realize that there is no requirement of writing thousands of lines of code or knowledge. It is easy to learn.

    Who Uses SQL?

    Apart from the Data Scientist interested in Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, etc., the following are the ones who use SQL:

    • Data Analysts: Analyze a vast amount of data to draw necessary insights to support business objectives.

    • Database Engineers: Strategize, generates, and supervise databases.

    • Database Administrator: Ensures the storage, organization, and easy retrieval of data.

    • Software Engineers: They May be involved directly or indirectly in managing the databases.

    • QA Testers or Engineers: Examines raw data to find errors and bugs in the software by performing operations like inserting queries in SQL and reporting the observations and changes.who uses SQL

    How to Use SQL?

    Stored in the relational database is the data procured and managed using SQL. Thus, SQL has become the common language in managing and performing operations on the data. Usually, data analysis is done on another platform such as Python, Java, etc. But to analyze the data, fetch the data, and organize the data to perform the complete streamlining is mainly done by SQL.

    Numerous platforms represent various frameworks and versions of SQL. The most commonly used across the globe is MySQL. MySQL happens to be one of the open-source platforms that help facilitate the role of SQL in managing and supervising the backend data to develop a wide variety of web applications. SQL performs Back-end Data Processing, Data Analyzing, and data storage. This is why huge companies such as Instagram, Facebook, and WhatsApp use SQL as their primary tool. No SQL tools require extensive coding.

    Query Optimizer is the term referred to as the processing of an SQL query written and executed. When the query is executed, it reaches the SQL Server. Once it reaches the SQL server, it performs the following functions:

    • Parsing: The process of checking the syntax after writing an SQL query

    • Binding: The process of reviewing the semantics of a query

    • Optimization: The process of generating the plan of query execution

    The optimization process performs many permutations and combinations that generate the query execution plan in real-time. When a query takes a shorter time, the better the query is. Thus SQL can be used with a basic understanding and knowledge of databases, tables, and procedures.

    Where to Use SQL?

    SQL is used in applications where the framework can be created only by SQL. This brings us to the subject of what can SQL do, and the following is the list:

    • Against a database, SQL can execute queries

    • SQL can alter records into a database or table using SQL commands

    • SQL can insert records into a database or table using SQL commands

    • SQL can delete records from a database or table using SQL commands

    • SQL can update records in a database or table using SQL commands

    • SQL can retrieve or fetch the data from the database

    • SQL can create new databases and tables as per the structure

    • SQL can create procedures to store and view databases

    • SQL can establish permissions for viewing tables and procedures.

    When is the Right Time to Start Learning SQL?

    If a person is already working with relational databases, it is a fundamental need. However, there is no right time to learn SQL. But when planning a career in data science, artificial intelligence, or machine learning, where working and managing the raw data is the leading role, SQL is a basic essential. 

    As SQL is a scripted language, it is easier to learn than other programming languages such as C, C++, Python, and Java. This means that anyone can gain mastery over the art of SQL within a few weeks, given constant dedication, practice, and learning.

    Is SQL Easy to Learn?

    As discussed before, SQL is a very easy language to learn. But depending on the designation, it gets harder with higher roles and responsibilities. The estimated time to learn SQL is two to three weeks. SQL is a programming language with comprehensible syntax, queries, data formats, commands, and concepts of tables. Once a person is familiar with the syntax, queries, and commands, anyone can earn SQL understanding. SQL by upGrad is an online certification that aims to provide a complete knowledge of SQL.

    What can You do with SQL?

    What can you do with SQLBesides organizing, managing, and storing vast amounts of data, using SQL and its server, you can do the following things:

    • Convert Raw information into significant viewpoints and understanding of the goals.

    • Processing large volumes of data on disk or hard drive.

    • Perform complex analysis of the data after processing it. After analyzing the data, essential business objectives are met.

    • Once the business objectives are met, creating, arranging, and supervising valuable reports are established.

    • Using SQL, machine learning algorithms are used to train and test the data to prove the efficiency and minimize the risks.

    What are the Types of SQL Commands?

    There are mainly five topics that include various commands:

    1. DDL: Data Definition Language

    i) Create Command: If the programmer wants to create a table, this command is used.

    Syntax: Create table table_name

              {

                Column_1 datatype;

                Column_2 datatype;

               

                Column_n datatype;

              };

    ii)   Drop Command: If the programmer wants to delete the table inclusive of the contents of the table, then this command is used

    Syntax: droptable table_name;

    iii)   Alter Command: If a programmer wants to alter the contents of the table such as adding or deleting the columns or rows, this command is used.

    Syntax: altertable table_name

               {

                 Add new_column_1 datatype;

                 Add new_column_2 datatype;

               }

    iv)   Rename Command: When the programmer wants to change or alter the table's name, this command is used.

    Syntax: renametable old table_name;

               To new_table_name;

    v)     Truncate: When the programmer wants to delete the table contents without affecting the table structure, this command is used.

    Syntax: Truncate table table_name;

    2. DML: Data Manipulation Language

     i) Insert Command: When the programmers want to insert a set of values into the table's structure, this command is used.

    Syntax: Insert into table_name(column_1_name, column_2_name,…) values(value_1, value_2..)

    ii)Select Command: When the programmer wants to select a piece of information from the structure of the table, then this command is utilized. It is one of the essential commands in SQL. However, there are many formats depending on the requirement type. Everyone should note that while using this command, the table contents must be full and not empty.

    The syntax for displaying the information in the table:

    Select * table_name;

    iii)Update Command: When the programmer wants to update some information into an existing table, then this command is used

    Syntax: Update table_name set;

    Column_name1=value1, Column2_name1=value2;

     . . . . .

     Where condition;

    iv) Delete Command: This command is used when the programmer wants to delete any content from the table or data from the table.

    Syntax: Delete from table_name where condition;

    3. DCL – Data Control Language:

    When the programmer wants to grant or withdraw access or authorization from any database user, these commands are used. There are two commands:

    i) Grant Command: When a programmer wants to provide access to a database user, this command is used.

    Syntax: Grant Select, Update on my_table to user_1, user_2;

    ii) Revoke Command: This command is used whenever a programmer wants to withdraw access from the user.

    Syntax: Revoke Select, Update on my_table to user_1, user_2;

    4. TCL – Transactional Control Language:

    These are the commands that are already present in the database. This is why they are always used only with DML Commands such as Insert, delete, and update commands.

    i)   Commit Command: It saves all the transactions in the database.

    ii)   Rollback Command: This command is used to revert the transactions that are not saved in the database.

    iii) Save point Command: Without rolling back to the entire transaction, this command is used to roll back to a specific transaction only.

    5. DCL - Data Query Language:

    It is only used to retrieve the data from the databases.

    i) Select Command: This command selects the attribute depending on the condition defined by the ‘where’ clause.

    Introduction to SQL

    Here are some of the essential statements and functions of SQL.

    Select Statement

    Select Statement is used to select the data from the database. Data returned is stored in the result table called the result set.

    The syntax for displaying the information in the table:

    Select * table_name;

    Joining Tables

    The SQL join clause combines records from two or more tables in a database.

    ANSI standard SQL defines five types of joins:

    i) Inner Join: This inner join keyword is responsible for selecting the records with similar values in both the preset tables.

    Syntax: SELECT Colum_name (s)

    FROM table1
    Inner join table2

    ON table column_name = table2 column_name2

    ii) Left Join: The left join keyword returns all records from the left table(table1), and the matching records from the right table (table2). The result is the record from the right side if it does not  matches.

    Syntax: SELECT Column_name(s)

               From table1

               Left join table2

               On table column_name=table2 column_name2;

    iii) Right Join: The right join keyword returns all records from the right table(table2) and the matching records from the left table(table1). The result is a record from the left side if it does not match.

    Syntax: SELECT Column_name(s)

               From table1

               Right join table2

               On table column_name=table2 column_name2;

    iv) Full Join: This full outer join  is a keyword that returns all records only when there is a match in left (table1) or right (table2) records of the table.

    Syntax: SELECT Column_name(s)

               From table1

               Full Join join table2

               On table column_name=table2 column_name2;

    Filtering of Data: Data filtering includes the text strings used to specify the subsets in the records.

    • Where Clause: It filters records and extracts only those records that fulfill a specific condition.

    Syntax: SELECT Column1, Column2,….

              From Table_main

              WHERE condition;

    SQL comments are used to add notes to the code.

    • Logical Operators:

    And Operator: The AND operator displays a record if all the conditions are separated by AND are true.

    Or Operator: The OR operator displays a record if any of the conditions are separated by OR is true.

    NOT Operator: The NOT operator displays a record if the condition(s) is not True

    In Operator: This operator can declare many values in a WHERE Clause. it is a shorthand for multiple OR conditions.

    SQL between operator: This BETWEEN SQL operator chooses a value in a specified range. The number can be Dates or Texts. The BETWEEN operator is inclusive of starting & ending values.

    Like Operator: It is used in a WHERE clause to identify a particular pattern in a column. Two wild cards are often used with the LIKE operator.

    Creating Calculated Fields: This is used to create new data from the existing raw data. It is done by adding additional logic to the database.

    Syntax:

    CREATE TABLE t1(

    col1 int,

    col2 int,

    col3 int,

    col4 as (col1*col2*col3)/ 

    )

    insert into t1  values(1,2,3)

     select * from t1

     Summarizing Data: Based on specific criteria that have been defined previously, summary functions are used to summarize the data by a set of expressions. A summary of the data is done as it represents the review of large datasets. This permits the analysts to analyze the data very quickly and efficiently. It also makes the process quicker.

    Working with dates and times: With mathematical expressions and logic, date and time values can be manipulated in SQL. The only two prerequisites are the value that needs manipulation and a mathematical operator to manipulate.

    Advantages of SQL

    SQL AdvantagesEvery subject has its pros and cons. Same way, SQL has both advantages and disadvantages.

    The advantages of SQL are as follows:

    • Easy to learn: SQL is a language that is easy to learn as it has simple syntax, queries, and commands.

    • No coding skills required: SQL does not demand knowledge of programming languages such as Python, C, C++, Java, etc.

    • Quick Query Processing: Manipulating, organizing, and analyzing the data is done within seconds of retrieving a large volume of data using SQL

    • Highly Interactive: For people who do not understand programming well, SQL is a very interactive language to learn. It is easily understandable by all.

    • Portable: It is efficiently portable for all laptops with any operating system from Windows to Linux. It also provides the option of embedding into the applications.

    • Open-Source: As it is an open-source platform, it can be easily used by any user sitting anywhere in the world.

    Disadvantages of SQL

    SQL dis AdvantagesDisadvantages of SQL include the following:

    • Cost: Other than a few open-source platforms, such as MySQL.

    • Complex Interface: While dealing with databases, the interface of SQL might confuse the users and sometimes make it difficult.

    • Partial Control: Due to business goals and objectives, users do not have complete control of the database.

    • Security Threat: As the databases consist of highly sensitive data, they can be exposed by unethical hackers for monetary benefits.

    What are the most common relational databases in use today?

    Relational Databases refer to the storage of data in tabular form. In tabular form, the columns that store the assets and the rows in the table store a record. Here are the common relational databases used by large companies and organizations to start-ups and businesses:

    ·       MySQL: It is a popular open-source relational database. While working in embedded systems and client-server communication, it is scalable, portable, and has a quick response.

    ·       SQL Server: Developed by Microsoft, the SQL Server is a popular relational database among major companies. Some of the editions of the SQL Server are

    1. SQL Server Enterprise Edition
    2. SQL Server Developer Edition
    3. Azure SQL Database
    4. SQL Compact Edition

    ·     Oracle: Oracle is developed by Oracle Corporations. It is not only the most used relational database but also provides other features such as Graph Database Management System, Cloud Storage, Document Storage, PDF Storage, Blog, and Key-value storage.

    What is the difference between SQL and MySQL?

    As we know the fundamental concept of SQL and MySQL, let’s dive into the difference between SQL and MySQL:

    While SQL is a query programming language that manages relational databases, MySQL is a relational database that uses SQL. SQL is used to retrieve, organize and manipulate the data from the databases using SQL commands. Where MySQL is used to store the data in the databases using SQL.

    MySQL has the support of connectors as it has in-built MySQL work benches. SQL does not involve the support of connectors.

    When it comes to the security of the data, SQL is more secure than MySQL. In MySQL, anybody can modify and manipulate the data. SQL is a standard language, while MySQL is an open-source platform and is easy to use.

    Is there any software required for learning to use SQL?

    Yes, there is a need to learn the software. But you can do so while practicing SQL and its commands on the software. Many online SQL editors, such as MySQL, provide free usage and are open-source. Anybody can practice on it. However, downloading software and learning about it can be helpful as you will understand downloading the software, installing the packages, and setting up the incentives.

    Where can I download MySQL for free?

    MySQL can be downloaded for free as a standalone installer. There are different links for installing MySQL on different operating systems.Click here to install MySQL for free.

    Why is an online SQL Course better than an Offline SQL Course?

    SQL courses are better than offline SQL courses because of the resources and flexibility. The students can access the course materials and resources whenever it is required. They can learn at their own convenient pace, which removes the additional pressure. It also allows the students to choose from different courses depending on their interests. 

    You can learning SQL on online platforms that do not require students to be physically present in the class. As the material for learning SQL is present online, it becomes easier for the students to access it at any time. Also, if you pursue online courses from top online institutes like upGrad, you get valuable certifications to enhance your resume.

    SQL Course Syllabus

    The syllabus covers the following:

    • Introduction to Basics of SQL

    • Introduction of DBMS

    • Installation of Data Engine

    • Syntax of SQL

    • Data types in SQL

    • Operation in SQL

    • Expressions in SQL

    • Comments in SQL

    • SQL – DDL, DML, DCL

    • Queries in SQL

    • Functions and Subfunctions in SQL

    • Joins in SQL

    • Views in SQL

    • Clauses in SQL

    • Injections in SQL

    • Transactions in SQL

    • Indexes in SQL

    Projecting SQL Industry Growth in 2022-23

    The SQL industry is expected to grow by an average of 7.6% annually from 2022-to 23. This growth will be driven by continued demand for data-driven insights and the evolution of SQL-based technologies.

    SQL can help businesses streamline their processes in several ways. By allowing companies to store and retrieve data more efficiently, SQL can help reduce the time and resources required to manage information. In addition, SQL can help businesses automate tasks such as data entry and reporting, which can further improve efficiency. Finally, SQL can provide businesses with powerful tools for analyzing and understanding their data, which can help them make better decisions about their operations.

    Accelerating Demand for SQL Courses in India

    The demand for learning SQL to manipulate the large volume of data generated has increased over the past few years. 

    Learn SQL on the following platforms:

    • PG Diploma in Software Development (Specialization in Cloud Computing) with IIIT Bangalore - upGrad 

    • SQL Fundamentals – DataQuest

    • Complete Oracle SQL Certification Course – Udemy

    • Complete SQL Mastery – CodewithMosh

    • Postgre SQL for Everybody – Coursera

    • The Ultimate MySQL Bootcamp – Udemy

    The SQL course by upGrad is the most comprehensive and preferred one among all. You can visit their official website to learn more about this course and avail the benefits of learning from upGrad.

    SQL Salary in India

    An SQL Developer base salary in India is INR 5 LPA – INR 6 LPA. However, the range lies between INR 2 LPA – INR 11 LPA.

    Factors on which SQL Specialist Salary in India Depends on

    The factors on which the SQL Specialist Salary in India Depends are - 

    • Experience
    • Location
    • Company Requirements
    • Communication Skills
    • Proficiency in SQL
    • Good understanding of data structures and algorithms
    • Knowledge of Various operating systems
    • Analytic and Problem-Solving Skills
    • Team Leader and Teamwork
    • Knowledge of relational database management systems

    SQL Specialist Starting Salary in India

    The average starting salary of a specialist in India is 5LPA – 12LPA, depending on the above factors.

    SQL Specialist Salary Abroad

    Here are some of the references to the SQL specialist salary abroad. 

    • In the United States, a SQL Specialist can expect to make an average annual income of $90,668.
    • In Ukraine, a SQL Specialist makes an average annual income of $71,560.
    • In Australia, a SQL Specialist makes an average annual pay of $71,950.
    • In Germany, a SQL Specialist receives an estimated annual pay of $59,160.

    Factors on which SQL Specialist Abroad Salary Depends

    The following are the variables that affect the SQL Specialist Salary Abroad:

    • Experience
    • Company Requirements 
    • Location or Area of Work
    • Skills in Communication
    • Knowledge of SQL
    • Sufficient experience with data structures and algorithms
    • Understanding operating systems
    • Skills in Analysis and Problem-Solving
    • Teamwork as well as the Team Leader
    • The capability to use relational database management systems
    • Solid Mathematical Background

    SQL Specialist Starting Salary Abroad

    The starting salary of an SQL Specialist abroad might range from $48,000 - $60,000. However, it might also depend on a few factors. It mainly reflects on the experiences and location of work, remote or in-office. 

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    Frequently Asked Questions about SQL

    What are the key differences between SQL and NoSQL?

    SQL is a query language that was developed for relational databases. It is based on various features, including tuple variables, null values, and domain integrity. NoSQL or non-relational databases, however, don’t require fixed table schemas, unlike relational databases. Instead of being structured around tables, they are organized using collections, document varieties, graphs, and streams.

    What are the features of SQL?

    SQL aims to provide the following features:

     

    1.    DDL - Data Definition Language: SQL provides many commands, one of which is DDL. Also referred to as the data description language, it includes the commands used to define the data.

     

    2.  DML – Data Manipulation Language: After receiving raw data, the data must be supervised and manipulated into tables with proper structure. DML does this.

     

    3.    Efficient Performance: As the data is being generated in a large number, manipulated using simple commands of Data Manipulation Language and Data Description Language, easy operations can be performed on them. Using SQL, queried data returns enormous sets of data very quickly. In most successful organizations, the people work on making optimal query plans for efficient and quick data manipulations.

     

    4. Client-Server Interaction: The recent trend of client-server technology facilitates robust relationships with many clients on one server. SQL offers commands that allow the client to access the database over a network using a simple application.

     

    5.  Authentication and Security: SQL approves authentication to users using credentials like usernames and passwords. It also assures that the required data is shown to the user while the original and authorized information is stored in a database management system.

    What is the difference between NoSQL and SQL?

    The SQL programming language is used to communicate with relational databases. (Data is represented in relational databases as records in rows and tables with logical relationships between them.) NoSQL is a non-relational database management system that does not employ SQL.

    What Can SQL do?

    SQL and its server can do the following things:

     

    • Convert Raw information into significant viewpoints and understanding of the goals
    • Processing a large volume of data on disk or hard-drive
    • Perform complex analysis of the data after processing it. After analyzing the data, essential business objectives are met.
    • Once the business objectives are met, creating, arranging, and supervising valuable reports are established.
    • With SQL, machine learning algorithms are used to train and test the data to prove the efficiency and minimize the risks.

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of SQL?

    Advantages of SQL are as follows:

     

    • Easy to learn: SQL is one of the easiest programming languages to learn, with simple syntax, simple commands, and easy update feature
       
    • No coding skills required: SQL has its own syntax and commands, so it does not demand the knowledge of any other programming languages such as Python, C++, or Java.
       
    • Quick Query Processing: Within a few seconds of converting the raw data, easy organizing and manipulation can be done to analyze the data.
       
    • Highly Interactive: As already discussed, SQL is a straightforward language with a specific set of commands and standard techniques. It holds the interactive feature too.
       
    • Portable: SQL can be embedded into all the applications and also into any type of operating system. It resembles the feature of Portability. 
       
    • Open-Source: SQL can be easily accessed by any user sitting anywhere in the world. 
       

    Disadvantages of SQL include the following:

     

    • Cost: Few versions of SQL with advanced organizational benefits features are costly. 
       
    • Complex Interface: The SQL interface may be confusing and incomprehensible for the users to understand while dealing with manipulating and analyzing the database. 
       
    • Partial Control: Complete control of manipulating the database is not given to the users to secure the business objectives and goals.
       

    Security Threat:

     SQL is always prone to risks of getting hacked by unethical hackers as it possesses very sensitive and raw data.

    If the SQL is written correctly, will it make a huge difference?

    SQL is a relative concept, so it can be written in various ways. Whichever way you use it, you will obtain the same result. If SQL is written correctly, it will ensure better performance. The quarries can be rewritten to enhance the performance. It is possible to rewrite the SQL so that there is a possibility of minimising the query. If the queries are correctly written, subqueries will not exist. So, you can better understand the concept with the SQL challenges. Also, writing SQL correctly guarantees faster operations.

    How to find out the deadlocks and the contention in SQL?

    The correct use of the database helps you find the deadlocks and the contention in SQL. You have to be sure that all the resources related to the database can be easily approached in the identical pattern every time. You can start finding them before starting a task or transaction. Make sure you don’t permit data usage when different tasks and transactions are used. This will help you easily find the deadlocks and the contention. Avoiding the usage of cursors during coding and decoding helps you easily find the deadlocks and the contention. 

    Why learn SQL?

    If you’re pursuing a career related to data manipulation or analysis (for example, data science, back-end programming, cybersecurity, etc.), you must learn SQL. SQL stands for the Standard Query Language used to interact with relational databases. If you lack SQL skills, it will be challenging to accomplish your daily responsibilities or find an employer to hire you. In every industry, companies have become increasingly dependent on data analysis' insights. SQL simplifies providing these insights.

    Which careers need knowledge of SQL?

    (i)Software developers –They are coders who focus on developing, designing, and executing software programs. With the help of SQL, they can automate different functions and generate flowcharts to ensure smooth, efficient operations. (ii) Database developers –Using SQL and other technologies, they ensure that database management systems (DBMS) can efficiently handle huge amounts of data. (iii) Data analysts- They use SQL knowledge to assist businesses in recognising designs and designs in massive datasets. (iv)Data scientists –With the basics of SQL, they possess a comprehensive understanding of programming, statistics, and data analysis. (v)Quality assurance –They use SQL knowledge and other technologies to identify and address coding flaws before a software product launches to market.

    How long does it take to learn SQL?

    SQL is a comparatively simple language, so learners can become familiar with its fundamentals in 2-3 weeks. If you aim to use SQL skills at the workplace, you’ll perhaps require a higher level of fluency.  The pace at which you will attain mastery depends on your learning method. If you try to learn it independently, it usually takes 6 months or longer if you don’t regularly practice SQL. But, you can accelerate the learning process by attending a rigorous, formalised learning program such as a coding Bootcamp.

    What do you need to know before you begin learning SQL?

    Before you begin learning SQL, you must be familiar with certain concepts of the language, its abilities, and its limitations.  You must be familiar with the practical applications of SQL. The specific SQL applications may vary across industries and roles, but in general, this query language is used to manage databases.  Once you master SQL, don’t stop learning. Considering the increasing need for non-relational, scalable databases, aspiring data professionals and coders may expect to complement their SQL knowledge by learning one or more NoSQL query languages. 

    What is manipulating data in SQL?

    Besides retrieving and examining data, SQL permits users to manipulate the information in a database. Tasks covered in manipulating data in SQL are inserting, updating, or deleting the data. With SQL, you can adapt the information in a database to be more precise and up-to-date. The corresponding commands (like DELETE and UPDATE) are easy to implement. Hence, the process of changing the existing data is relatively straightforward.

    Which are aggregate functions in SQL, and how are they useful?

    With the help of aggregate functions, coders can collect data from multiple sources and summarise it for data analysis. Various aggregate functions in SQL are described below. (i) SQL COUNT –it counts the number of lines in a table. (ii) SQL SUM –It provides the sum of all data in a selected column. (iii) SQL AVG –It helps calculate the average data value in a stated column. (iv) SQL MAX –It finds the maximum value in a specific dataset. (v) SQL MIN - It finds the minimum value in a specific dataset.

    What are the types of Joins for connecting tables in SQL?

    SQL users can use JOINS to combine data from two or more tables by recognising their shared values. Five important types of joins are described below. (i) INNER JOIN –It returns rows when it detects matches in both tables. (ii) LEFT JOIN –It returns all rows from the left table irrespective of whether matches are available on the right. (iii) RIGHT JOIN–It returns all rows from the right table irrespective of whether matches are available on the left. (iv) FULL JOIN –It returns rows if it detects a match in one of the tables. (v) SELF JOIN –It considers a single table as if it were two, joining it to itself.

    What else should I learn to complement my SQL skills?

    In addition to SQL skills, you should also learn a few other skills.  (i) Python –It is an in-built, open-source scripting language that helps in developing web applications and content. (ii)JavaScript –It is frequently used in front-end web development to develop dynamic, responsive elements. (iii) Node.js –It is an open-source runtime environment. (iv) HTML & CSS –They are must-have for those interested in front-end web development. (v) Django –It is a free, open-source framework to speed up programming projects in a single language. (vi) Bootstrap –It is a front-end framework and design toolkit that helps coders develop apps and web pages quickly. Also, you should learn full-stack web development.

    What is the difference between TRUNCATE and DELETE?

    The DELETE statement in SQL is a Data Manipulation Language (DML) command that eliminates one or multiple rows from the table (row by row). It is based on the (optional) criteria mentioned in the WHERE clause. TRUNCATE is a Data Definition Language (DDL) command that eliminates all rows from the table when maintaining the table structure. So, it’s faster than the DELETE statement.  Although TRUNCATE is faster, you can’t implement its changes in a few databases, but you can do that with DELETE.  Using TRUNCATE locks the table that you are deleting from; no other user can access that table.

    What is a Constraint? What are commonly used Constraints?

    A constraint is a column-level or table-level rule that limits the type of data permitted. Here are its types: (i) NOT NULL –Doesn’t permit NULL values in the column. (ii) UNIQUE – Doesn’t permit duplicate values; every value in the column is unique. (iii) PRIMARY KEY – It uniquely detects every row in a table; column values should be UNIQUE and NOT NULL. (iv) FOREIGN KEY – Permits the linking of two tables by referencing the primary key of one table in another table. (v) CHECK – Checks if the values in a column meet a condition you state. (vi) DEFAULT – When no value is specified, the default value gets added to new records. (vii) CREATE INDEX – Creates an index to allow faster data retrieval.