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For College Students

    Microeconomics Course Overview

    Introduction To Microeconomics

    Microeconomics and Macroeconomics constitute the two nodal branches of economics. In Microeconomics, individuals are often categorised as belonging to microeconomic subgroups such as business owners, buyers and sellers. The study of microeconomics is basically an analysis of the tendencies that are supposed to originate when these individual actors make a decision. Changes with reference to incentives, resources and prices of production coupled with production methods are recorded. 


    There are both positive and negative uses of microeconomics. Positive microeconomics discusses economic behaviour and what to expect when particular variables change. Positive microeconomics tends to provide insight into a company's sales, productivity and profit based on any recent changes in their manufacturing or marketing strategy. 


    These insights are then used to prescribe the course of action for these companies or governments to work effectively and undertake measures such that their profits remain intact and the demand chain is sated.

    What Is Microeconomics?

    Microeconomics is a branch of social science that looks at how decisions and incentives affect how resources are allocated and used. Microeconomics explains how and why different things have varying values, how people behave and profit from efficient production and trading, and how people may work together and coordinate best. In general, microeconomics offers a fuller and more thorough understanding than macroeconomics. 


    According to the official definition, microeconomics is the area of economics that examines how people and businesses behave and how decisions are made in light of scarce resources. Microeconomics research demonstrates how households and businesses interact or work together. This contact develops a market for products and services, which significantly impacts product pricing. 


    A key idea in modern microeconomics is the circular flow of economic activity, which demonstrates how families and businesses interact. The components of the economic activity flow are:


    1. Money flowing to and from homes and businesses as revenue

    2. Receiving of goods and services by households

    3. Sale of resources under private ownership to companies so they can make products

    4. The relationship between business and household spending

    5. Microeconomics pays special attention to this relationship and economic activity to monitor total firm output, household income, and total spending


    The following examples and circumstances illustrate how to apply the definition of microeconomics:


    1. Searching for the best loan interest rates as first-time homebuyers.

    2. Customers favour one product over another when making a purchase.

    3. Company acquiring capital assets to grow.

    4. Two companies are vying for the same market.

    5. Customers' demand is declining as a result of rising service costs.

    6. Businesses reducing product supply as a result of price hikes

    The Meaning Of Microeconomics

    A subfield of social science known as microeconomics theory focuses on analysing separate, individual economic entities that collectively make up the whole economy. Each individual, family, business, or industry is a separate economic unit. It is the area of economics where the consequences of specific elements and individual decisions are discussed.


    The primary focus of microeconomics is on the variables that affect individual economic decisions, the impact of changes in these variables on each decision-maker, and how demand and prices are established in specific markets.


    The study of phenomena that affect the entire economy, such as unemployment, GDP (gross domestic product) growth or decline, and inflation, is called macroeconomics, in contrast to microeconomics.


    Analysing market processes that set relative prices for goods and services and dividing scarce resources among several possible uses are some of the objectives of microeconomics. It demonstrates the circumstances under which open markets finally result in favourable distributions.


    Simply put, it is the study of how people make decisions in light of the fact that they have a certain amount of time and money to spend on things.


    Microeconomics also examines market failure, or when markets fail to deliver useful and efficient outcomes.


    Microeconomics is defined as follows in the Financial Times' glossary of business terms:

    “The study of trends that pertain to the different elements (companies, industries, consumers, etc.) that make up the economy."

    Basic Principles Of Microeconomics

    Supply And Demand


    Over time, when demand outpaces supply, suppliers either increase their supply or raise their pricing. In an ideal world, demand would decline as prices rose since fewer people could afford it. By doing this, providers buy themselves some time to resume meeting demand.

    In contrast, suppliers would have to reduce their supply or lower the pricing of the goods offered if supply rose faster than demand. Keep in mind that manufacturers currently have an excess of stock. So as prices decline, demand would increase, and the supply would balance out.

    Finally, equilibrium is reached when supply and demand are at their best. The relationship between supply and demand and the equilibrium condition presupposes that all other variables, outside price and demand, remain constant.

    Opportunity Cost


    A consumer who also makes decisions has a finite amount of money and an infinite number of ways to spend that money. The opportunity cost is the price a buyer pays for not selecting the optimal option. This presumes that the options are exclusive of one another.

    It's a chance that a decision-maker passes up. If Sandra decides to purchase a car and opts for an SUV rather than a hatchback, she will pay the opportunity cost of her decision.

    Law of Decreasing Marginal Utility


    The utility of consumers is maximised by using this microeconomics approach. Diminishing marginal utility is very important in determining what people will buy. This law emphasises how the demand for specific goods declines when a customer consumes more units in a row. For instance, a person might purchase some ice cream, eat it, and then purchase more. Finally, after consuming three ice creams, he decides he no longer wants them and quits buying them.

    Giffen Goods


    Giffen products are essentials whose price increases have no impact on sales; this is a part of advanced microeconomics. Giffen products are distinctive due to the price and demand relationship. These are likely logical choices where the purchasers are prepared to spend more despite price hype. These extraordinary items are called "Giffen goods," with a positively sloping demand curve.

    For instance, a rise in gasoline prices does not result in a decrease in demand. Products that want to be categorised as Giffen Goods need to meet some of the requirements listed below:

    • A lack of available alternatives.

    • The replacement should be subpar.

               A significant amount of the customer's budget should go toward purchasing the goods.

    Veblen Goods


    Giffen goods are comparable to Veblen goods. These items are regarded as a sign of status, esteem, or luxury. Consumers don't mind shelling out more money for these products. Typical examples are jewellery, jewels, and Rolls Royce vehicles are the greater costs. The more expensive something is, the more eagerly people will buy it.

    Elasticity And Income


    The demand for more expensive things rises along with income. Additionally, as income declines, so does demand. Alternatively, as the cost decreases, customers can purchase more products. The customer's purchasing power increases in both scenarios. On the other hand, the products of Giffen and Veblen are illustrations of inelastic pricing demand.


    Elasticity And Substitution


    Substitution effect: People may select a less expensive option when prices are greater than they can afford. The price elasticity of demand refers to this phenomenon of changing demand due to price.


    For instance, if leather jacket prices increase, people will buy woollen overcoats instead to keep warm in the winter.

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    When it comes to communication, many employers demand skills like business communication, writing and editing, business etiquette, email etiquette, leadership, teamwork, relationship management, negotiation, content marketing, business plan formulation, etc. Fundamentals of communication skills courses impart all these skills and many more. Therefore, the demand for these courses is high in India when it comes to employment.

    Dealing thoughtfully with communicating within the systems instead of criticising them generates interest.


    The 2018 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of 201 employers shows that the skills and knowledge imparted in Communication courses are vital to be hired, irrespective of one’s major.


    Employers first look for good communication skills in their employees and then look for specialisation skills. In addition to being able to write and read effectively, the ability to effectively communicate orally with others is what employers are looking for when hiring. Also, they prioritise
    effective business communication skills to ensure flawless communication between all levels in the organisation. Therefore, the demand for the Fundamentals of Communication courses is accelerating in India.

    Communication is one of the key predictors of upward mobility in an organisation. It implies that people with decent communication skills have more chances to get promoted, they're more likely to get increments, and they're more likely to obtain the desired job positions.

    People who completed this course do not just have strong fundamentals of effective communication, but they are also more effective at persuading others. Moreover, they are more effective at seeking support from others and gathering information from others. All these are important skills in today’s business environment. This is another reason behind the rising demand for these courses.

    Fundamentals of Communication Courses are easily available in various forms that allow students to choose based on convenience and flexibility. These multiple options further accelerate the demand for these courses. They are:

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses

    ii. UG courses

    iii. PG courses

    iv. Doctorate courses

     

    i. Diploma & PG Diploma courses:

    • Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Diploma in Office Management and Business Communication

    • International Diploma in Communication,

    • Post Diploma in Business Journalism and Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Communication

    • Postgraduate Diploma in Management (Communication)

    • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Communication and Event Management

    ii. UG courses:

    • BBA in Communication Management (Advertising and Branding)

    • B.Com (English and Business communication)

    • BBC

    • B.Voc (BPO)

    iii. PG courses:

    • MBA (Communication Management)

    • MBA (Design and communication management)

    • M.Sc (Extension Education and Communication)

    iv. Doctorate courses:

    • Ph.D. in Extension and Communication management

    • Ph.D. in Public Relations Specialists

    • Ph.D. in Human Relations Manager

    View More

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    INR 1,10,000*

    Certificate Programme in Operations Management and Analytics from IIT Delhi

    INR 1,18,000*

    Global Master Certificate in Integrated Supply Chain Management from MSU

    INR 1,85,000*

    Certificate Programme in Finance for Non Finance Executives from IIT Delhi

    INR 75,000*

    upGrad's Job Linked Advanced General Management Program from IMT Ghaziabad

    INR 2,50,000*

    Global Professional Certificate in Effective Leadership & Management from MSU

    INR 1,10,000*

    Advanced General Management Program from IMT

    INR 2,00,000*

    Management Essentials from upGrad

    INR 25,000*

    Industry Projects and Assignments

    Learn through real-life industry projects and assignments across industries
    • Industry mentors and teaching support to clear your doubts
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    FAQ on Communication Courses

    How is admission in Diploma and PG Diploma business communication courses accomplished?

    The admissions in Diploma and PG Diploma business communication courses are based on the merit list. The recognised institute or university releases the merit list after all applicants have filled out their applications. If you aim to pursue an undergraduate diploma course, then a class 12 score is required. A graduation score is required if you aim to pursue a PG diploma course.

    What is the ultimate aim of the communication process?

    The ultimate aim of the communication process is to have prevalence between the communicator and receiver of the message. With the communication, both the communicator and receiver enter into a mental agreement. So, the process aims to have a seamless exchange of information so that all the involved parties can perform effectively. The process of business communication aims to have formal communication processes between all the levels in the organisation.

    What are the biggest challenges to good communication?

    One of the biggest challenges to good communication is that some people think communication is ‘what you say’, whereas some people consider it as ‘how you say it’. People focus excessively on being heard rather than listening to others. Using the wrong channel to send a message is also a challenge. Another significant challenge is not re-evaluating whether effective communication is taking place or not and not ascertaining whether the people understood the message or not.

    Can teenagers benefit from communication courses?

    Teenagers can significantly benefit from communication courses, irrespective of their future career or academic interest. This is because, at this tender age, they learn the fundamentals of communication required in whichever career paths they choose. From an early age, they will learn how to convey a message, understand, listen, behave, and so on. So, it is recommended that teenagers can join a suitable communication course as per their flexibility.

    What are formal and informal communication?

    For business organisation and communication, knowing the meaning of formal and informal communication is important. Formal communication works through official channels that are designed in the organisation chart. It can be defined into vertical and horizontal subtypes. On the other hand, informal communication is faster and freely flows in the organisation. It discusses a varied range of topics.

    What are the types of formal communication networks?

    Various types of formal communication networks include a single chain network, a wheel network, a circle network, a free flow network, and an inverted V network. A single chain network is present between a superior and subordinate. In a wheel network, all subordinates working under one superior communicate through them only as they work as a wheel hub. In a circle network, everyone can communicate with the other two beside him. No restriction in communication is applied in a free flow network. In an inverted V network, a subordinate can communicate to their superior as well as higher authority subordinates.

    What are easy ways to improve communication?

    Firstly, you need to ascertain that the ideas are explained before communicating them to the subordinates. Managers must adapt their communication as per their subordinates' understanding level and education. Obtaining advice before communicating will help elucidate the ideas and thus makes the communication clearer. It is also recommended to be aware of the messages' content, tone, and language. Furthermore, ensure the communication attains proper feedback, which also helps it solve communication issues in the future.

    What is the purpose of feedback in communication?

    The feedback is used to make recipients aware of their behaviour. Based on the feedback, they can determine whether to continue working with that behaviour or to modify it. Communicating with the influence of somebody’s behaviour and assuming that the individuals know the intent of your speech will not help. Instead, begin communicating by narrating the happenings using behavioural language and then recognise the influence of the behaviour. 

    How to become an active listener?

    Firstly, don’t assume that your interpretations are their objectives, and try not to use attributions. If you find certain words or lines spoken by an individual, paraphrase them. If it appears relevant, you can add on a response or an advisory question.  For instance, saying, "I got your viewpoint on this topic, but mine is different; I visualise the situation this way.”  It provides the other person with an opportunity to explain your understanding of their position and to listen to your view.

    What quick tips to follow to make communication effective?

    Here are some quick tips for effective communication. (i) Listen attentively and patiently. (ii) Thoroughly understand the point. (iii) Know your audience (iv) Minimise the potential of miscommunication (v) Positively accept the feedback (vi) Select the proper medium of communication (vii) Keep your tone in mind (viii) While communicating, be confident, clear, and concise. (ix) Be aware of possible misunderstandings and misinterpretations. (x) Use suitable gestures, tone, and body language during non-verbal communication.

    What are the key things to take care of while communicating?

    To establish effective communication, you must stay focused and prevent distractions. It is recommended to avoid inconsistent body language. Usually, non-verbal communication must highlight what is being said instead of contradicting it. Suppose you say one thing, but your body language conveys something else; your listener may feel that you are unreliable. To prevent misunderstandings and conflict, you can try to calm down before continuing the conversation quickly. 

    How does negative body language help in communication?

    If you disagree with what’s being said, you can use negative body language to deny the other individual’s message. You can cross your arms, tap your feet, or avoid eye contact.  Always agreeing with the speaker can be disadvantageous because the speaker’s viewpoint may not always be right. Using negative body language is beneficial for communicating effectively in places where verbal communication faces obstructions. 

    How to become an engaged listener?

    Focusing on what the speaker is speaking about is one of the best tips for becoming an engaged listener. You can attentively listen if you continuously check your phone or think about something else. Avoiding interrupting or redirecting the conversation to your concerns is another great tip to becoming an engaged listener. You can gently smile at the speaker, nod occasionally, and make sure your posture is inviting.

    How can you enhance your non-verbal communication?

    One of the best ways to enhance your non-verbal communication is to be conscious of individual differences. People from different cultures and countries use different non-verbal communication gestures. Hence, it is essential to consider culture, age, gender, religion, and emotional state when decoding the body language signals. Make sure you don’t read excessively into a single nonverbal cue. You must consider all the nonverbal signals you perceive, from the tone of voice to eye contact. Also, you need to adjust your nonverbal signals according to the listener's age. For example, the tone of your voice should be different when addressing a child.

    Is it possible to communicate effectively even with mental pressure?

    Yes, you can communicate effectively by staying calm under mental pressure. You can use stalling strategies to take time to think. Before you respond, you can ask for a question to be iterated or for an explanation of a statement. You can pause to gather your thoughts. Pausing can make you appear more controllable than giving an immediate response. 

    How to relieve stress for effective communication?

    Analyse the physical and mental states when you are stressed. Certain signs like stomach or muscle ache, shallow breathing, hands clenched, etc., indicate that you are under stress. So, you can take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation, or you can postpone it. The superb way to effectively and quickly relieve stress is using the senses –sound, taste, touch, sight, smell, or movement. For instance, you can squeeze a stress ball in your pocket, pop a peppermint in your mouth, clench and relax your muscles, take a few deep breaths, or remember a soothing image.

    Does being assertive make communication effective?

    Yes, assertiveness is directly related to effectiveness in communication. You need to value your options. Properly know your wants and needs. Learn how to express them without intruding on the rights of others. Try to express negative thoughts positively and respectfully. Receiving feedback positively, accepting compliments cordially, asking for help when needed, and learning from your mistakes –all help you become assertive. Know your limits and learn to say ‘no’. Search for alternatives so that everybody feels convenient about the outcome.