COURSES
MBAData Science & AnalyticsDoctorate Software & Tech AI | ML MarketingManagement
Professional Certificate Programme in HR Management and AnalyticsPost Graduate Certificate in Product ManagementExecutive Post Graduate Program in Healthcare ManagementExecutive PG Programme in Human Resource ManagementMBA in International Finance (integrated with ACCA, UK)Global Master Certificate in Integrated Supply Chain ManagementAdvanced General Management ProgramManagement EssentialsLeadership and Management in New Age BusinessProduct Management Online Certificate ProgramStrategic Human Resources Leadership Cornell Certificate ProgramHuman Resources Management Certificate Program for Indian ExecutivesGlobal Professional Certificate in Effective Leadership and ManagementCSM® Certification TrainingCSPO® Certification TrainingLeading SAFe® 5.1 Training (SAFe® Agilist Certification)SAFe® 5.1 POPM CertificationSAFe® 5.1 Scrum Master Certification (SSM)Implementing SAFe® 5.1 with SPC CertificationSAFe® 5 Release Train Engineer (RTE) CertificationPMP® Certification TrainingPRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner Certification
Law
Job Linked
Bootcamps
Study Abroad
Master of Business Administration (90 ECTS)Master of Business Administration (60 ECTS)Master in Computer Science (120 ECTS)Master in International Management (120 ECTS)Bachelor of Business Administration (180 ECTS)B.Sc. Computer Science (180 ECTS)MS in Data AnalyticsMS in Project ManagementMS in Information TechnologyMasters Degree in Data Analytics and VisualizationMasters Degree in Artificial IntelligenceMBS in Entrepreneurship and MarketingMSc in Data AnalyticsMS in Data AnalyticsMaster of Science in AccountancyMS in Computer ScienceMaster of Science in Business AnalyticsMaster of Business Administration MS in Data ScienceMS in Information TechnologyMaster of Business AdministrationMS in Applied Data ScienceMaster of Business AdministrationMS in Data AnalyticsM.Sc. Data Science (60 ECTS)Master of Business AdministrationMS in Information Technology and Administrative Management MS in Computer Science Master of Business Administration MBA General Management-90 ECTSMSc International Business ManagementMS Data Science MBA Business Technologies MBA Leading Business Transformation Master of Business Administration MSc Business Intelligence and Data ScienceMS Data Analytics MS in Management Information SystemsMSc International Business and ManagementMS Engineering ManagementMS in Machine Learning EngineeringMS in Engineering ManagementMSc Data EngineeringMSc Artificial Intelligence EngineeringMPS in InformaticsMPS in Applied Machine IntelligenceMS in Project ManagementMPS in AnalyticsMS in Project ManagementMS in Organizational LeadershipMPS in Analytics - NEU CanadaMBA with specializationMPS in Informatics - NEU Canada Master in Business AdministrationMS in Digital Marketing and MediaMS in Project ManagementMaster in Logistics and Supply Chain ManagementMSc Sustainable Tourism and Event ManagementMSc in Circular Economy and Sustainable InnovationMSc in Impact Finance and Fintech ManagementMS Computer ScienceMS in Applied StatisticsMS in Computer Information SystemsMBA in Technology, Innovation and EntrepreneurshipMSc Data Science with Work PlacementMSc Global Business Management with Work Placement MBA with Work PlacementMS in Robotics and Autonomous SystemsMS in Civil EngineeringMS in Internet of ThingsMSc International Logistics and Supply Chain ManagementMBA- Business InformaticsMSc International ManagementMS Computer Science with AIML ConcentrationMBA in Strategic Data Driven ManagementMaster of Business AdministrationMSc Digital MarketingMBA Business and MarketingMaster of Business AdministrationMSc Digital MarketingMSc in Sustainable Luxury and Creative IndustriesMSc in Sustainable Global Supply Chain ManagementMSc in International Corporate FinanceMSc Digital Business Analytics MSc in International HospitalityMSc Luxury and Innovation ManagementMaster of Business Administration-International Business ManagementMS in Computer EngineeringMS in Industrial and Systems EngineeringMSc International Business ManagementMaster in ManagementMSc MarketingMSc Business ManagementMSc Global Supply Chain ManagementMS in Information Systems and Technology with Business Intelligence and Analytics ConcentrationMSc Corporate FinanceMSc Data Analytics for BusinessMaster of Business AdministrationMaster of Business Administration 60 ECTSMaster of Business Administration 90 ECTSMaster of Business Administration 60 ECTSMaster of Business Administration 90 ECTSBachelors in International Management
For College Students

What are Include and Extend Relationships in a Use Case Diagram?

$$/$$

So far you have learned that use cases and actors are related to each other in the sense that actors execute the use cases. This relationship is shown using association. In the next video, you will see that even the use cases can be related to each other.

$$/$$

In the previous video, you learnt about the include relationship between use cases. In an include relationship, the arrow starts from the including use case and points towards the included use case. Before an actor can execute the including use case, they have to first execute the included use case.

 

 

 

Video Transcript 

 

When we implement use cases, in most of the cases, it so happens that one use case includes another use case. Let's see an example. A pay supplier is a use case which would be used or invoked by an admin. When an admin tries to pay a supplier, he happens to view the invoice as well. Here, although during development or implementation phase, view invoice can be implemented separately and pay supplier can be implemented separately, but we represent this as pay supplier includes view invoice. Reason being an admin cannot pay a supplier without viewing the invoice, this does not mean that the view invoice use case cannot be used independently. A supplier in this case can view the invoice independently without having to use a paid supplier. Similarly, the admin can also opt to just view the invoice, but whenever an admin is trying to pay the supplier, he inherently views the invoice as well. This kind of dependency we represent in a use case diagram using include. When one use case includes another use case, it's represented using an arrow which starts from the use case which includes another use case with a dotted arrow which ends at the included use case with a text saying include within two angular brackets.

 

Video Recap

 

  • Use cases often include other use cases

  • Example: "Pay Supplier" use case includes "View Invoice" use case

  • View Invoice and Pay Supplier can be implemented separately, but they are related

  • Admin cannot pay supplier without viewing the invoice

  • View Invoice can be used independently by a supplier

  • Admin can view invoice without paying supplier, but when paying supplier, admin inherently views the invoice as well

  • Use case diagram uses "include" to represent this kind of dependency

  • Arrow starts from the use case including another use case, with a dotted arrow ending at the included use case, and "include" within two angular brackets written on the arrow.

  • "Extend" is another relationship in use case diagrams, where one use case may add additional functionality to another use case.

 

$$/$$

So now you know that the different use cases can be related to each other via an include relationship. In the next video, you will learn about the another relationship that can exist between different use cases.

$$/$$

In the previous video, you learnt about the extend relationship between use cases. In an extend relationship, the arrow starts from the extending use case and points towards the extended use case. Before an actor can execute the extended use case, they may or may not first execute the extending use case.

 

 

 

In the next video, you will see how to draw an include relationship and an extend relationship between different use cases.

$$/$$

In this segment you learned about the Include and Extend relationship. These relationships are used to connect different use cases.