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How Does Machine Learning Work – An Easy Guide

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10th Jun, 2023
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How Does Machine Learning Work – An Easy Guide

Netflix and Amazon have gotten pretty great at their game – they always seem to know what content or product you’d love to see / purchase. Don’t you just love to see everything already curated to your taste and preference?

While most of us know the secret sauce behind the nifty Recommendation Engine of Netflix and Amazon (Machine Learning, of course!), how many of us are familiar with the inner mechanisms of Machine Learning?

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To put it straight – How does Machine Learning work?

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In essence, Machine Learning is a data analytics technique (a subset of AI) that aims to “learn” from experience and enable machines to perform tasks that require intelligence. Machine Learning algorithms apply computational methods to extract information and learn directly from data without being explicitly programmed for it (not having to depend on a predetermined equation).

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The Anatomy of Machine Learning systems

All ML systems can be disintegrated into three parts:

  • Model – the component that deals with the identifications, that is, predictions.
  • Parameters – refers to the factors used by the model to reach its decisions (predictions).
  • Learner – the component that adjusts the parameters (and as a whole, the model) by considering the differences in predictions compared to the actual outcome.

Types of Machine Learning

Now that you are familiar with the core components of ML systems, it’s time to take a look at the different ways they “learn.”

Supervised Learning

In Supervised Learning, a model is explicitly trained on how to map the input to the output. A supervised learning algorithm takes a recognized set of input data along with known responses (output) to that data and trains the model to generate reasonable predictions in response to new input data.

Supervised learning uses two approaches to develop predictive models –

  • Classification – As the name suggests, this technique classifies input data into different categories by labelling them. It is used to predict discrete responses (for instance, if a cancerous cell is benign or malignant). Medical imaging, speech recognition, and credit scoring are three popular use cases of classification.
  • Regression – This technique is used to predict continuous responses by identifying the patterns in the input data. For instance, fluctuations in temperature or weather. Regression is used to forecast the weather, electricity load, and algorithmic trading.

Unsupervised Learning

Unsupervised Learning approach uses unlabeled data and seeks to unravel the hidden patterns within it. Thus, the technique draws inferences from datasets consisting of input data devoid of labelled responses.

  • Clustering – One of the most common unsupervised learning methods, clustering is an exploratory data analysis technique that categorizes data into “clusters” without any known information about the cluster credentials. Object recognition and gene sequence analysis are two examples of clustering.
  • Dimensionality Reduction – Dimensionality Reduction cleanses the input data of all the redundant information and retains only the essential parts. Thus, the data not only becomes clean, but it also reduces in size, thereby taking up less storage space.
How Machine Learning Works

Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement Learning aims to build self-sustained and self-learning models that can learn and improve through trial and error. In the learning (training) process, if the algorithm can successfully perform specific actions, reward signals are triggered. The reward signals function like guiding lights for the algorithms. There are two reward signals:

  • A Positive signal is triggered to encourage and continue a particular sequence of action.
  • A Negative signal is a penalty for a particular wrong action. It demands the correction of mistake before proceeding further in the training process.

Reinforcement Learning is widely used in video games. It is also the mechanism behind self-driving cars. 

Inside the ‘learning’ function of ML algorithms

Behind the functionings of ML algorithms and how they learn through experience, there are three common principles.

Learning a Function

The first step in the learning process is where ML algorithms learn about the target function (f) that best maps the input variable (X) to the output variable (Y). So,

Y = f(X).

Here, the form of the target function (f) is unknown, hence the predictive modelling.

In this general learning phase, the ML algorithm learns how to make future predictions (Y) based on the new input variables (X). Naturally, the process isn’t free of error. Here error (e) exists independent of the input data (X). So,

Y = f(X) + e

Since the error (e) might not have enough attributes to characterize the mapping scenario from X to Y best, it is called irreducible error – irrespective of how good the algorithm gets at estimating the target function (f), you cannot reduce the error (e).

Making predictions and learning how to improve them

In the earlier point, we understood how an ML algorithm learns a target function (f). And we already know that our only and only goal here is to find the best possible way to map Y from X. In other words, we need to find the most accurate way to map the input to the output.

There will be errors (e), yes, but the algorithm has to keep trying to understand how far off it is from the desired output (Y) and how to reach it. In this process, it will continually adjust the parameters or the input values (X) to best match the output (Y). This will continue until it reaches a high-degree of semblance and accuracy with the desired output model.

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How to Learn Machine Learning – Step by Step

The ‘Gradient Descent’ learning approach

It may be true that we have been successful in creating ‘intelligent’ machines, but their pace of learning differs – machines tend to take it slow. They believe in the “gradient descent” learning process – you don’t take the leap at once, but you take baby steps and slowly descend from the top (the metaphor here is that of climbing down a mountain).

While descending a mountain, you don’t jump or run or hurl yourself down in one go; instead, you take measured and calculated steps to get down to the bottom safely and avoid mishaps.

ML algorithms use this approach – they keep adjusting themselves to the changing parameters (picture the rough and unexplored terrain of a mountain again) to get the desired outcome finally.

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Uses of Machine Learning

When it comes to machine learning algorithms, the most common question that follows, ‘How do machine learning algorithms work’ is usually – how can it help us?

Machine learning algorithms help build intelligent systems that learn from historical data to generate accurate results. When we know how does machine learning work, we can learn to use it in different ways to enhance services, generate valuable insights, and solve business concerns.

Most industries worldwide, for example, marketing, healthcare, finance, defence, and more, regularly use machine learning to improve their services. 

Here are some areas which commonly use machine learning.  

  • Facial recognition

It uses machine learning, especially for security purposes such as locating missing persons, identifying criminals, and so on. Facial recognition is also used for disease diagnosis, intelligent marketing, and tracking attendance in educational institutions.

  • Sales and Marketing 

Lead scoring algorithms use machine learning to evaluate factors like website visits, email opens, downloads, and clicks to assign a score to each lead. Companies can also use regression techniques to predict pricing models, and sentiment analysis is valuable for assessing consumer reactions to newly launched products and marketing efforts. 

Computer vision uses machine learning to help brands identify their products in online images and videos and recognize relevant text that may have been missed. Customer support chatbots are also becoming smarter and more responsive.

  • Finances

Financial services often use machine learning algorithms to monitor user activity and detect fraud by evaluating whether the activity being carried out is suspicious or not. Financial services also detect money laundering similarly, which is an important security use case. 

Trading commonly makes use of ML algorithms to make better trading decisions by analyzing massive amounts of data simultaneously. Credit scores are also evaluated using ML.

  • Automatic Speech Recognition

ASR is used to convert spoken words into digital text. This technology has various applications, including user authentication and task execution based on voice commands. The system is trained with speech patterns and vocabulary to improve accuracy. You will often see ASR used in medical assistance, defence and aviation, IT, telecommunication services, law, and other industries. 

  • Healthcare

If you are wondering how does supervised machine learning work in healthcare, you should know supervised ML has various uses in this industry. It can be used to diagnose, predict, and treat diseases, especially those that are difficult to diagnose. It is used to enhance medical imaging and diagnostics.

Machine learning is vital in discovering early-stage drugs and developing them with accuracy, which acts as a major boost to clinical trials that are time-consuming and expensive. It also includes next-generation sequencing and precision medicine. 

A recent example of machine learning in healthcare is its use to predict critical epidemic outbreaks. It is also used to organize large amounts of medical records. 

  • Media and OTT

OTT platforms commonly use machine learning to understand user preferences and recommend relevant movies, songs, web series, and more. Online shopping websites like Amazon and Flipkart do the same. These recommendation systems help platforms personalize their services to meet their customers’ preferences, ultimately increasing customer satisfaction and encouraging continued usage.

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To conclude…

The fundamental goal of all Machine Learning algorithms is to develop a predictive model that best generalizes to specific input data. Since ML algorithms and systems train themselves through different kinds of inputs/variables/parameters, it is imperative to have a vast pool of data. This is to allow the ML algorithms to interact with different kinds of data to learn their behaviour and produce the desired outcomes.

We hope that with this post we could demystify the workings of Machine Learning for you!

Profile
Prashant Kathuria is currently working as a Senior Data Scientist at upGrad. He describes himself as a data freak and others working with him will agree. Working in Data since more than 3 years in Product companies has taught him that data of today is gold of tomorrow. You will find him brainstoring about new things, or reading about upcoming technologies in his free time.
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